Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops
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    25 June 2019, Volume 40 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Crop Culture and Nutrition, Genetic Breeding
    Short-term Effect of Different Rate of Biochar Application on Root Development of Hevea brasiliensis
    BEI Meirong,HUANG Yanyan,JING Yudan,CHA Zhengzao,LIN Qinghuo,LUO Wei
    2019, 40 (6):  1041-1045.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.001
    Abstract ( 1062 )   HTML ( 98 )   PDF (486KB) ( 520 )  

    The short-term effect of four rates of biochar on the root growth of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) were investigated. The contents of soil organic matter, total N, available phosphorus and potassium, and the soil pH were all promoted by the application of biochar. However, soil bulk density decreased using the biochar. In addition, the weight, length, surface area and volume of root were affected in different trends by different amount application of biochar, i.e. compared to CK, the short-term effect of biochar application only at the content of 5% had significantly increased root weight, length, surface area and volume of H. brasiliensis, and there were no significant effects on these items by application of other contents with 1%, 10% or 15%. Meanwhile, the weight of fine root was accounted for 64.8%-76.1% of the total weight of root. Based on the above results, it indicated that the application amount of biochar to have better short-term effect on the growth promotion of the roots of H. brasiliensis was 5%.

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    The Characteristics of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Uptake and Utilization at Different Potassium Levels at Late Growth Stages of Muskmelon
    WANG Xiaojuan,CHEN Jianxiao,WU Zhuangsheng,LI Xueqiao,ZHANG Wen,WU Yueyan,LIAO Daolong,GAO Fanghua
    2019, 40 (6):  1046-1054.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.002
    Abstract ( 623 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (436KB) ( 388 )  

    In this study we aim to determine the effects of potassium on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) uptake and utilization at the late growth stages of muskmelon with 6 K levels, namely K1-K6 (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 mmol/L). The results showed that K application could decrease N concentration in the organs of muskmelon, decrease N concentration in the root and stem and leaves at the ripening stage, significantly increase N accumulation in fruit; K application could improve P concentration in the root and fruit and P accumulation in the all organs of muskmelon, significantly increase P accumulation in the fruit and plant; K application could increase K concentration and NPK accumulation in the organs of muskmelon, significantly promote K accumulation in the stem and leaves, fruit and single plant; K application could significantly improve N physiological use efficiency and P harvest index, increase N harvest index, decrease significantly K harvest index and P, K physiological use efficiency. Treatments of K2, K3 and K4 had the higher single fruit weight, but the difference was not significant. The significantly correlation between K levels and N, P, K concentration in the muskmelon were correlated with different organs and stage. K levels were significantly negatively correlated with N concentration and positively correlated K concentration. N harvest index were no significantly correlated with N, P, K concentration in the organs, but significantly negatively correlated with N accumulation of stem and leaves; P harvest index were significantly negatively correlated with N accumulation of stem and leaves, but significantly positively correlated with P, K concentration and accumulation in fruit; K harvest index were extremely significantly positively correlated with N concentration in the root and fruit, significantly negatively correlated with P concentration in the root, extremely significantly negatively correlated with K concentration and accumulation in the stem and leaves and fruit. After comparing the goodness of fit (the determination coefficient R 2), it’s better to use a quadratic polynomial for the fitting K levels and P concentration of stem and leaves at the ripening stage, a linear for the fitting K levels and K concentration of root at the ripening stage, a three-parameter exponential or a five-parameter two-exponential for the fitting K levels and K concentration of root at the ripening stage. Comparing nutrient absorption and utilization in the three treatments, the K levels for 9 mmol/L (K4) had good N, P, K physiological utilization efficiency, K4 was conducive to K nutrient uptake and maximized economic benefit.

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    Interplanting Chamaecrista rotundifolia Improves the Ecological Environment of Tea Garden and Promotes the Growth of Tea Trees
    ZHAN Jie,LI Zhenwu,DENG Sufang,YING Zhaoyang
    2019, 40 (6):  1055-1061.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.003
    Abstract ( 558 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (565KB) ( 445 )  

    In view of the widespread soil degradation, severe seasonal drought, simple ecological composition, and deterioration of the ecological environment in tea gardens in the hilly and mountainous areas of Fujian Province, combined with the current management model of tea gardens, the conventional cultivated tea gardens (regular weeding) are used as a comparison to study the effects of Chamaecrista rotundifolia ‘minyin’ (CR) on temperature and humidity, soil physical and chemical properties, and growth of tea trees. Compared with the tea garden without interplanting, the content of organic matter, rapid nitrogen, and quick-impact phosphorus in the soil of the tea garden with CR significantly increased (P<0.05), among which the quick-impact nitrogen content increased by 57.78 mg/kg. The soil water content with CR was significantly increased by 21.84% (P<0.05) (0-20 cm soil layer) during the high temperature and drought period in summer. The change of daily air temperature reduced by 5.1 ℃, and the daily mean air humidity significantly increased by 3.9%. At the same time, the content of amino acids and tea leachate in the summer tea significantly increased (P<0.05). The results show that the tea garden interplanted with CR can effectively improve the soil quality, light, temperature, humidity and other small climate conditions, and it is an excellent green fertilizer suitable for the promotion and utilization of mountain tea gardens.

