Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops
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    25 July 2019, Volume 40 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Crop Culture and Nutrition, Genetic Breeding
    Main Agronomic and Quality Characters of Coffee Plants Grafted and Not Grafted
    YAN Lin,DONG Yunping,HUANG Lifang,SUN Yan,ZONG Jiyong,LIN Xingjun,WANG Xiaoyang,LONG Yuzhou
    2019, 40 (7):  1253-1258.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.001
    Abstract ( 664 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (452KB) ( 456 )  

    In order to apply the interspecific grafting technique in coffee production, five years of field experiments were carried out to study the main agronomic characters and quality characters between C. canephora cv. Reyan No.3 (No Grafted) and C. canephora scion grafted on C. liberica var. Dewevrei No.16 rootstock (Grafted). The results showed that the plant height, stem diameter, crown width and longest primary branches length were higher in 1-year-old grafted trees, but the difference was not significant. The number of primary branches and the number of the longest primary branches node of the grafted were significantly bigger than that of not grafted. The fruit number per node was significantly higher in the not grafted in 2015, but there was no significant difference in 2014 and 2016. The dry-fresh ratio, weight of 100 beans, single plant fruits weight were not significantly different between the not grafted and the grafted. As the number of fruit nodes per grafted plant increased, the yield of grafted plants not significantly decreased. In summary, there were no effects on the yield and quality characters of grafted plants, the interspecific grafting could be applied in coffee production.

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    Heterogeneity of Rice Growth in the Mode of Cowpea-rice Rotation
    GU Xiao,WU Fugui,LIU Huifang,MA Qilin
    2019, 40 (7):  1259-1264.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.002
    Abstract ( 598 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (559KB) ( 299 )  

    Winter vegetable and rice rotation is an important cultivation mode in Hainan. In order to raise the residual fertilizer utilization efficiency of fore-rotating crop, the use of fertilizer will be reduced in rice, the succession crop, in general. At this time, the fertility inequality caused by the row application of fertilization of fore-rotating crop will greatly affect the production of subsequent rice. In this study, the cowpea-rice rotation mode was used as the research object, and ‘Juliangyou 747’, a hybrid rice variety, was used as the material, the effects of growth, yield components and quality of rice were analyzed at late tillering stage and maturity stage by sampling between rows with strong growth performance (T1) and weak growth performance (T2), respectively. There were significant differences in plant height, tiller number, shoot dry weight, area of converse third leaves and nitrogen content of plants in late tillering stage. Among them, the nitrogen content of roots, stems and leaves of T1 plants was 117.1%, 368.8% and 72.3% significantly higher than that of T2 plants, respectively. There were significant differences in the number of panicles, grains per panicle, seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight. In particular, the number of ears and seed setting rate of T1 plants was 64.0% and 9.3% higher than that of T2 plants. There were no significant differences in the brown rice rate, milled rice rate, length-width and length-width ratio of milled rice, gelatinization temperature and amylose content, but there were significant differences in head rice rate, gel consistency, protein content and chalky rice rate. The chalky rice rate of T1 was 4.5% lower, and the head rice rate of T1 was 5.5% higher than that of T2, which both reached a very significant level. Therefore, In order to obtain high yield and high quality of rice under cowpea-rice rotation, it is necessary to formulate a plan of reasonable cultivation techniques, improve tillage techniques, balance the residual fertility of fore-rotating crop, and apply fertilizer rationally in current season of rice.

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    Change of Root Growth of Muskmelon,Soil Biological Properties and Bacterial Diversity in Rhizosphere under Wood Vinegar Application
    ZHANG Chuanjin,WU Renmin,WANG Shuaishuai,ZHOU Liuqiang,YANG Shangdong,TAN Hongwei
    2019, 40 (7):  1265-1271.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.003
    Abstract ( 1006 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (678KB) ( 429 )  

    To develop a new liquid fertilizer and soil conditioner with wood vinegar, the effects of wood vinegar on the root growth, soil biological properties and soil bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of muskmelon were conducted with pot culture using traditional and modern analyzed techniques. The results showed that the root growth, soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass (C, N, P) were not only significantly improved, the richness and diversity indexes, which including Chao1and Shannon, were also increased after using 600 times dilution of wood vinegar. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi were the most abundant under phyla level, and Subgroup 6_no rank, Saccharibacteria, Gemmatimonadaceae, Sphingomonas, Soil Crenarchaeotic Group, Bacillus, Rhodospirillaceae, Roseiflexus, Lactococcus and Acidimicrobiales were the dominant genus under genus level both in CK and wood vinegar treatments. It meant that the soil bacterial community was not changed using different dilutions of wood vinegar. Moreover, higher diversity of bacteria, rapid growth of root and more favorable soil biological properties in the rhizosphere of muskmelon by fertilizing with 600 times dilution of wood vinegar.

