Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops
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    25 February 2019, Volume 40 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Crop Culture and Nutrition, Genetic Breeding
    Intercropping Performance of Five New Yam Varieties in Young Rubber Plantation in Hainan
    WU Lin,PENG Lixu,LIU Beibei,PAN Pan,CHEN Xin,LI Qinfen
    2019, 40 (2):  209-214.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.001
    Abstract ( 731 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (579KB) ( 741 )  

    In order to solve the problems of quality degradation, single variety, not produced annually of yam production in tropical areas of Hainan, five yam varieties of ‘Guihuai No.2’, ‘Guihuai No.5’, ‘Guihuai No.6’, ‘Guihuai No.7’ and ‘Heimeiren’ were intercropped with rubber to test the botanical traits in Hainan, and the tuber yield after harvest and commodity rate were assayed using the random group test method. The results showed that there was no difference in botanical traits among the five varieties as they were planted in Guangxi. Among them, the yield of ‘Heimeiren’ was the highest (54.6 t/hm 2), followed by ‘Guihuai No.7’, and the yield of ‘Guihuai No.5’ was the lowest, the growth cycle of ‘Heimeiren’ was the shortest and it was ripened the earliest, and the growth cycle of ‘Guihuai No.2’ was the longest and it was ripened the latest. ‘Guihuai No.2’ could be popularized as late ripening varieties, ‘Guanghuai No.5’ and ‘Guihuai No.6’ as middle late ripening varieties, ‘Heimeiren’ and ‘Guihuai No.7’ as early ripening varieties for fresh-eating food.

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    Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Coffee under Different Nitrogen Level
    SUN Yan,DONG Yunping,LONG Yuzhou,LIN Xingjun,YAN Lin,HUANG Lifang,WANG Xiaoyang
    2019, 40 (2):  215-220.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.002
    Abstract ( 586 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (576KB) ( 421 )  

    In this paper, effects of different nitrogen level on growth and photosynthetic characteristics in 24-2 coffee were studied. Our results showed that compared with CK, the application of nitrogen significantly increased the morphological indices such as plant height and crown breadth, the yield components such as 1000-grain weight, the numbers of trunk branch and fruit grain, the photosynthetic parameters such as net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr). With the increase of nitrogen level, the data of above parameters showed an increasing trend. The coffee yield was positively correlated with the number of trunk branch, Pn, Gs and Tr, which were improved with the application of nitrogen. In summary, the nitrogen application during the peak period of dry matter accumulation in coffee was an effective measure to ensure higher photosynthetic capacity and yield, and N760 was the best application.

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    Effects of Waterlogging Stress on Phenotype of Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.)
    SONG Zhao,YU Chaoran,ZHANG Baige,CAO Jian,XU Xiaowan,LI Ying,HE Yuzhi
    2019, 40 (2):  221-231.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.003
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (737KB) ( 465 )  

    The effect of waterlogging stress on the phenotypic plasticity and healthy index of 20 Capsicum cultivars grouped into 4 types was studied using the transit box above the tray as a model to simulate waterlogging stress. The results showed that waterlogging stress seriously inhibited the longitudinal elongation of pepper roots and plants, but the short-term waterlogging stress would promote the relative distribution of the assimilate products to the roots. By analyzing the relationship between each individual index and waterlogging tolerance, combined with the observation, we think that the waterlogging resistance coefficient (WTC) of root and healthy index can be used as the quantitative evaluation index of waterlogging tolerance of Capsicum varieties. However, waterlogging tolerance of pepper is a complex and comprehensive trait, which should be comprehensively evaluated according to each trait index. It is unilateral to evaluate with any one single index.

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    Effects of Different Raw Material Organic Fertilizers on Soil Fertility and Wax Gourd Yield
    WEI Zenghui,PAN Yunzhou,WANG Yuyang,WU Zhipeng,ZHU Zhiqiang,WU Weidong
    2019, 40 (2):  232-237.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.004
    Abstract ( 684 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (506KB) ( 449 )  