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    Grouting Characteristics and Root Morphology and Filling Degree of Tartary Buckwheat Under Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Application
    WANG Yan,LI Zhenzhou,HUANG Kaifeng
    2019, 40 (6):  1062-1067.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.004
    Abstract ( 514 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (409KB) ( 326 )  

    Tartary buckwheat cv ‘Jinqiao No. 2’ (JQ2) was selected as the material to investigate the changes in the filling characteristics, root morphology, plant agronomic traits, plumpness, and yield of tartary buckwheat with different nitrogenous treatments, in order to provide a theoretical basis and technical support for high-yield cultivation of tartary buckwheat. Medium concentration nitrogen fertilizer treatment (MN treatment) had the most significant effect on grain weight of ‘Jinqiao 2’. The actual 100-grain weight and theoretical maximum 100-grain weight (A), the initial grain filling potential (R0), and growth rate at maximum growth rate during grain filling (Wmax·G) and active growth period were the highest in the MN treatment. Root length, surface area and volume were the highest in the MN treatment. Root-shoot ratio was the highest in the less concentration nitrogen fertilizer treatment (LN). The agronomic traits, plumpness and yield of ‘Jinqiao No. 2’ were basically the best in the LN and MN treatments. In summary, the treatment of medium-concentration nitrogen fertilizer is more conducive to promoting the filling process of bitter buckwheat and improving its fullness and yield.

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    Effects of Different Root-stocks and Scions on the Development and Growth of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Seedlings by Reverse Radicle-grafting
    ZHANG Yongli,WANG Yejun,SU Youjian,LUO Yi,SUN Yulong,LIAO Jun,XIE Mingzhi,GUI Liquan,WU Weiguo
    2019, 40 (6):  1068-1074.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.005
    Abstract ( 567 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (497KB) ( 427 )  

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different radicle-stocks and scions on the healing percentage, survival percentage and growth of grafting tea plants. The healing rate of the grafted seedlings was 93.93% 40 days after grafting, and the average survival rate was 99.26%. The grafting site completely healed 80 days after grafting, and the average survival rate was 90.50%. 145 days after grafting, the average survival rate was 76.1%, the average plant height was 20.22 cm, the number of leaves was 5.89, and the average root diameter was 3.73 cm. In the early stage (40 d), tea plants were healed later under the reverse radicle-grafting method, but the growth of tree plants accelerated during the later stage (145 d), even more than that under the radicle-grafting method. Compared with ‘Hongqi 1’ scion, the plants grafted on ‘Caoxi 1’ scion which had larger leaf area, had higher survival percentage (80.92%) and better underground growth situation during the early stage, and faster growth rate during the later stage. There was no significant difference of grafting effect among different varieties of stocks. Five months after grafting, the ‘Huangshan daye’ stock was the best for above-ground growth, and the ‘Qimen zhuye’ stock was the best for underground growth, including longer taproot length, heavier main and lateral root fresh weigh. On the whole, the reverse grafting of the ‘Qimen zhuye’ root-stock to ‘Caoxi 1’ scion was the optimum choice. The technique of reverse radicle-grafting is feasible for tea plant. A large-leaf tea scion from the non-lignification or semi-lignification new shoot, grafting on a strong radicle which has a good affinity, is more advantageous to the grafting survival and growth.

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    Analysis of Rational Close Planting with Agronomic Ttraits and Yield in Intense Tillering Ability Augarcane Variety
    QIU Lihang,FAN Yegeng,ZHOU Huiwen,CHEN Rongfa,HUANG Xing,LUO Hanmin,YANG Rongzhong,DUAN Weixing,LIU Junxian,WU Jianming
    2019, 40 (6):  1075-1082.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.006
    Abstract ( 726 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (536KB) ( 434 )  

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important sugar crop harvested mainly for millable canes. Tillering is the key to increase the millable canes thereby increasing per unit area yield and sugar yield. In this paper, sugarcane variety ‘B9’ (intense tillering ability) was planted in field plots treated with 4 different planting densities, i.e. 4000 buds/667 m 2 (P1), 6000 buds/667 m 2 (P2), 8000 buds/667 m 2 (P3), and 10 000 buds/667 m 2 (P4), and the plot experiment of one year new planting and one year sugarcane ratoon root was carried out to discuss the effects of planting density on the characters and yield of the sugarcane variety of intense tillering ability, and to analyze the correlation between them. The results showed that, the total seedlings number of planting cane and ratoon cane in the vigorous tillering period increased with increasing planting density, but the difference between them decreased with an average of 25.55%, 14.11%, -8.18% and -10.57%, respectively. The height of ratoon cane was significantly higher than that of planting cane, with an average increase of 17.31%, 10.54%, 19.44% and 14.88%, but the stem diameter was almost unaffected by planting density. Except the result of P2, the millable canes and yield of planting cane increased with the increase of planting density, and although millable canes of planting cane was more than that of ratoon cane, but its yield showed an opposite result. The difference of Brix between low planting density (P1) and high planting density (P4) was significant and showed a decreasing trend. In the process of yield formation under our test conditions, planting density was positively correlated with the total number of sugarcane seedlings at the vigorous tillering stage, plant height, millable canes and yield, negatively correlated with stem diameter and Brix, and then the contribution of plant height and millable canes to yield was the most significant, but too many millable canes were not obviously good for Brix in sugarcane. Therefore, the results indicate that the rational close planting is very important for the formation of yield and quality of the sugarcane variety of intense tillering ability.