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    Effects of Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Species on the Growth of Ginger
    WANG Qian,BAO Han,ZHANG Jinlian,SONG Juan,LIU Zengliang,HUANG Jinghua,CHEN Tingsu
    2019, 40 (7):  1272-1277.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.004
    Abstract ( 865 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (667KB) ( 555 )  

    An experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) under greenhouse conditions. Ginger plantlets were inoculated with 12 different AM species, and the agronomic characters, the rate of colonization, infection intensity and arbuscular abundance were analyzed in every 30 days after inoculation. The results showed the ginger plantlets inoculated with AM fungi grew better than the ones without AM fungi. The dominant strains of AM fungi were Acaulospora scrobiculata, Glomus reticulatum, Paraglomus occltum and Glomus mosseae according to the growth simulation and infection in roots. It suggests that the inoculation of the four dominant strains improved the growth, yield and quality, and further research is needed to develop dominant strains.

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    New Type Soil Conditioner Improves Soil Properties and Tobacco Yield and Quality
    ZHENG Xiangzhou,GUO Baoling,WANG Yingnan,ZHANG Yushu,DING Hong
    2019, 40 (7):  1278-1283.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.005
    Abstract ( 623 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (610KB) ( 421 )  

    Acid soil obstacle is a major problem that restricts the development of tobacco industry in Fujian. In this study, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different amount of new type soil conditioners on soil pH and tobacco growth in Fujian. No conditioner, traditional soil conditioner (dolomite powder) were the controls. Compared to the treatment of no conditioner, soil conditioners significantly increased the rhizosphere pH by 0.7-1.3. The rhizosphere soil pH was positively correlated with the yield and high quality tobacco leaves of flue-cured tobacco. Compared with traditional soil conditioner, under the two-thirds (1100 kg/hm 2) and same (1500 kg/hm 2) applied amount, the treatments of new soil conditioners significantly increased the ratio of high quality tobacco leaves for 6.5 and 6.9 percentage. The yield of tobacco increased by 4.8% and 5.1% respectively, and the economic benefit by 4830.0 and 3989.3 Yuan/hm 2, respectively. Additionally, there were no differences in tobacco agronomic traits, yield, output value and high class leaf proportion between 1100 kg/hm 2 and 1500 kg/hm 2applied amount. Therefore, 1100 kg/hm 2was the best conditioning applied amount.

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    Interactive Effects of Potassium and Magnesium Application Rates in Lateritic Soil
    NIU Mingzhen,LIU Yanfen,XIANG Yijie,WANG Shumei,WANG Xiaoqin,GENG Jianmei
    2019, 40 (7):  1284-1289.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.006
    Abstract ( 507 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (418KB) ( 317 )  

    The interaction effects of potassium and magnesium fertilizer with different their application rates in lateritic soil were studied to provide a theoretical basis for rational application of potassium and magnesium fertilizer in crop production. The experimental soil was collected from the winter melon planting sites in Dalu Town, Qionghai. Under the indoor test condition, different amounts of potassium and magnesium fertilizer were applied to the laterite, and the contents of available potassium and exchangeable magnesium in the soil were measured at intervals. The results showed that the contents of available potassium and exchangeable magnesium in soil were increased by applying potassium and magnesium fertilizer. Whether magnesium fertilizer was applied or not had no effect on the content of available potassium with no potassium fertilizer applied in the soil. When the amount of potassium application reached 50 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg respectively, high magnesium (150 mg/kg) had an antagonistic effect on potassium. When no or a small amount of magnesium fertilizer (30 mg/kg) was applied, whether potassium fertilizer was applied or not did not affect the content of exchangeable magnesium in the soil. However, when high amount of magnesium fertilizer (150 mg/kg) was applied, potassium had an antagonistic effect on magnesium, but the antagonistic effect weakened with the extension of culture time.

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    Analysis and Evaluation of Main Agronomic Traits of 26 Pepper Varieties
    BU Hongfeng,ZHANG Zhongwu,DENG Zhengchun,LI Xuefeng,ZHAN Yuanhua,SUN Xincheng,CHEN Zhibing
    2019, 40 (7):  1290-1296.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.007
    Abstract ( 807 )   HTML ( 15687 )   PDF (955KB) ( 954 )  

    To screen out pepper varieties suitable for spring open cultivation in Changde, we analyzed 13 characters by correlation analysis, cluster analysis and mass evaluation for 26 pepper varieties. The single fruit weight was significantly correlated with the transverse diameter of commodity fruit and the shape of fruit-shoulder. The single fruit weight was significantly negatively correlated with the leaf shape, fruit shape and maturity. The yield per plant was significantly correlated with the single fruit weight, and significantly positively correlated with the transverse diameter of commodity fruit and the shape of fruit-shoulder, but was significantly negatively correlated with the leaf shape, fruit shape and maturity. The maturity was significantly correlated with the leaf shape, and significantly positively correlated with the fruit shape, but was significantly negatively correlated with the transverse diameter of commodity fruit, the single fruit weight and the shape of fruit-shoulder. The 26 varieties were divided into four categories based on cluster analysis. The fruit shape and yield were the most important factors affecting the clustering results. The willingness of farmers to choose a variety was correlated with plant height, plant width, shape of fruit-shoulder, and virus resistant. And the correlation coefficient was 0.538, 0.542, -0.570, -0.518, respectively. It was correlated with transverse diameter of fruit, leaf shape and fruit shape. ‘Xiangyan-qingcui’, ‘Fengkang 21’, ‘Gengxin 8’, ‘Xingshu 201’ were suitable for cultivation in Changde.