    In this study we analyzed the nutrient contents of four commercial organic fertilizers: Mingyue seaweed (CH01), Haiteng chicken manures (HK05), Rongda soybean meal (BT03) and Botai shrimp peptides (CJ01), and investigated the effect of commercial organic fertilizers to soil fertility and wax gourd yield. The results showed that the commercial organic fertilizers with the highest organic matter and nitrogen content were seaweed and soybean meal. And chicken manures had the highest phosphorus and potassium content. After 360 days of soil incubation experiments, seaweed had the best effect on enhancing organic matter content in the studied soil; soybean meal had the best increasing of total nitrogen and available nitrogen; chicken manures had the best enhancing of available phosphorus, while chicken manures and shrimp peptides had the best increasing of available potassium. Chicken manure and seaweed were the most effective organic fertilizers for the enhancement of soil pH and CEC, respectively. Results of field experiment showed that soybean meal, seaweed and chicken manures had the best improvement of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen, CEC and pH, respectively, which was consistent with the results of soil incubation. However, there was no significant difference in nutrient content, pH and CEC of soil between different treatments. The application of shrimp peptides could significantly increase the yield of wax gourd, but there was no significant difference between the studied treatments and the control treatment. The ability of organic fertilizer with different raw materials to cultivate soil was affected by the basic physical and chemical properties of organic fertilizer. The effect of increasing yield related to level of organic fertilizer potassium. The application of shrimp peptides can significantly increase the yield of wax gourd. Short-term experiment cannot reflect the effect of commercial organic fertilizer for soil fertility property.

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    Chemical Mutagenesis for the Cuttings of Bougainvillea glabra ‘Mrs. Eva’ and B. × buttiana ‘Miss Manila’
    CHANG Shengxin,HUANG Surong,XU Shisong,YANG Guangsui
    2019, 40 (2):  238-246.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.005
    Abstract ( 1589 )   HTML ( 6635 )   PDF (4318KB) ( 1041 )  

    Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss is an important ornamental plant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of China. Because the sexual reproduction of Bougainvillea is difficult, mutation breeding is an available breeding method. The present study used ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), sodium azide (NaN3) and pingyangmycin (PYM) to mutagenize the cuttings of B. glabra ‘Mrs. Eva’ and B. × buttiana ‘Miss Manila’, respectively. In 20 h EMS treatments, the half lethal dose of ‘Mrs. Eva’ and ‘Miss Manila’ cuttings was 0.22% and 0.62%, respectively. With the increasing of EMS concentration, the shoot number and length of the longest branch of two Bougainvillea varieties showed a decreasing trend, while the chlorophyll and carotenoid content increased gradually. With the increasing of EMS concentration, the leaf hue of ‘Mrs. Eva’ changed to grayish tone and that of ‘Miss Manila’ changed to red tone gradually. Almost all ‘Mrs. Eva’ cuttings died in 20 h NaN3 treatments, while the survival rate of ‘Miss Manila’ cuttings was 82%-92%. With the increasing of NaN3 concentration, the shoot number of ‘Miss Manila’ decreased significantly. 20 h PYM treatments significantly improved the length of the longest branch of two Bougainvillea varieties in contrast to the control, but had no significant influence on the survival rate. Moreover, variant seedlings were found in EMS and PYM treatments, representing transformative leaf margin, wrinkled leaf surface or double leaf tips.

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    Phytophysiology and Biochemistry
    Effect of Endogenous H2O2 on the Germination of Rice Seeds
    XIAO Yu,FENG Hongyu,CHEN Huiping
    2019, 40 (2):  247-253.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.006
    Abstract ( 788 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (953KB) ( 677 )  

    To explore the effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the growth of radicle and plumule, and the apical vitality in the radicle during germination, rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were cultured with different concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) synthase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or H2O2 scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU). The results showed that the growth of radicle and plumule in the rice seeds cultured with both DMTU and DPI was inhibited, especially that with DPI. Higher concentration of DPI or DMTU resulted in stronger inhibitory effect on rice seed germination. The inhibitory effect of DPI on rice seed germination was more obvious than that of DMTU. In addition, the contents of superoxide anion (O 2-) and H2O2 decreased in the apical of radicle with the increase of DMTU concentration, and the number of damage cell increased. Therefore, It suggested that endogenous H2O2 may be involved in regulating the germination of rice seeds.