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    Root Growth and Nitrogen Uptake of Jackfruit Seedlings Under Different Nitrogen Levels
    BAI Tingyu,SU Lanxi,YU Huan,WU Gang,TAN Lehe
    2019, 40 (6):  1083-1088.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.007
    Abstract ( 672 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF (947KB) ( 678 )  

    In order to explore a suitable application of amino nitrogen on jackfruit seedlings, this experiment used Malaysian No.1 grafted seedlings as the test materials to compare the effects of different nitrogen application on the root morphology and nitrogen accumulation of jackfruit seedlings. The results showed that with the increase of nitrogen level, the biomass of leaves, stems, shoots, total plant, and nitrogen accumulation of leaves, stems, total plant increased at first but decreased after the peak at N1 (5 g/plant), while the biomass of roots and ratio of roots and shoots reached a minimum at N1. The nitrogen accumulation in roots increased with the increase of nitrogen application. The total root length, total root surface area and total root volume decreased with the increase of nitrogen application, while there was no significant difference between N1 and N0 (0 g/plant). The total root length, total root surface area, total root volume were significantly positively correlated with dry weight of shoot. Fertilization, nitrogen accumulation of shoots and total root length and both of them accounted for 90.1% of the change in the biomass of jackfruit seedlings. In summary, the proper nitrogen nutrition was 5 g/plant in this experiment which could be used as a reference for jackfruit fertilization.

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    Vegetative Phase Change of Circadian Clock Double Mutant lhycca1 in Arabidopsis thaliana
    FU Yu,WANG Ling,LONG Hong
    2019, 40 (6):  1089-1094.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.008
    Abstract ( 704 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1051KB) ( 306 )  

    Developmental phase of higher plant is composed of two stages: vegetative growth and reproductive growth. Only after the phase transition through vegetative growth does plant go through further reproductive growth. The transition from the juvenile stage to the adult phase in plants is termed vegetative phase change (VPC), which is regulated by genes. Circadian clock-related genes LHY and CCA1 delay the occurrence of VPC by oneself, but the combined effects of these genes on VPC are not clear. Here, a double mutant lhycca1 of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to investigate the characters of VPC through the observation of plant morphology and anatomical structure of shoot tip meristem (shoot apical meristem, SAM). The expression of molecular regulatory factor miR156 and its target gene SPL3 in VPC were also analyzed. Our results showed that the growth cycle of the lhycca1 double mutant lasted for 15 d. The onset of abaxial trichomes was on the fifth rosette leaf (the 10 th day). Meanwhile, the base angle and the length: width ratio of leaves increased dramatically, and the shoot tip meristem bulged obviously. During growth and development, the expression levels of miR156 and SPL3 was negatively correlated. By contrast, the growth cycle of the wild-type was about 20 d, with the changes of the abaxial trichomes, length: width ratio of leaves, leaf base angle, SAM, miR156 and SPL3 on the sixth rosette leaf (the 15 th day). These results indicated that VPC in the lhycca1 double mutant occurred in advance under the combined effects of the two genes. LHY and CCA1 genes regulated VPC to some extent.

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    Genetic Diversity Analysis of Cherry Tomato Germplasms Based on Phenotypic Traits
    SHI Jianlei,ZAI Wenshan,CHEN Yikai,HONG Yuan,WANG Hailong
    2019, 40 (6):  1095-1101.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.009
    Abstract ( 569 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (750KB) ( 407 )  

    In order to study the genetic diversity of cherry tomatoes and evaluate the germplasms scientifically, twelve phenotypic characters were analyzed by genetic variation, principal component and cluster analysis in 21 inbred lines. The results showed that the variation coefficient ranged from 14.97% to 216.48%, and the diversity indices ranged from 0.66 to 1.34 in different traits. Considering the first four principal components which had a cumulative contribution rate of 76.619%, five germplasms had excellent comprehensive performance (F>0.8) with 9 main phenotypic indices for germplasm evaluation. By further systematic cluster analysis, the germplasms were classified into 4 clusters between 8 and 11 in euclidean distance, including 6, 10, 4 and 1 germplasms respectively, which could be used to breed different varieties. In brief, 21 cherry tomato germplasms had rich genetic diversity, which would provide a reference for the resource utilization and variety breeding.

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    Phenotypic Diversity Analysis of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Germplasm Resources
    WANG Peiqi,HU Xueli,LI Xuerong,HU Zunhong,YANG Jin,GUO Lifen,LIU Xuyun
    2019, 40 (6):  1102-1107.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.010
    Abstract ( 570 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (423KB) ( 331 )  

    The phenotypic diversity of 6 major phenotypic traits was analyzed by principal component analysis and cluster analysis for 312 safflower germplasm resources from domestic and overseas. The results revealed that the genetic diversity of the major phenotypic traits in Safflower resources was abundant. The diversity index of the number of seeds in the top fruit was the highest, followed by the diameter of top fruit. The coefficient variation of the yield per plant was the highest, followed by the effective number of fruits per plant. The principal components analysis of 6 traits showed the first three principal components accounted for 78.30% accumulation contribution rate, reflecting most of the information of 6 traits. Based on the phenotypic difference of the 6 agronomic traits, the 312 safflower germplasm resources were divided into 7 groups. The resources of the first group had the largest fruits ball and seed number of top fruits, which had the potential for increasing yield. The third group had the best comprehensive performance and could be used as the material for high-yield breeding. The sixth group had large grains which could be used as the large-grain selection parent. The performance of other groups was average. This study would provide a scientific information for the effective utilization and breeding of safflower germplasm resources.