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    Cloning of Mango Gene MinMYB10 and Vector Construction for Expression Analysis
    BAI Beibei,JING Yonglin,LAN Li,WANG Jia,ZHAO Zhichang
    2019, 40 (7):  1297-1303.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.008
    Abstract ( 638 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1894KB) ( 350 )  

    The MYB (myeloblastosis) transcription factors are mainly involved in the regulation of flavonoid metabolism, growth and development in plants. In order to study how the flavonoid metabolic pathways are regulated in mango fruit, a MYB gene, designated as MinMYB10, was cloned from the flesh of Jinhuang mango fruit. The full-length cDNA sequence of MinMYB10 was 1021 bp long, containing an open reading frame of 837 bp which would encode a peptide of 278 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 31.60 ku and an isoelectric point of 5.89. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the encoded protein sequence was closely related to its homolog from Arabidopsis thaliana. We have also constructed a silencing vector, pTRV2-MinMYB10, and an over expression vector, pGreenII 62-SK-MinMYB10, aiming to decipher the role of MinMYB10 in the metabolism of anthocyanin in mango fruit in our upcoming researches.

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    Agricultural Product Processing, Preservation, Storage, Analysis and Detection
    Analysis of Volatile Aroma Compounds in Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) of Different Genotypes
    HE Shuzhen,WU Gang,ZHANG Yanjun,XU Fei,ZHU Kexue,TAN Lehe
    2019, 40 (7):  1304-1311.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.009
    Abstract ( 708 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (3573KB) ( 674 )  

    The Malaysia No.1, XYS17, XYS18 and Liulianmi jackfruit accessions were used as materials to evaluate the difference of characteristic aroma compounds. The aromatic profile of different genotypes can provide a theoretical foundation for future breeding program. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aromatic profile of different jackfruit accessions. Sixty-six aroma compounds were identified in the jackfruit accessions. These four genotypes shared 9 aromatic substances, and showed significant difference in the relative contents, such as 3-methyl-1-butanol, dodecanal, 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl acetate, and propyl isovalerate. Malaysia No.1 was characterized by high contents of n-amyl isovalerate, and esters (benzyl acetate), butyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, isobutyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, XYS17 has high contents of isobutyl isovalerate, 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, n-amyl isovalerate, octyl acetate, and decanal, XYS18 has high contents of ethyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, ethyl butyrate, methyl isovalerate, and octanal, Liulianmi accession has exhibited contents of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1butanol, 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, ethyl isovalerate, and 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutanoate. These results will provide reference for breeding of new verities and exploiting of outstanding jackfruit germplasm in the future.

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    Organic Acids Improve the Fermentation Quality and Nutrient Value of Cassava Foliage
    LI Mao,ZI Xuejuan,DIAO Qiyu,HU Haichao,TANG Jun,ZHOU Hanlin
    2019, 40 (7):  1312-1316.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.010
    Abstract ( 534 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (393KB) ( 349 )  

    The experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of adding organic acids on the fermentation quality and nutrient contents of cassava foliage silage, and to determine the proper organic acids. Formic acid (0.2%), acetic acid (0.2%) and propionic acid (0.2%) were added in the study. All treatments were stored for 30 days, and the pH value, lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid content, and the nutrient composition of the cassava foliage silage were analyzed. The results showed that pH and the contents of butyric acid, the fiber content decreased in the organic acids treatments, while the RFV increased compared with the control (P<0.05). It is concluded that the organic acids treatment improved the fermentation quality and nutrient value of cassava foliage silage, acetic acid (0.2%) and propionic acid (0.2%) were the proper application.

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    Separation, Identification of the Chemical Components and Activity Analysis from the Branches of Piper nigrum Linn. in Hainan
    ZHAO Fangfang,HAN Bingjun,LYU Daizhu,XIE Defang,LUO Jinhui
    2019, 40 (7):  1317-1324.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.011
    Abstract ( 728 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1182KB) ( 525 )  

    Piper nigrum Linn. is rich in bioactivity ingredients, and the branches pruned in its cultivation will be of potential in utilization. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidation activities of the branches and roots of P. nigrum Linn. were compared. The acetic ether extract of the branches showed higher activities than the extract from water and petroleum ether, and was worth developing. Eight compounds, including flavonoids, sterols, alkaloids, lignin and acid esters were obtained through silica gel chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography and liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by NMR and MS. This study would supply important chemical information for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and provide effective ways and evidences for the higher value application of the P. nigrum Linn. waste.