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    Photosynthetic and Carbon Sequestration Characteristics of Michelia shiluensis Chun et Y. F. Wu
    ZHANG Peng,XU Yilin,XI Ruchun
    2019, 40 (2):  254-260.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.007
    Abstract ( 626 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (761KB) ( 399 )  

    In this study, two-year-old Michelia shiluensis grafting seedlings were studied. In order to evaluate the adaptation and its ecological effect of M. shiluensis, a LI-6400 portable photosynthetic system was used to measure the photosynthetic characteristics and estimate their carbon sequestration. The results showed that the variations of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in M. shiluensis did not present a single bimodal in four seasons of a year. The change curve of January, April and July was bimodal, but that in October is unimodal. In different months, Pn changed from the largest to the smallest in the following order: October, July, April and January. M. shiluensis grew fastest in October. There was a higher photosynthetic rate in autumn with lower atmospheric temperature and weaker light intensity. The light compensation point was low and light saturation point was high, indicating that M. shiluensis could be adapted to different lighting environments. The annual average daily net solid carbon content was 10.07 g/(m 2·d), with strong carbon sequestration ability. The results indicate that M. shiluensis can be adapted to both the strong and weak lighting. Under hot weather conditions in South China, it also has the adaptive self-regulation mechanism of “siesta”, and had strong carbon sink ability, with good landscape efficiency and excellent ecological benefits, and it is suitable for planting in southern China.

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    Determination of Coniferin and Syringin in Protocorms of Dendrobium officinale under Diurnal Temperature Difference
    WANG Congqiao,WANG Peiyu,GUO Yanfang,LU Yao,PENG Liyun,CHEN Qingqing,LIN Yuling,LAI Zhongxiong
    2019, 40 (2):  261-268.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.008
    Abstract ( 631 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (581KB) ( 397 )  

    To understand the effects of temperature difference between day and night on the contents of coniferin and syringin in the protocorm of Dendrobium officinale, which would provide a the research basis for the development of protocorm of D. officinale as a medicinal material in large scale production. The fast method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) for the analysis of coniferin and syringin, the chromatographic separation was carried on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) in gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetic acid aqueous solution (1%, w/w) (A) and methanol (C). The extraction method of an orthogonal test was designed, and the results showed that the sample extracted with pure water, extraction ratio 1:40, and the extraction time 1 h (vibrate every half an hour) had the highest extraction rate of the two substances. The proposed method was applied to the determination of four samples of D. officinale protocorm in temperature difference treatment. The results showed that the whole change of syringin and coniferin tended to be gental at 0 ℃. The contents of coniferin and syringin increased in the 10 d treatment with temperature difference 8 ℃ between day and night, and they were obviously superior to those of other treatments. The content of the two substances reached the highest on the 15 d treatment with temperature difference 4 ℃ between day and night. The contents of the two substances in the temperature difference 12 ℃ treatment were higher in the early stage than that in the control treatment, and were lower in the latter stage than that in the control treatment, and were also lower than that in the temperature difference 8 ℃ and 4 ℃ treatment. Moderate temperature difference appears to promote the effect, while big temperature difference lowers the effect.

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    Exogenous Trehalose Modulating the Tolerance of Osmotic Stress in Watermelon Cells
    SUN Mengli,WANG Shihao,XU Zijian,JIANG Xuefei,SUN Huapeng,QIAO Fei,CONG Hanqing,YU Ping
    2019, 40 (2):  269-274.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.009
    Abstract ( 601 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (848KB) ( 432 )  

    In order to explore the effect of exogenous trehalose on watermelon cells under osmotic stress, watermelon suspension culture cells were used as the materials in this study. The changes of cell growth, extracellular pH, intracellular ROS content, and microtubule skeletons under mannitol stress in presence of exogenous trehalose were measured. The results showed that osmotic stress could inhibit cell growth, induce extracellular alkalization, ROS bursting, and counteract the depolymerization of microtubular cytoskeleton. However, exogenous trehalose could alleviate the inhibitory effect on cell growth caused by osmotic stress, suppress the expression of extracellular alkalization and ROS, and maintain the integrity of the microtubular cytoskeleton. The above results indicated that trehalose had protective effects on watermelon cell growth by maintaining subcellular structure and tuning stress related signals against osmotic stress.

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    Effects of Physical and Chemical Factors on Anthocyanin Stability of Prunus salicina Lindl.
    ZHOU Danrong,LIN Yanjuan,FANG Zhizhen,JIANG Cuicui,PAN Shaolin,YE Xinfu
    2019, 40 (2):  275-280.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.010
    Abstract ( 624 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (655KB) ( 394 )  

    Furongli (Prunus salicina Lindl.) is an excellent plum variety with hundreds of years of cultivation history, it could be used for both fresh food and processing, and it has large planting area in south China. In this test, Furongli was used as the material to study the effects of temperature, pH, light, metal ions and oxidants on the anthocyanin stability. The results suggested that the anthocyanin was comparatively stable under 60 ℃ within 2 h, and showed a relative stability under acidic condition. The results also showed that the effect of pH was significantly observed. In addition, light could accelerate the degradation of anthocyanin. The metal ions, such as K + and Fe 3+ could increase the stability of anthocyanin while Al 3+ decline that. Furthermore, the anthocyanin of the plum showed a poor oxidation and reduction resistance.