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    Phytophysiology and Biochemistry
    The Photosynthesis and Growth Characteristics of Two Sugarcane Cultivars in Different Phosphorus Rate Condition
    LI Jin,DUAN Tingting,ZHENG Chao,LIN Zhong,LIANG Yanqiu,GAO Yu,DENG Kai
    2019, 40 (6):  1108-1114.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.011
    Abstract ( 587 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (541KB) ( 377 )  

    The aim was to select phosphorus (P) efficient sugarcane variety and to apply P fertilizer scientifically after investigating the photosynthesis mechanism regulated by phosphorus. Using sugarcane varieties ROC22 and YT236, three levels of P supply were set in the study. The plant height and biomass of ROC22 and YT236 significantly increased with increasing P supply. The plant height of ROC22 was significantly higher than that of YT236 after the plants were cultivated in the nutrient solution for 60 days. The biomass of ROC22 with P application of 1 mmol/L was significantly higher than that of YT236, and the fresh weight and dry weight of ROC22 increased 1.6 fold and 1.4 fold compared to YT236. The total chlorophyll (Chl), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of ROC22 significantly increased with increasing P supply. Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs of YT236 with P application of 0.1 and 1 mmol/L were significantly higher than that without P application. Chl of YT236 with P application of 1 mmol/L was significantly higher than that without P application and with 0.1 mmol/L P application. Chl of ROC22 with P application of 0.1 and 1 mmol/L increased by 16% and 14% compared to YT236, respectively. Pn of ROC22 with 3 levels of P supply was significantly higher than that of YT236. Ci of ROC22 with 1 mmol/L P application was significantly higher than that of YT236. Tr and Gs of ROC22 without P application were significantly higher than that of YT236. Considering the photosynthesis and growth of sugarcane, the optimum level of P supply for ROC22 and YT236 was 1 mmol/L. The photosynthesis and growth of ROC22 in the study area was obviously better than that of YT236, so ROC22 was suggested to be planted in the study area and the phosphorus deficiency soil.

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    Correlation Analysis of Main Agronomic Traits of Different Plant Types and Path Analysis of Yield Per Plant in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
    LU Qing,LIU Hao,LI Haifen,CHEN Xiaoping,HONG Yanbin,LIU Haiyan,LI Shaoxiong,ZHOU Guiyuan,LIANG Xuanqiang
    2019, 40 (6):  1115-1121.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.012
    Abstract ( 581 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (3623KB) ( 396 )  

    “Yueyou 13” was used as the material, and three different diameter PVC rings were used to create different plant types. The phenotypic variation of 18 main agronomic traits was statistically analyzed and the correlation among these traits was computed. Path analysis was used to analyze yield per plant. And then, stepwise regression was used to analyze the same trait. The results of phenotypic variation suggested that yield per plant, max number of pod node, length of lateral branch, total number of pod and total number of full pod increased significantly with the increase of treatment diameter. Correlation analyses among these traits indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between yield per plant and branch angle, max number of a pod node, total number of a pod and total number of a full pod. Path analysis showed that the direct path coefficient between total number of a pod and yield per plant was the largest (PY.X7=2.15). For the plant type related traits, the indirect coefficient between branch angle and yield per plant was the largest (IEX2=0.8567), and in indirect factors affecting yield per plant, the factor through affection total number of a pod was the largest (IEX2.X7=1.2060). Two optimal regression equations were obtained using stepwise regression analyses, such as Y=8.43+0.53X2 (P=6.8E-5); Y=-29.26+1.26X8+0.22X7 (P=3.13E-19; P=4.06E-11). In this study, the relationship between a plant type and yield per plant was preliminarily analyzed, and the influence factors of plant type correlation on yield were preliminarily uncovered, and a new peanut variety with an “U” plant type was proposed. This study could provide a theoretical base for plant type breeding in peanut in future.

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    Biotechnology and Tissue Culture
    Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of AsLEC Gene in Agave sisalana
    LU Zhiwei,HOU Xiaowan,YANG Ziping,ZHANG Yanmei,LI Junfeng,ZHOU Wenzhao
    2019, 40 (6):  1122-1129.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.013
    Abstract ( 497 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3653KB) ( 352 )  

    The monocotyl mannose-binding plant lectin gene can effectively inhibit the growth and reproduction of Homoptera pests with sucking mouthparts, and it was verified that those genes represent better resistance against insects in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants such as Pinellia ternata, Triticum aestivum L., Nicotiana tabacum L., Gossypium spp. However, its function in sisal is still lack of in-depth study. In this study, sisal was used as materials, and the sisal lectin gene was successfully cloned by RT-PCR and named as AsLEC. Bioinformatics analysis were conducted. The results showed that the full-length CDS of AsLEC gene was 561 bp, encoding 186 amino acids. The protein molecular weight was predicted to be 19.97 ku, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.01, which was a hydrophobic protein. The results of homologous amino acid sequence alignment indicated that sisal lectin gene had high homology with the superfamily of monocotyl mannose-binding lectin gene in Epipactis helleborine, Leucojum vernum, Cliviaminiata, Ananas comosus (Linn.) Merr. and so on. The amino acid matching degree was more than 48%. The phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AsLEC gene was more closely related to the lectin genes in Epipactis helleborine. Functional domain analysis of AsLEC gene suggested that it had the typical characteristics of the B-lectin gene family and belongs to the B-lectin gene family. A signal peptide of 33 amino acid residues was predicted in AsLEC protein, and there was a transmembrane alpha helix at the position from the 5th amino acid to the 27th amino acid in the N-terminus, which implyed that AsLEC protein was a secreted protein and was consistent with the functional characteristics of B-lectin protein. AsLEC protein secondary structure contained 11β-sheets, 3α-helices. Subcellular localization prediction showed that AsLEC gene was likely positioned on the cell membrane. Thecloning of sisal AsLEC gene was of great significance for studying its anti-insect function in sisal, and enriches the related research of plant lectin in monocotyledon.