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    Vanilla Beans Forming Different Processing Stages with Widely Targeted Metabolomic Technique
    CAI Yingying,CHEN Xingxing,GU Fenglin,XU Fei
    2019, 40 (7):  1325-1335.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.012
    Abstract ( 672 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (6744KB) ( 507 )  

    The dynamic changes of metabolites in vanilla beans during processing were studied by the LC-MS/ MS-based metabolomic method. Cluster analysis, repetitive correlation between the samples of different groups and OPLS-DA analysis showed that the difference between fresh vanilla bean (FVB) and blanched vanilla beans (BVB), sweated vanilla beans (SVB) and dried vanilla beans (DVB) was small. The difference of the other groups was relatively large. It could be seen from the fold change analysis that the up-regulated metabolites in vanilla beans at different curing stages were mainly flavonoids and glycosides when compared with FVB. The down-regulated metabolites were mainly nucleotides and their derivatives. The volcano plot showed that SVB and CVB had the most significant differences of metabolites with 256 in total. FVB and SVB had the most up-regulated significant differences of metabolites with 102 in total. Only the metabolites of up-regulated significant differences was higher than that of down-regulated significant differences between FVB and BVB. When compared with FVB, the metabolites of significant differences at each stage were as follows: up-regulated flavonoids contained flavone, flavonol, flavone C-glycosides, flavanone in BVB, SVB, DVB, CVB, and down-regulated flavonoids also contained flavonolignan; up-regulated lipids and the derivatives contained lipids_glycerophospholipids, lipids_glycerolipids, lipids_fatty acids in SVB, DVB, CVB, while BVB contained only lipids_glycerophospholipids; the up-regulated amino acids and the derivatives were the highest in SVB, reaching 12 species, and the DVB and CVB stages showed a downward trend, seven species and three species respectively. The down-regulated amino acids and the derivatives gradually increased as the processing proceeded, and that in the conditioning stage was up to 16 species.

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    Chemical Constituents Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Volatile Oils from the Heartwood of Seven Species of Dalbergia L. f.
    WANG Jun,WANG Hao,YANG Jinling,CAI Caihong,WANG Pei,DONG Wenhua,MEI Wenli,DAI Haofu
    2019, 40 (7):  1336-1345.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.013
    Abstract ( 715 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (609KB) ( 474 )  

    The volatile constituents of the heartwood from seven different Dalbergia plants were extracted by the water distillation method, and further analyzed with GC-MS aiming to investigate the chemical constituents. The antibacterial activities of the volatile oils were assayed by the filter paper agar disc diffusion method. Nine components were detected from D. benthamii, accounting for 98.93% of the total content. Six components were detected from D. pinnata, accounting for 91.80% of the total content. Thirteen components were detected from D. cochinchinensis, accounting for 86.23% of the total content. Nine components were detected from D. hainanensis, accounting for 94.86% of the total content. Eight components were detected from D. odorifera, accounting for 97.38% of the total content. Eight components were detected from D. tonkinensis, accounting for 97.72% of the total content. 23 components were detected from D. peishaensis, accounting for 79.45% of the total content. Elemicin was the highest component with relative percentage content in D. benthamii and D. pinnata, 83.38% and 73.03% respectively. The highest component of D. cochinchinensis was medicarpin with a value of 27.72%. The highest component of D. hainanensis was linoleic acid with a value 42.80%. The highest component of D. odorifera and D. tonkinensis was (7R,10S)-2,6,10-trimethyl-7,10-epoxy-2,11- dodecadien-6-ol and its isomer, with values of 60.37% and 52.23% respectively. The component identified and with relatively high content of D. peishaensis was elemicin with a value of 7.81%. The phenylpropanoid compounds, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, fatty acids, and steroids etc. were the main components of the volatile constituents from the heartwood of Dalbergia plants. All volatile oils from the heartwood of Dalbergia plants exhibited an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, and some also had certain inhibitory effects on different agricultural pathogens. This research could provide a scientific basis for the resource conservation and exploitation of Dalbergia plants.

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    Optimization of Direct Tabletting Technology for Maca-okra Chewable Tablet
    LAI Pufu,LI Yibin,CHEN Junchen,TANG Baosha,WU Li,WENG Minjie
    2019, 40 (7):  1346-1353.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.014
    Abstract ( 596 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1167KB) ( 345 )  

    The process parameters in making maca-okra chewable tablets with ultrafine okra powder as the material were optimized. Judged by quality indexes of tablet weight, disintegration time, hardness and friability, the parameters of filling pressure, thickness for tablet powder, turntable running speed and material particle finenesssing were optimized after single factor experiments and the response surface methodology. The optimum parameters for making maca-okra chewable tablet were filling pressure 31 kN, filling thickness 10 mm, turntable running speed 25 r/min and particle fineness 300 mesh. This work would lay an innovative opportunity for the comprehensive utilization and product development of maca.

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    Nutritional Value and Antioxidant Activity of Abelmoschus manihot
    LI Jie,WANG Yufeng,RONG Jingdong,ZHAN Suhu,WANG Zaihua
    2019, 40 (7):  1354-1358.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.015
    Abstract ( 679 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (464KB) ( 471 )  

    Abelmoschus manihot is cultivated in Guangdong, and the contents of amino acids, mineral elements, flavonoids, total phenols and polysaccharides were tested using the flowers and tender pods, and the antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. Sixteen amino acids (including 7 essential amino acids) were detected in the flowers and tender pods, and the total amino acids were accounted for 13.01% and 12.56% of the dry weight respectively. The ratio coefficient of amino acids (SRC) was 70.49 and 67.83, respectively. The contents of total flavonoids, total phenols, iron and potassium in flowers were significantly higher than those in tender pods, while the contents of polysaccharides, calcium and magnesium in tender pods were significantly higher than those in flowers. The scavenging experiments of DPPH and ABTS free radicals showed that the antioxidant ability of flowers was better than that of tender pods. Generally, the flowers and tender pods of A. manihot have edible and medicinal value, and are suitable for cultivating in Guangdong.