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    Biotechnology and Tissue Culture
    Gene Cloning and Expression Analysis of the COP9 Signalosome Members in Laticifer Cells of Rubber Tree
    WU Shaohua,ZHANG Shixin,DENG Xiaomin,CHEN Yueyi,TIAN Weimin
    2019, 40 (2):  281-288.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.011
    Abstract ( 639 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (656KB) ( 407 )  

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionarily conservative protein complex and plays a crucial role in jasmonate (JA) signaling. The laticifer in rubber tree is specific for rubber biosynthesis. Although it is suggested that rubber biosynthesis in laticifer may be regulated by JA signaling, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of the JA signaling in rubber biosynthesis. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of eight CSN genes (designated as HbCSN1 to HbCSN8) which were respectively related to the eight CSN genes in Arabidopsis were cloned from the laticifer of rubber trees. The differentially expressed pattern of the eight CSN genes among bark tissues, leaves at the different development stages, latex, male and female flowers was revealed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The result showed that the eight HbCSNs were differentially expressed in all the tested tissues. Of which, HbCSN5 was the most abundance in latex, and the other HbCSNs were mainly expressed in the leaf. Additionally, most of the eight CSN genes in laticifer were up-regulated by tapping and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The differentially responsive CSN members indicated that the COP9 signalosome may be involved in the JA signalings of latex in rubber trees.

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    Bioinformatics Analysis of bHLH Transcription Factor Family in Mango (Mangifera indica Linn.)
    ZHENG Bin,WEN Dingqing,WU Hongxia,ZOU Minghong,LIU Heng,WANG Songbiao,ZHAO Qiaoli
    2019, 40 (2):  289-299.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.012
    Abstract ( 695 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (10262KB) ( 203 )  

    As one of the large transcription factor families, bHLH gene family plays an important role in the regulation of growth and development in eukaryotes. Based on the results of transcriptome sequencing of fruits in mango, a total of 87 bHLH family proteins were identified with bioinformatics approaches, in which acid proteins accounted for a large proportion and most of them were unstable proteins. All of those proteins were hydrophilic proteins without signal-peptide. Except CL10714.Contig1, all of them had transmembrane region. Multiple amino acids were highly conserved within the bHLH domains of mango bHLH proteins, and 73 of 87 (83.91%) mango bHLH proteins had E-box binding activity. In addition, GO (gene ontology) analysis showed that the bHLH proteins of mango were annotated into 17 subclasses of biological processes, cellular components and molecular function. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that mango bHLH proteins were highly conserved with Arabidopsis, and the function of some bHLH proteins were predicted. These results would lay a foundation for the further functional analysis of mango bHLH proteins.

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    Genetic Diversity of Coffee Germplasms by ISSR Markers
    YAN Lin,HUANG Lifang,WANG Xiaoyang,ZHOU Hua,CHENG Jinhuan,LI Jinhong,LONG Yuzhou,DONG Yunping
    2019, 40 (2):  300-307.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.013
    Abstract ( 784 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (798KB) ( 535 )  

    To assess the genetic diversity and the relationship of coffee germplasm accessions, 87 resources were analyzed by ISSR molecular marker technology. The results demonstrated that 140 bands were amjplified by 19 primers, among which 107 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 76.4%. Based on a clustering graph using UPGMA, 87 resources could be divided into three groups at the level of 0.625. Three accessions in C. liberica were in the first group. One accessions in C. canephora was in the second group. A total of 83 accessions in C. arabica were in the third group. There were large genetic differences among species (C. arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica), and the small genetic differences within Coffea arabica. These results would provide an important scientific basis for pineapple germplasm identification, classification and molecular breeding of coffee. The ISSR markers was an available method to study the genetic diversity of coffee germplasm resources.