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    Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of CsGPX Gene in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
    WANG Zan,CAO Hongli,YUE Chuan,GUO Yaling
    2019, 40 (6):  1130-1137.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.014
    Abstract ( 556 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (4362KB) ( 398 )  

    To reveal the possible involvement of glutathione peroxidase genes (CsGPX) in the responses of tea plants to abiotic stresses, three CsGPX genes were identified by bioinformatics tools from the tea genome data, and the gene structures, the cis-elements on their promoters, the physiochemical characteristics of the encoded proteins and the phylogenetic trees were also studied. The results showed that all the CsGPX genes contained 6 exons and shared the gene family-specific GPX domain in addition to three other conserved domains. Cis-elements for the responses of plants to hormones and abiotic stresses were identified on the promoters. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression profiles revealed that they were significantly different in expression in different tissues. Further analysis showed that the three CsGPX genes were, in general, up-regulated by treatments of low temperature, ABA, salt and drought except that CsGPX2 and CsGPX3 were down-regulated by treatment of low-temperature. The results should have laid down a basis for further characterization of CsGPX family genes in tea plant.

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    Crop Pests, Diseases and Their Control, Environmental Protection
    Screening and Field Effect of Insecticides for the Control of Thrips hawaiiensis Morgan by Bud Injection
    ZHANG Jing,QI Huihui,ZHU Enlin,YE Huochun,YAN Chao,FENG Gang
    2019, 40 (6):  1138-1143.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.015
    Abstract ( 553 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (413KB) ( 463 )  

    Thrips hawaiiensis is one of the most important pests of banana plants. There is an urgent need for efficient control methods and pesticides. In recent years, the bud injection has been invented and proved to be a precise method for controlling. However, few reports have been reported on the screening of pesticides suitable for this method. In order to obtain high efficiency and low toxicity insecticides, 22 chemical pesticides were used to control T. hawaiiensis in the field by bud injection. The results showed that imidacloprid, spirulina ethyl ester, methyl vitamin salt, cyantraniliprole, avermectin and acaronitrile significantly controlled the thrips at the recommended dose, with efficiency of 99.80%, 99.67%, 99.48%, 99.61%, 99.33% and 98.96%, respectively, 28 days after treatment. The efficiency was 98.75% and 95.81% respectively for the conbinations of of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole in concentrations of 0.5 mL/L + 0.5 mL/L and 0.5 mL/L + 0.25 mL/L, which was better than single agent. In conclusion, imidacloprid, spirochete ethyl ester, methamidoavermectin benzoate, bromocyanamide, avermectin and acarbonitrile were effective for bud injection to control T. hawaiiensis. In addition, the combination of imidacloprid and bromocyanamide could be more helpful to pesticides reduction in thrips control on banana.

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    Isolation, Identification and Multiple Function Analyses of Sugarcane Endophytes
    LIU Lufeng,CUN Haichun,HE Pengfei,DI Yining,WU Yixin,HE Lilian,LI Fusheng,HE Yueqiu
    2019, 40 (6):  1144-1152.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.016
    Abstract ( 812 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (1344KB) ( 587 )  

    To investigate the diversity composition of sugarcane endophytes and the beneficial characteristics, dilution-plating, morphological observation and molecular marker (gyrB [gyrase beta-subunit], rpoB [RNA polymerase beta-subunit], ITS [integrated transcribed space], 16S rDNA) were used in the combination and several room assays such as phosphate-, potassium-solubilizations and antagonistism tests. The results showed that 589 bacterial, 34 actinomycetic and 46 fungal strains were isolated from the root, stem and leaf tissues of 12 sugarcane varieties and 5 wild species, of which 41 strains could fix nitrogen, 98 and 52 strains solubilize phosphate and potassium respectively, 44 and 35 strains were antagonistic to Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum, respectively. The endophytic bacteria belonged to 21 genera, among them Bacillus, Burkholderia, Enterobacter and Pantoea were the dominant. The endophytic fungi were classified into 17 genera, Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Ceriporia, Cladosporium, etc., while actiomycetes was Streptomyces only. The strains with plant beneficial potentials were mainly clustered into Bacillus, Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Paenibacillus and Pantoea. The study showed rich endophyte resources both in the sugarcane varieties and wild species interior, and the number and diversity of endophytes in the cultivated varieties were higher than that of wild species. Most of the endogenous bacteria isolated from 12 sugarcane cultivars were the same, but there were differences. Through preliminary functional identification, some probiotics with application potential were screened out, which laid a foundation for the development of biological agents with corresponding functions.

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    Ten Provincial Newly Recorded Species of Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes in Chishui River Basin, Guizhou
    LI Xiaoxia,XIAO Zhongjiu,LIU Ting,LU Zhengzheng,SONG Peiyong
    2019, 40 (6):  1153-1162.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.017
    Abstract ( 805 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1085KB) ( 672 )  

    The treatment of dead branches were collected from the subtropical forest in Chishui River Basin, Guizhou. Ten new dematiaceous hyphomycetes species were identified, described and illustrated based on the morphological characteristics. The examined specimens were deposited in the Mycological Herbarium of Zunyi Normal University (HMZNC).