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    Effect of Environmental Factors on the Aroma Compounds of Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton
    YANG Wenjing,CHEN Meichun,ZHU Yujing,WANG Yanna,YAN Jinhua,LIU Bo,CHEN Xiujuan
    2019, 40 (7):  1359-1366.  doi: Keywords jasmine flower; aroma component; aroma quality evaluation index
    Abstract ( 394 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1116KB) ( 489 )  

    The aroma component of Jasminum sambac is formed during the flowering process, which is influenced by the flowering environment and growing climatic conditions. In this study, the changes of aroma components during flowering process and the effect of climatic factors on the aroma composition of jasmine flowers in Fuzhou were investigated. The aroma concentration of jasmine appeared maximum at around 21:30 and maintained until 02:00 the next day. The concentration change of benzyl acetate, linalool, benzyl alcohol, hydrazine and methyl anthranilate during flowering process was similar to the total aroma concentration, while the content of ɑ-farnesene and methyl benzoate significantly decreased after 21:30. The lowest concentration of 3-hexen-1-ol, acetate, (Z)- at 21:30 was observed. The main fragrance ingredients of the rainy jasmine were consistent with the one from the sunny jasmine. The content of 3-hexen-1-ol, acetate, (Z)- in the rainy jasmine was about 10 times that of the sunny jasmine, indicating the strong aroma of grassy presents in the rainy jasmine. The aroma quality evaluation index of the rain jasmine (JTF=1.17) was lower than the date in sunny day (JTF=1.87). Both the highest and lowest JTF index of the jasmine from Changle and Fuqing were observed at July and October, respectively, indicating that the flower picked at July exhibited the best aroma quality. The results of clustering analysis showed that the aroma components of the jasmine flower from Changle picked at June, July, August and September possessed the highest similarity, while those of the jasmine in October exhibited obviously difference. Meanwhile, the aroma component of the jasmine flower from Fuqing picked at June, July and August displayed the higher similarity, and those of the jasmine flower picked at September and October were grouped together.

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    Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Extract from Melaleuca bracteata Leaves
    WU Yingxiang,YU Xuefang,ZHAN Xingdui,LI Xinxin,YANG Chao,ZONG Weixun,LI Yongyu
    2019, 40 (7):  1367-1372.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.017
    Abstract ( 971 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (506KB) ( 510 )  

    In order to explore the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of M. bracteata, the in vitro antioxidant activities and the total phenols of the methanol extract and its different polarity fractions were determined in this study. The n-butyl alcohol fraction showed the highest total phenols content (453.75±0.75) mg/g. The methanol extract and its n-butyl alcohol fraction had better scavenging effects than VC on ABTS + radical. Reducing power followed the order of VC>n-butyl alcohol>methanol extract>water>ethyl acetate>BHT>petroleum ether fractions. The N-butyl alcohol and ethyl acetate fractions had better scavenging effect on DPPH radical than the methanol extract and water fractions, and the petroleum ether fraction had the weakest effect. In addition, positive correlation was existed between the total phenols content and the antioxidant activities of different polarity fractions. In addition to the petroleum ether fraction, methanol extract and its different polarity fractions showed excellent antioxidant activities, which could be used as a good natural antioxidant activity material.

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    Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Different Polarity Fractions of the Extracts of the Young Leaves of Myrciaria cauliflora
    QIU Shanlian,LIN Baomei,ZHANG Shaoping,ZHANG Shuhe,ZHANG Shuai,HONG Jiamin,ZHENG Kaibin
    2019, 40 (7):  1373-1378.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.018
    Abstract ( 684 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (519KB) ( 413 )  

    It is of great significance to search for natural antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors from plants to diabetic patients. Based on the previous research, the polarity fractions of the ethanol extracts from the tender leaves of M. cauliflora were applied to determine the scavenging effects towards DPPH and ABTS + free radicals, inhibition on α-glucosidase activity, the contents of total polyphenols (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) by colorimetry, providing a reference evidence for the application of effective polarity fraction from the tender leaves of M. cauliflora in food, chemical and medical fields. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest contents of TP (33.92 mg/g) and TF (13.35 mg/g), followed by n-butanol fraction (TP 31.11 mg/g; TF 12.93 mg/g) and water fraction (TP 17.04 mg/g; TF 11.18 mg/g). TP and TF were not detected in the petroleum ether and dichloromethane fractions. The scavenging abilities of n-butanol fraction and ethyl acetate fraction towards DPPH and ABTS + radicals were higher than that of other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction had the strongest inhibitory activity in the α-glucosidase, followed by the n-butanol and water fraction. This results indicated that the contents of TP and TF were higher in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, and the antioxidant activity and inhibition in α-glucosidase activity were stronger, compared with the other three polarity fractions, so the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions could be used as the main polar fractions to excavate active substances for antioxidation activity and inhibition activity in α-glucosidase.