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    Cloning and Overexpression Vector Construction of Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Gene of Mangifera indica L.
    BAI Beibei,JING Yonglin,CAI Bingyu,LAN Li,WANG Jia,ZHAO Zhichang
    2019, 40 (2):  308-313.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.014
    Abstract ( 595 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1347KB) ( 404 )  

    The hydrolysis of pyrophosphoric acid (PPi) is catalyzed by inorganic pyrophosphate phosphatase (PPase) into two inorganic orthophosphoric acid (Pi),which is one of the key regulatory nodes in the sucrose synthesis pathway. According to the reported sequence of PPase gene, primers were designed in this study. PPase gene was cloned in the fruit of Guifei mango using the methods of 3′ Race and 5′ Race, and named MiPPase. Its full-length of the cDNA sequence was 1014 bp and the open reading frame was 837 bp. It encoded 278 amino acids with molecular weight of 30.85 ku and its isoelectric point was 4.68. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the protein encoded by the PPase gene was closely related to Nicotiana tabacum. In order to investigate the role of MiPPase gene in sucrose metabolism, the pGreenII 62-SK-MiPPase gene overexpression vector was successfully constructed, which would provide a theoretical basis for the further study of the mechanism of MiPPase gene on the sucrose synthesis in mango fruit.

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    Establishment of New Protocorm-like Bodies System of Anoectochilus roxburghii by ‘Double Two-steps’ Method
    JIAO Zhan,AN Shengjun,SHAO Tiemei
    2019, 40 (2):  314-322.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.015
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (820KB) ( 392 )  

    In this study, the stem sections of Anoectochilus roxburghii in vitro were used as the material, and the method of ‘double two-step’ was discussed. The ‘two-step-induction’ had the etiolation stem sections induced by dark culture and the protocorm-like bodies induced by etiolation stem sections, and the ‘two-step-proliferation’ had the new PLBs cultured on induction medium for 3 weeks and proliferative culture program optimized by the orthogonal experimental design of L16(4 5). The effects of source and treatment method of explants, dark culture time, medium and additional elements on induction of PLBs, and the effects of culture time, light intensity, and UV irradiation time on proliferation culture were studied. The results showed that, medium which was suitable for the etiolation stem sections to induce PLBs was MS +2.5 mg/L 6-BA +0.2 mg/L NAA +1.0 mg/L S3307. The best explant was the etiolation stem sections from leaf axil in dark culture, and most suitable treat method was the whole stem sections horizontally onto the medium. Three weeks dark treatment could improve the induction frequency of PLBs from the tiolation stem sections significantly. The order of effects of the five factors was NH4 +/NO3 ->concentration of NAA>concentration of 6-BA> concentration of S3307>concentration of sucrose. The optional experimental conditions were MS+0.5 mg/L S3307+4.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.4 mg/L NAA+ NH4 +/NO3 -(15 mmol∶45 mmol)+ 40 g/L sucrose, which could get the proliferation fresh weight 246.90 g/L. The optimal proliferation culturing time was 6 weeks. Light intensity 500 lx, and UV irradiation 253.7 nm for 6 h per day for 6 weeks were suitable for PLBs proliferation and accumulation of total flavonoids. New protocorm-like bodies system of A. roxburghii was established by the ‘double two-step’ method. The inducing rate, amplification of initial materials, and proliferation multiple of the method were higher than the index of the traditional single step method. 92% of the PLBs could keep the state of steady proliferation, and not to differentiate nor to formate callus.

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    Plant Pathology, Crop Pests, Diseases and Their Control
    Spatial Distribution Pattern and Sampling of Thrips on Mango Trees
    HAN Dongyin,LI Lei,NIU Liming,CHEN Junyu,ZHANG Fangping,Ding Shanfeng,FU Yueguan
    2019, 40 (2):  323-327.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.016
    Abstract ( 533 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (529KB) ( 371 )  

    To clarify the spatial distribution pattern of thrips on mango trees and to establish the sampling techniques and methods in monitoring and controlling mango thrips, the number of thrips were investigated on the canopies of mango trees in the periods of current-shoot growth and blooming. The results showed that the damage degree of thirps were different in different orchards and areas. All of canopies could be damaged by thrips. The mid-layer and underlayer flower clusters in blooming stage and mid-layer and up-layer leaves could be sampled to reflect the damage conditions of mango trees. The spatial distribution of mango thrips was affected by its population density. The uniform and aggregation distributions existed in the low and high population density of mango thrips, respectively. Hereinto, the aggregation degree of mango thrips rose with the increase of the population densities, and the thrips individuals could attract each other. According to aggregation mean analysis, the habit of mango thrips and environment conditions could cause the aggregations. In addition, the sampling models of mango thrips were established in current-shoot growth and blooming of mango trees, which are N =(8.8543/m +0.2098)t 2/D 2and N = (1.8462/m +0.1513)t 2/D 2, respectively.