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    Function of Red Spider Mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus) Transcription Factor TcNrf2 on Regulating the Transcription of Antioxidant Enzyme Genes
    Gao Jintao,LIANG Xiao,WU Chunling,CHEN Qing,CHEN Qian
    2019, 40 (6):  1163-1170.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.018
    Abstract ( 541 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (630KB) ( 375 )  

    The transcription factor Nrf2 plays a key role in the regulation of antioxidant enzymes in model organisms, but up to now, there was a lack of study indicating that Nrf2 can regulate antioxidant enzymes in mites. In this study, the Nrf2 inhibitors and activators were used to treat with the red spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus). The transcription of TcSOD and TcCAT were studied by inhibiting and activating the transcription factor TcNrf2. The results showed that the transcriptions of TcNrf2, TcSOD and TcCAT decreased significantly after feeding on mite-resistant and mite-susceptible cassava cultivars for 1, 4 and 8 d, while were not affected by retinoic acid treatment. However, the transcription of those genes significantly increased after treated by TBHQ (tert-butylhydroquinone) and D3T (1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolat), respectively, suggesting that the transcriptions of TcNrf2 and its regulated TcSOD and TcCAT genes were consistent. This study directly proves that TcNrf2 gene plays an important role in cassava mite resistance at the molecular level, which would lay a theoretical foundation for the molecular mechanism of mite resistance to cassava.

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    Pathogen Identification of Phytophthora Blight of Spathiphyllum
    ZHANG Yunxia,ZENG Sharui,HUANG Yaohua,CHEN Cantian,CHENG Dongmei,XIANG Meimei
    2019, 40 (6):  1171-1175.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.019
    Abstract ( 627 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (4632KB) ( 371 )  

    A strain was isolated from the diseased plants of Spathiphyllum sp. from Guangzhou. The Pathogenicity test showed the isolated strain was the pathogenic fugus of Spathiphyllum blight. The pathogenic strain was identified according to the morphology, rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequencing amplified by Pn1和Pn2. The result showed Phytophthora blight of Spathiphyllum from Guangzhou was caused by Phytophthora nicotianae. The result would provide a foundation for effective control of the disease.

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    Agricultural Product Processing, Preservation, Storage, Analysis and Detection
    Chlorogenic Acid Constituents from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.
    YUAN Chao,WANG Hongfa,HU Xuan,CHEN Xiaolu,PANG Yuxin
    2019, 40 (6):  1176-1180.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.020
    Abstract ( 569 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (576KB) ( 421 )  

    To comprehensively investigate the antimicrobial components of Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., a traditional Li Minority herb, various chromatographic methods including silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and ODS-A gel were used to study its chemical constituents. Six isolates including 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid ethyl ester (DAEE), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (DAME), 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (OAME), 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (DA1), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (DA2) and 1,3,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DA3) were obtained on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time, and DAEE is a new natural product. Antimicrobial assay exhibited that OAME and DA3 displayed potent inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis (DSM 1088) and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (DSM 799), respectively, with MIC value 64 μg/mL, suggesting chlorogenic acids maybe the main active ingredients of Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.

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    Effects of Low Temperature Conditioning on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology of Wampee (Clausena lansium L.) fruits
    CHANG Wenjun,YAN Ning,SHEN Wanjun,LI Wen,ZENG Jiaoke
    2019, 40 (6):  1181-1187.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.021
    Abstract ( 577 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (704KB) ( 473 )  

    The effects of low temperature conditioning (LTC) on the storage quality and postharvest physiology of the fruits of wampee ‘Wuhe’ (Clausena lansium L.) were studied. The fruits were treated with LTC I (12 ℃, 4 d), LTC II (8 ℃, 4 d) and LTC III (12 ℃, 2 d to 8 ℃, 2 d) and then stored at (3.0±0.5)℃ to investigate the effects on storage quality and postharvest physiology. Compared with the control, low temperature conditioning treatment delayed the browning of the fruits, improved total soluble solids (TSS) and vitamin C content, and inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, maintained higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, and lower activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Moreover, high total phenol content and antioxidat activity, high total phenolic and flavonoid content were maintained. Thereby the senescence of the fruits was delayed, and it is beneficial to reduce the browning of the fruits and improve the storage quality. In conclusion, LTC II treatment exhibited the best effect.

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    Tensile and Shearing Strength Properties of the Stems of King Grass (Pennisetum sinese Roxb)
    WANG Shuo,DU Jihua,ZHAO Liang,JIAO Jing,LI Zunxiang,XUE Zhong
    2019, 40 (6):  1188-1194.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.022
    Abstract ( 515 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2066KB) ( 315 )  

    A response surface test design and statistical analysis were used to study the tensile and shear strength properties of the stem of king grass at harvest time based on the root diameter and sampling height to develop high quality and efficient harvesting and processing machinery for king grass (Pennisetum sinese Roxb). The effect of stem water content, as well as the major diameter, minor diameter and roundness of stem observation cross section on the strength of the stem was investigated. When the root diameter, sampling height, water content, major diameter, minor diameter, roundness was 20-30 mm, 10-200 cm, 72.53%-90.65%, 15.20-30.40 mm, 13.90-27.65 mm, 1.0144-1.2428, the tensile and shear strength of the internode together with the shear strength of the stem node was from 3.2456 MPa to 28.9373 MPa. Stem water content at the range of 72.53%-90.65% had a significant effect on the above three strength indices (0.005). The effect of root diameter, sampling height, major diameter and roundness on the three strength indices was not significant (0.05). Stem water content was not linearly correlated with root diameter, sampling height, major diameter, minor diameter and roundness. The plants of similar growth period with different root diameter, sampling height, the major diameter and roundness had a almost the same stem strength. The difference of stem strength depended on plant tissue anatomical structure. Stem water content was an important factor that independently affected the stem strength of king grass.

