Winter vegetable and rice rotation is an important cultivation mode in Hainan. In order to raise the residual fertilizer utilization efficiency of fore-rotating crop, the use of fertilizer will be reduced in rice, the succession crop, in general. At this time, the fertility inequality caused by the row application of fertilization of fore-rotating crop will greatly affect the production of subsequent rice. In this study, the cowpea-rice rotation mode was used as the research object, and ‘Juliangyou 747’, a hybrid rice variety, was used as the material, the effects of growth, yield components and quality of rice were analyzed at late tillering stage and maturity stage by sampling between rows with strong growth performance (T1) and weak growth performance (T2), respectively. There were significant differences in plant height, tiller number, shoot dry weight, area of converse third leaves and nitrogen content of plants in late tillering stage. Among them, the nitrogen content of roots, stems and leaves of T1 plants was 117.1%, 368.8% and 72.3% significantly higher than that of T2 plants, respectively. There were significant differences in the number of panicles, grains per panicle, seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight. In particular, the number of ears and seed setting rate of T1 plants was 64.0% and 9.3% higher than that of T2 plants. There were no significant differences in the brown rice rate, milled rice rate, length-width and length-width ratio of milled rice, gelatinization temperature and amylose content, but there were significant differences in head rice rate, gel consistency, protein content and chalky rice rate. The chalky rice rate of T1 was 4.5% lower, and the head rice rate of T1 was 5.5% higher than that of T2, which both reached a very significant level. Therefore, In order to obtain high yield and high quality of rice under cowpea-rice rotation, it is necessary to formulate a plan of reasonable cultivation techniques, improve tillage techniques, balance the residual fertility of fore-rotating crop, and apply fertilizer rationally in current season of rice.