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    Preparation Technology Optimization of Sodium Alginate / Chitosan Based Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) Rehabilitation Nutrition Microcapsule in Hevea brasiliensis
    HU Yiyu,FENG Chengtian,LIU Hui,YUAN Kun,XIE Guishui,WANG Zhenhui
    2019, 40 (7):  1379-1386.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.019
    Abstract ( 695 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (656KB) ( 375 )  

    Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) is one of the important factors that restrict the development of natural rubber production. It is an urgent problem to develop simple and efficient prevention and treatment technology for TPD. In this paper, sodium alginate / chitosan was used as the wall material, and the main effective ingredients of TPD rehabilitation nutrition were used as the core material. The TPD rehabilitation nutrition was prepared into microcapsules by a complex coacervation reaction. An L16(4 5) orthogonal experimental design for the standardization of encapsulation rate and drug loading rate was applied to optimize the preparation procedure of the microspheres. The results showed that the best preparation condition were chitosan 2.0 mg/mL, nutritive agent 1 g, pH 5, 40 ℃, and glutaraldehyde 30 mL. The microcapsules prepared under this process were relatively round and uniform in size distribution, with encapsulation rate of 69.31% and drug loading rate of 14.35%. The optimum preparation conditions would lay a good foundation for the later implementation of slow-release microcapsules of TPD rehabilitation nutrients embedded in xylem, and provide theoretical references for the application of new and efficient rehabilitation technology for TPD in Hevea brasiliensis.

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    Adsorption of CatioIlic Dye in Aqueous Solution of Macadamia Nut Shell
    YANG Xinzhou,HAO Zhiyun,TIAN Xianjiao,MA Yanfen
    2019, 40 (7):  1387-1392.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.020
    Abstract ( 528 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (471KB) ( 344 )  

    The powder of macadamia nut shell at different particle sizes was prepared as the adsorbent. The adsorption properties of macadamia nut shell powder for methylene blue, rhodamine B and basic fuchsine were studied at different conditions. The optimal adsorption conditions were as follows: the dosage of macadamia nut shell powder at 1.6, 2.4 and 1.2 g, pH value at 5, particle size at 0.3 mm, adsorption time at 30, 60, 60 min and temperature at 30 ℃. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were used to simulate the kinetic process of it. The pseudo-second kinetic equation was more suitable for describing the process of it. The thermodynamic parameters of Gibbs free energy(ΔG 0), enthalpy (ΔH 0) and entropy change(ΔS 0) were calculated. In the process of macadamia nut shell powder adsorption of methylene blue, rhodamine B and basic fuchsine, the value of ΔG 0, ΔS 0, and ΔH 0was ΔG 0<0, ΔH 0>0 and ΔS 0>0, indicating that it was a spontaneous, disorderly and endothermic process.

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    Effects of Pre-harvest Application of Compound Sodium Nitrophenolate on Fruit Quality and Incidence of Postharvest Desease of Mango
    FU Yao,GAO Zhaoyin,LI Min,GONG Deqiang,CHEN Qianfu,HUANG Huili,YANG Jinying,HONG Xiaoyu,HU Meijiao
    2019, 40 (7):  1393-1398.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.021
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (595KB) ( 534 )  

    In order to provide a scientific and rational theoretical basis for the use of Compound Sodium Nitrophenolate in the production of mango, the effects of Compound Sodium Nitrophenolate in the pre-harvest application on fruit quality and incidence of postharvest desease of Guifei mango were explored Mango cultivar ‘Guifei’ was selected as the material. Compound Sodium Nnitrophenolate with the concentration of 500 mg/L was sprayed every 9-12 days for the first time on the 15th day after the full bloom period, and 6 times in total. Longitudinal and transverse diameters during the fruit development were measured, and the single fruit weight was determined at maturity. Color parameters (L, a, b values) of the peel during the ripening process, the hardness of the fruit pulp, the content of the soluble solids, the total acid content and the incidence of diseases were also investigated. The experimental results showed that spraying compound sodium nitrophenolate before harvesting could promote fruit enlargement, significantly increase the weight of single fruit at maturity, enhance post-harvest pigmentation, and delay the decrease of pulp hardness and the increase of soluble solids content. The total acid contents remained basically unchanged, but greatly reduced the post-harvest disease incidence and disease index.

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    Extraction Conditions Optimization of Camellia oleifera Cake and Its Application in the Storage of Pitaya Fruits
    XIE Guofang, CHEN Huanhuan, YANG Feiyan, XIE Ling, ZHAO Zhibing, LIU Yongling
    2019, 40 (7):  1399-1405.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.022
    Abstract ( 520 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1931KB) ( 524 )  

    In order to reduce the use of chemical bacteriostatic agents and make full use of camellia resources, the extraction conditions of Camellia oleifera cake were optimized by extraction agent screening and an uniform experimental design. The effect of pre-harvest spraying crude extract of camellia cake on the storage quality of pitaya was investigated. The optimum extraction conditions of C. oleifera cake were obtained as follows: 85% methanol, the ratio of material to liquid is 1 g: 15 mL, each time ultrasonic assisted extraction for 2 h at 75 ℃, and extraction twice. The application of preharvest spraying crude extract could significantly improve the b * in peel and ascorbic acid content in pulp of pitaya (P<0.05), significantly reduce the firmness in pericarp, viscosity in pulp, TSS, and reducing sugar content (P<0.05) at harvest. Preharvest spraying crude extract significantly delayed the rapid increase of viscosity in pulp (P<0.05), and maintained the color (L * and b *), firmness in pulp, TSS, and ascorbic acid content, thus delayed the increase of the rot index of pitaya, and thus had a good preservation effect on pitaya during storage.