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    Taxis Responses of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) to Different Fruit Flavors
    LI Lei,NIU Liming,HAN Dongyin,CHEN Junyu,ZHANG Fangping,FU Yueguan
    2019, 40 (2):  328-333.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.017
    Abstract ( 715 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (629KB) ( 368 )  

    In this study, we selected eight kinds of fruit flavors relating to Zeugodacus cucurbitae hobby hosts and non-host fruits (but they have strong attraction effect on Z. cucurbitae), and examined the taxis responses of Z. cucurbitae to these flavors. The results showed that Z. cucurbitae had different responses to the eight different flavors. The indoor and outdoor experiments indicated that Z. cucurbitae preferred selecting the durian flavor and pumpkin flavor. The number of male and female Z. cucurbitae trapped by the two flavors were not significantly different. According to the test of Y-tube olfactometer, Z. cucurbitae preferred 10% (w/V) of durian and pumpkin flavors. Based on the results, 10% (w/V) of durian and pumpkin flavors could be used to monitor and trap Z. cucurbitae.

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    Identification and Biological Characteristics of the Pathogen Causing Stem Rot on Casuarina equisetifolia
    WU Ruhui,LI Zengping,CHEN Lilang
    2019, 40 (2):  334-340.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.018
    Abstract ( 712 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (12784KB) ( 224 )  

    Based on pathogenicity determination, identification of morphological characteristics and rDNA-ITS sequence analysis, the pathogen causing stem rot of C. equisetifolia was identified as Amauroderma subresinosum (Murrill) Corner. Tests on biological characteristics showed that the optimum growth conditions were 32 ℃, pH 6.0, continuous darkness, sucrose as carbon source, soya peptone as nitrogen source.

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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Stress-induced-Phosphoprotein 1 (FoSTIP1) in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4
    QI Xingzhu,WANG Jun,LIU Lei
    2019, 40 (2):  341-347.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.019
    Abstract ( 548 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (10251KB) ( 197 )  

    In this study, a putative target gene of FoSkn7, a transcription factor in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (Foc4) was cloned. The result showed that the ORF sequence was 1737 nt and encoded a protein containing 578 amino acids. Domain and phylogenetic analysis showed that the protein contained a STI1 domain and several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains. The protein had the highest similarity with the stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 4287, indicating that the protein was STIP1 in Foc4 and named FoSTIP1. To analyze the expression of FoSTIP1 in Foc4 during invasion of the roots of banana seedling sorbeing induced by H2O2, the real time RT-PCR was performed. The results showed that the expression of FoSTIP1 was significantly up-regulated under these two conditions. The different expression of FoSTIP1 between wild-type B2 strain and FoSKN7 deletion mutant were also analyzed by the real time RT-PCR after being induced by H2O2. The result showed that the expression of FoSTIP1 in FoSKN7 deletion mutant was much lower than that of FoSTIP1 in B2 strain, even it was induced by H2O2. The results suggested that the putative target gene of FoSkn7 may be involved in the process of Foc4 resistance to exogenous oxidative stress.

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    Agricultural Product Processing, Preservation, Storage, Analysis and Detection
    Optimization of Flavor Components of Vanilla Concentrate by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction-GC Mass Spectrometry Analysis
    XU Fei,LI Eyan,CHU Zhong,ZHANG Yanjun,ZHU Kexue,QU Peng
    2019, 40 (2):  348-358.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.020
    Abstract ( 539 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (454KB) ( 388 )  

    In order to select suitable extraction conditions of vanilla concentrate, the influence of each extraction condition (extraction sample quantity, extraction temperature and extraction time) on flavor composition, area and content of vanilla concentrate was analyzed using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were extracting samples of 2.0 g, extractive temperature of 80 ℃, time of 25 min in the experimental range. Under the best conditions, 45 compounds were identified with a matching degree of more than 90 the total compound area (×10 11)and the largest area of vanillin (×10 10) was 1.04±0.09, 6.99±0.46, repectively. The percentage of compounds in the main compounds was 90.24% with a matching degree of more than 90. The aldehydes content in the main compounds also reached 72.03% in vanilla.