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    Mn Doped Carbon Dots as Nano-mimetic Enzyme for the Colorimetric Detection of Chlorpyrifos
    BAI Qiuyue,YANG Chunliang,LIN Liyun,YE Jianzhi
    2019, 40 (6):  1195-1204.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.023
    Abstract ( 709 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (6689KB) ( 385 )  

    Manganese-doped carbon dots (Mn-CDs) with nano-simulated enzyme catalytic activity were synthesized by citric acid, urea, hydrogen peroxide and manganese carbonate. Mn-CDs catalyze the production of blue ox-TMB by 3,3°,5,5°- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) catalyzes the thiocholine (TCh) produced by the substrate acetylthiocholine (ATCh), and the resulting ox-TMB reduces the blue color of the solution. Organophosphorus pesticide can effectively inhibit the activity of AChE, reduce the production of TCh, and darken the blue of the solution. A visual detection method for organophosphorus pesticide can be constructed according to the depth of the solution color. The work described the surface structure and micromorphology of Mn-CDs. Utilized chlorpyrifos as an analytical model, which is the main species of organophosphorus pesticides. The principle of colorimetric detection of chlorpyrifos was discussed. The conditions for the detection of chlorpyrifos were investigated. The linear range of detection was 0-3.5 μg/mL and the detection limit was 0.013 μg/mL. The detection method was applied to the determination of chlorpyrifos in apple samples, and the recovery rate ranged from 95.2% to 102.8%, indicating that the method is expected to be applied to the highly sensitive determination of organic phosphorus in actual samples.

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    Ecology and Review
    Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure Characteristics of Mango Orchard Soil under Reduced Chemical Fertilizer and Increased Organic Fertilizer Application
    JIN Xiaotuo,MA Jiyong,ZHOU Yanyu,CHEN Lijun,LI Tao,ZHAO Hongwei
    2019, 40 (6):  1205-1212.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.024
    Abstract ( 616 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (815KB) ( 532 )  

    In order to study the effects on bacterial community structure and diversity in mango orchard soils through reducing the amount of fertilizer and increase the use of organic fertilizer, the Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing technique was used to sequence soil bacteria 16S rRNA from two treatments in Ledong, Hainan. The results showed that the contents of organic matter, alkali hydrolysis nitrogen and available phosphorus in mango orchard soil treated by fertilizer reduction and application of organic fertilizer increased by 54.87%, 40.73% and 64.17%, the contents of cadmium and lead decreased by 65.09% and 68.81% respectively, and the contents of mercury and copper increased by 74.19% and 32.21% respectively compared with conventional fertilization. Cluster analysis was performed on the sequences based on 97.00% similarity, and a total of 2702 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the mango orchard soils with two treatments. Among them, there were an average of 1784 OTUs in the soil treated with fertilizer reduction and 1568 OTUs in the soil treated with conventional fertilization. The fertilization method of decreasing the amount of fertilizer and applying organic fertilizer can significantly improve soil quality, increase the richness and diversity of soil bacteria in mango orchard soil, and change the community structure of soil bacteria to some extent. The change of fertilization method had a great influence on the distribution of soil bacteria. There were significant changes in the structure of soil bacterial community under the two fertilization methods, but the main bacterial species in the soil did not change, and the structure of soil bacterial community still maintained certain similarity. The results of correlation analysis showed that the soil bacterial community was mainly affected by the content of organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and copper.

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    Soil Nutrients and Biological Characteristics in Eucalyptus Plantations of Different Planting Ages at North Guangxi
    DUAN Chunyan,HE Chengxin,XU Guangping,HUANG Yuqing,LUO Yajin,TENG Qiumei,ZHANG Denan,ZHOU Longwu
    2019, 40 (6):  1213-1222.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.025
    Abstract ( 558 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (911KB) ( 339 )  

    By the methods of the spatial-temporal substitution method, we studied the change characteristics and correlations of soil nutrient, microbial biomass and enzyme activity at four soil depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm) of Eucalyptus plantations with different ages (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 a) in the hilly areas of north Guangxi. The soil nutrient decreased with the increase of soil depth. Contents of soil organic carbon and available nitrogen increased with the increase of age of forest. In contrast, total phosphorus showed a decreasing trend, total potassium and available potassium increased after an initial decrease. There was no obvious rule of total nitrogen and available phosphorus. The soil pH values decreased with the increasing of stand ages, and increased with the increase of soil depth. The effects of stand ages on soil microbial quantity and microbial biomass were evident, which decreased with the increasing of soil depth. Bacteria accounted for most percentage parts in the sum of microbial population, followed by actinomycetes and fungi. Bacteria, fungi, microbial biomass nitrogen and microbial biomass phosphorus all appeared to have a ascent trend after an initial decline with the increase of stand ages, actinomycetes showed a tendency of decrease, microbial biomass carbon increased gradually, respectively. Soil enzyme activity all decreased with the increase of soil depth, increased with the increase of forest age. The effects of stand ages on soil biological characteristic were evident, and details about peaks differed. The microbial quantity, microbial biomass and soil enzyme had a significant relationship with soil nutrient, which could be used as the good biological indicators to evaluate soil quality and represent the change trend of soil fertility level to some extent.