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    Effects of Pre-cooling Timing and 1-MCP Treatment on Postharvest Quality of Myrica rubra
    WANG Wei,YAN Li,XIE Qian,CHEN Qingxi
    2019, 40 (7):  1406-1412.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.023
    Abstract ( 572 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1005KB) ( 381 )  

    The effects of pre-cooling timing, 1-MCP treatment and storage temperature on postharvest quality and shelf life of Myrica rubra ‘Ying Si’ were compared. The results showed pre-cooling combined with 1-MCP treatment could postpone the decrease of fruit weight and firmness during storage, inhibit the increase of respiration intensity caused by the accumulation of MDA, and postpone the decrease of soluble sugar and titratable acid content within 6 days of storage, but had no effect on postponing the degradation of anthocyanin. 1-MCP treatment before or after pre-cooling had no significant difference in retarding fruit quality deterioration. Pre-cooling treatment could effectively reduce the respiratory intensity of fruit at the beginning of storage, but only combined with 1-MCP treatment could effectively maintain the respiratory intensity of fruit at a low-level during storage. Fruit with 1-MCP treatment after pre-cooling could be stored at 7 ℃ for 5 days, the shelf life could be up to 5 days, and the rot rate was less than 10% (no significant difference between 4 ℃ and 7 ℃) with less energy consumption cost, of which the storage effect was better than 1-MCP treatment before pre-cooling. Considering the commercial application, the fruit should be packed in time with ice bag after harvesting at 4 ℃ for pre-cooling treatment. Refrigerated transport should be controlled within 5 hours. Before storage, the fruit should be fumigated with 1-MCP of 7 mL/L 18 hours at 4 ℃. The fruit could be stored at 4-7 ℃ for 5 days, and sold on the shelf on the 6th day. The shelf life could reach 5 days, which has a good commercial application prospect.

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    Effect of Melatonin Treatment on the Preservation of the Flower Stalk of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinesis var. utilis Tsen et Lee after Harvest Under Low Temperature
    JIA Zhiwei,SUN Manli,CHANG Jinmei,SONG Kanghua,ZHANG Lubin
    2019, 40 (7):  1413-1420.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.024
    Abstract ( 672 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (850KB) ( 631 )  

    In order to extend the shelf-life and maintain the postharvest quality of flowering Chinese cabbage (FCC)(Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) under low temperature, the flower stalks harvested of FCC were treated with 50, 100 mg/L melatonin respectively, stored at 4 ℃, then the appearance quality was observed, physiological and biochemical indexes related to stored quality were evaluated during storage. The degradation of chlorophyll of the leaves was delayed by melatonin treatment. Much higher levels of soluble sugar and soluble protein content were maintained than the control. Activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were improved under at storage temperature 4 ℃. Meanwhile the content of lignin of the stalk and the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene BcCAD4 and BcCAD5 related to lignin synthesis was suppressed by the melatonin treatment. It indicated that the effect of melatonin treatment may be related to the inhibition of the expression of cinnamol dehydrogenase genes.

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    Diversity and Antifungal Activity Against Sporisorium scitamineum of Bacteria Isolated from Marine Sponge Siphonochalina flexa from Beibu Gulf
    JIANG Lei,LI Mi,LI Zhi,YI Xiangxi,GAO Chenghai,ZHOU Gui
    2019, 40 (7):  1421-1427.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.025
    Abstract ( 600 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1462KB) ( 417 )  

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and the diversity of co-bacteria of Siphonochalina flexa isolated from Guaishi sea beach and to study its antifungal activities of the fermentation liquids against Sporisorium scitamineum. Eight different isolation media were used to isolate and purify the co-bacteria from S. flexa. The 16S rDNA was employed to explore the diversity of the isolated strains. The effects of the fermentation liqiuds against S. scitamineum were tested with the method of Oxford cup. After the morphological analysis and 16S rDNA alignment, 34 strains of co-bacteria were isolated from S. flexa, belonging to 18 families and 24 genera. Through testing the antifungal activities, we screened 14 kinds of bacteria that had the inhibitory effect on S. scitamineum. The cultivated bacteria in S. flexa were rich in species and most of them showed strong activity of against S. scitamineum.

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    Chemical Constituents from Streptomyces sp. YG-7 Collected from Yingge Ridge and the α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
    PAN Jieming,CHEN Huiqin,WANG Hao,MEI Wenli,CAI Caihong,TAN Zhiqiong,DAI Haofu
    2019, 40 (7):  1428-1433.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.026
    Abstract ( 515 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (677KB) ( 379 )  

    The α-glucosidase activities of secondary metabolites from Streptomyces sp. YG-7 actinomycetes isolated from the soils collected from the virgin tropical rainforest Yingge Ridge were investigated. Nine compounds were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the structures were identified as (1) 2-acetamido-5- chlorobenzamide, (2) cyclo (L-Pro-L-Leu), (3) 3,6-dibenzylidene-2,5-piperazinedione, (4) albonoursin, (5) (3Z, 6S)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione, (6) 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone, (7) isophthalic acid, (8) methyl 3-carbamoylbenzoate, and (9) 2,3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate through a combined analysis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Among them, compounds 1, 7 and 8 were new natural products, and compounds 1, 3-5, 7-8 exhibited significantly α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

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    Dissipation, Residues and Dietary Risk Assessment of Dinotefuran in Rice Ecosystem
    GE Huilin,XIE Defang,SU Bingxia,LV Daizhu,ZHAO Fangfang
    2019, 40 (7):  1434-1440.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.027
    Abstract ( 785 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (650KB) ( 413 )  

    To evaluate the residue behavior and dietary intake risk of the dinotefuran in rice ecosystem, the residual trial of dinotefuran in rice was carried out in Hainan, Hunan and Heilongjiang in 2014. The method for the residue determination of dinotefuran in soil, paddy water, rice plant, brown rice, and rice husk was developed using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The dietary risk assessment for China population based on dinotefuran residues data in rice was investigated. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile, purified by NH2 column, detected by HPLC-UV. Results showed that the limit of detection (LOD) of dinotefuran was 0.08 ng. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of dinotefuran in rice plant, rice husk, brown rice, soil and paddy water was 0.1, 0.1, 0.05, 0.02, and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. At fortified levels of 0.05 to 2 mg/kg, the average recoveries varied from 75% to 114% with the relative standard deviation of 0.5% to 19.0%. The dissipations of dinotefuran in rice plant, paddy water and soil were basically consistent with the first-order kinetic equation. The corresponding half-lives were about 0.5, 1, and 5 days, respectively. At the 14 th day after the last application, the terminal residues of dinotefuran in rice indicated that the supervised trials median residue (STMR) was 0.058 mg/kg, the highest residue (HR) was 0.13 mg/kg. STMR and HR were all below the Chinese MRL of 1 mg/kg. Risk assessment indicated a lower chronic risk after a long-term dietary intake of dinotefuran in rice for China population.

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    Influence of Dissolved Organic Matter on Determination of Iron in Solution and its Mechanism
    WU Dongming,LI Yi,CHEN Yaohua,DENG Xiao,WU Chunyuan
    2019, 40 (7):  1441-1448.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.028
    Abstract ( 1315 )   HTML ( 8619 )   PDF (1439KB) ( 1189 )  

    Quantitative detection is a crucial technique for investigating the geochemical processes of ferric ion (Fe). However, due to the ubiquity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in environmental medium, the combination of Fe with DOM may affect the determination of Fe in solution. Therefore, the effect of DOM between atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and colorimetry for Fe determination was tested. Precision of AAS was as good as colorimetry, both of them were less than 5%. However, AAS was more accurate with a recovery rate of 86.4%-97.8% and its detection limit was as low as 0.012 mg/L. DOM had a significant effect on colorimetry. The presence of DOM increased testing time and relative standard deviation of 11.5 h, 1.2%-22.2%, respectively. Moreover, the accuracy was also decreased by 28.3%-44.4%. As the concentration of DOM increasing, the accuracy was decreased in the tendency of exponential function, and the trend of the veracity fitted well with unary quadratic model. Moreover, the effect of DOM was greater with the decreasing concentration of iron. On the contrary, the presence of DOM had no significant influence on AAS. The results of EEMs and FTIR indicated that existed hydrogen bonding or π-π interaction occurred between DOM and Fe/phen that affected the interaction of Fe and colorimetry in a drive to influence the testing results.

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    Determination of Oxine-Copper Residue in Cucumis sativus L. by Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction
    CHEN Siyu,WANG Mingyue,LIN Bing,LV Daizhu
    2019, 40 (7):  1449-1454.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.029
    Abstract ( 838 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (683KB) ( 369 )  

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) method for the determination of oxine-copper residue in cucumber was established. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol/L). The extract was purified by C18. The analysis was carried out by phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) -acetonitrile (65∶35) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min on SunFireC18 (4.6×150 mm, 5 μm) column, and detected by HPLC with UV detector at a ultraviolet absorption wavelength of 250 nm. The recovery was in 92.3%-107.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.0%-7.7% at spiked levels of 0.02, 0.2 and 2 mg/kg. The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, and could be used in the determination of oxine-copper residue in cucumber.

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    Determination of Chlorantraniliprole Residues in Plant-derived Condiment by UPLC-MS/MS
    QIAN Bing,ZHAO Jing,HE Yan,HAN Bingjun,PENG Lixu
    2019, 40 (7):  1455-1459.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.030
    Abstract ( 524 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2386KB) ( 339 )  

    A simple and efficient method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) detection was developed to analyze the residue of chlorantraniliprole in plant-derived condiment. The condiment samples were pretreated with a modified QuEChERS method, and separated on an UPLC C18 column. The analyses of chlorantraniliprole were operated with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry under positive mode using a multiple reaction monitoring mode, and then quantitatived by an external standard method. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were over 0.999 in linear range of 0.005-0.200 μg/mL. The average recoveries at three spiked concentration levels varied from 70% to 108% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.9%-10%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) was 0.002 mg/kg and 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. In conclusion, this simple and efficient method meet the method validation requirements for the determination of chlorantraniliprole residues in plant-derived condiment.

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