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    Response to Biogas Liquid of Rubber Wastewater in Seed Germination of Cabbage Under Oxytetracycline Stress
    FU Yue,ZHAO Yuanyuan,YU Huamei,YAN Congcong,MA Ruiyang,SU Fan,GE Chengjun
    2019, 40 (6):  1223-1229.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.026
    Abstract ( 640 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (666KB) ( 339 )  

    In order to understand the effects of exogenous DOM on the biological effects of antibiotic contamination, the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the germination of Chinese cabbage seeds were studied by two methods: hydroponics and soil cultivation. The effects of oxytetracycline on germination rate, elongation of cabbage after exogenous DOM input were discussed also. DOM promoted seed germination in hydroponics and inhibited seed germination in soil culture. Oxytetracycline had no significant effect on seed germination rate under 0-50 mg/L and 0-100 mg/kg of soil cultivation. In hydroponics the concentration of exogenous oxytetracycline was positively correlated with the inhibition rate of radicle and bud length of cabbage, while in soil cultivation, the concentration of exogenous oxytetracycline was negatively correlated with the inhibition rate of radicle and bud length of cabbage. Compared with the control group, DOM could promote the radicle and bud elongation of cabbage in hydroponics and soil cultivation, with the highest promotion rate of 55.05% and 27.46%. The inhibitory effect of oxytetracycline and DOM on the elongation of cabbage was more obvious under hydroponics. Under soil cultivation, when oxytetracycline co-existed with DOM, low concentration of DOM promoted radicle elongation of cabbage, and the promotion effect decreased with the increase of concentration.

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    Some Newly Recorded Vascular Plants in Xisha Islands, China(I)
    WANG Qinglong,TANG Huan,WANG Zhunian,YANG Qing,LI Yingying
    2019, 40 (6):  1230-1236.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.027
    Abstract ( 713 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (440KB) ( 480 )  

    The plant resources from ten islands of Xisha Islands (including Woody Island, Rocky Island, Tree Island, West Sand, South Sand, Middle Sand, North Sand, North Island, Middle Island and South Island) were surveyed in May and June in 2018. Through field survey, specimen collection and identification and literature consultion, a total of 406 vascular plants belonging to 90 families of Xisha Islands were recorded. 52 wild vascular plants, 10 newly naturalized plants and 87 cultivated plants belonging to 130 genera in 59 families were unrecorded. The voucher specimens are deposited in the herbarium of Chinese academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (ATCH). Before this investigation, 398 vascular plants were recorded in Xisha Islands. On the basis of this investigation, in combination with related literature and plant specimen statistics, there are 543 vascular plants belonging to 352 genera and 101 families on Xisha Islands. Among them, there are 292 wild plants and 251 cultivated plants. This study would provide important information for the plant resources of Xisha Islands.

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    Recent Advances in Biological Control and Invasion Risk of Spodoptera frugiperda
    LU Hui,TANG Jihong,LYU Baoqian,MA Zilong,HE Xing,CHEN Qi,SU Hao
    2019, 40 (6):  1237-1244.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.028
    Abstract ( 1207 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (774KB) ( 689 )  

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), natived in Central America,is an important agricultural pest. S. frugiperda had invaded in the end of 2018, and it was first found in Haikou on 30 th April, 2019. The survey showed S. frugiperda was established in 18 countries in Hainan. Based on information about biology, ecology and the distribution of S. frugiperda, this paper reviews the status of research and utilization both inside and outside China of natural enemies such as wasps, nematode pathogenic fungi, Entomopathogenic virus, and pheromone trap in controlling S. frugiperda. Meanwhile, the potential geographic distribution for S. frugiperda was analyzed by using an ecological niche model (Maxent) and ArcGIS. The forecasted results indicated that S. frugiperda were very suitable for the survival in huge area in south of the Yangtze River and Central China and The potential threat of S. frugiperda is able to survive year around in Hainan where could be the origin of the pest in China. In addition, Hainan is national south breeding base and the occurrence of S. frugiperda threatens the safety of seed industry. Therefore, it is urgent to strengthen the monitoring and prevention of the pest.

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    Research Progress on Manganese Transporters in Plants
    ZHAO Qiufang,MA Haiyang,JIA Liqiang,CHEN Shu,JIN Hui
    2019, 40 (6):  1245-1252.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.06.029
    Abstract ( 632 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (2369KB) ( 506 )  

    Mn is an essential nutrient which is needed for a variety of life processes in plants, including photosynthesis, respiration, protein synthesis and hormone activation. Mn deficiency or Mn toxicity could affect plant growth and yield. However, relatively little is known about manganese uptake and mobilization in plants. Several transporter protein families have been implicated in Mn uptake and mobilization in plants. These transporter families include NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), ZIP (zinc regulated transporter/iron- regulated transporter [ZRT/IRT1]-related protein), CDF/MTP (cation diffusion facilitator/metal toleranceprotein), CAX (cation exchanger), CCX (calcium cation exchangers), P-type ATPases and VIT (vacuolar iron transporter). This mini review summarized the recent progresses in researchers on these proteins and their roles in the uptake, mobilization, homeostasis of Mn in plants, particularly in the model plants of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. Prospects on the researches were also discussed.

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