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    Construction of Microemulsion System of Macadamia Oil
    TU Xinghao,ZHANG Shuaizhong,TANG Jinghua,DU Liqing,SHUAI Xixiang,ZHANG Ming
    2019, 40 (2):  359-367.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.021
    Abstract ( 649 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1822KB) ( 495 )  

    In order to expand the application area of macadamia oil, the construction of macadamia oil microemulsion system was researched. The microemulsion area was used as the evaluation index when types and dosages of surfactants and cosurfactants and preparation temperature were optimized by the pseudoternary phase diagrams method combined with single factor experiments and the Box-Behnken experiment. In order to evaluate its stability, the particle sizes of two microemulsion formulations near the center of two dilution lines in the O/W microemulsion center region were measured. The results showed that the better formula for macadamia oil microemulsion were obtained as follows: 2.5 mass ratio of Tween 60 to PEG-40 acted as a mixed surfactants, 3.5 mass ratio of PEG 400 to macadamia oil acted as a mixed oil phase, preparation temperature 60 ℃. Microemulsion with large area, colorless, transparent and infinite dilution could be prepared, the SME was 13.61%. In the process of long-term storage and mass dilution, little change was observed in the particle size of microemulsion and thus showed better stability.

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    Analysis and Evaluation of Nutritional Components of Pouteria campechiana Seeds
    MA Jinshuang,SHENG Ming’an,WANG Linxiang,LIU Hong
    2019, 40 (2):  368-372.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.022
    Abstract ( 754 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (440KB) ( 514 )  

    The nutritional and volatile oil components of Pouteria campechiana seeds were analyzed and the inhibitory effect of volatile oil on five kinds of bacteria was studied to further develop and utilize its potential value. Results showed that the contents of starch, polysaccharide, crude fat, polyphenol and ash were high, which was 13.89, 8.04, 6.27, 2.58 and 2.22 g/100 g, respectively. The contents of other components such as Vc, flavone, crude protein and amino acid was 0.002, 1.90, 1.12, 2.295 g/100 g, respectively. Twenty-two compounds were identified in the volatile oils of seeds, and the main components were oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate , erucylamide, which was 10.466%, 8.158%, 6.643% and 4.216%, respectively. The results also confirmed that the seed volatile oils had a good inhibitory effect on Micrococcus tetragenus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus albus and Escherichia coli, especially had a strong inhibitory effect on M. tetragenus, B. cereus. The rich nutritional and medicinal value of the seeds of P. campechiana cuold be developed.

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    Effects of UV-C Treatment on the Storage Quality of Sweet Potatoes
    CHEN Xi,DENG Jiliang,CHEN Ridong,ZHOU Qiliang,ZHU Guopeng,ZHU Zhixin
    2019, 40 (2):  373-379.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.023
    Abstract ( 589 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (862KB) ( 572 )  

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of UV-C irradiation on the storage quality of fresh sweet potato tubers. The tubers of Gaoxi 14 sweet potatoes from Qiaotou area of Hainan were treated by UV-C irradiation of 10 min, 20 min and 30 min respectively. The decay rate, weight loss rate, germination rate and 5 physiological indexes were inspected in the 60 days afterwards. The results showed that: compared with the control, UV-C treatment significantly reduced the decay rate of sweet potatoes during storage, but promoted the germination rate and had no significant effect on the weight loss rate. For the 5 physiological indexes, UV-C irradiation of 30 min promoted the accumulation of soluble protein, reduced the loss of soluble solids, and slightly promoted the enzyme activity of POD, SOD and CAT. Generally, if UV-C treatment were to be applied to sweet potato storage and preservation, additional bud suppression measures should also be used.

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    Study on Volatile Components of Croton crassifolius Leaf by HS- SPME-GC-MS
    ZHOU Xianglu,LYU Zhencheng,XU Liangxiong,PENG Yonghong
    2019, 40 (2):  380-387.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.024
    Abstract ( 858 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (709KB) ( 562 )  

    The work was carried out to analyze the volatile components of Croton crassifolius Geisel. leaf by HS-SPME-GC-MS method. Based on the optimization for HS-SPME conditions, fifty-four compounds were identified by GC-MS and their relative contents were also calculated by area normalization method. It was found that the main volatile components of Croton crassifolius Geisel. leaf were (E)-2-Hexenal (38.62%), Linalool (11.96%) and Caryophyllene (11.10%), trans-Nerolidol (6.78%) and β-Elemene (3.67%), etc. Among these components, aldehyde, terpene and alcohol compounds accounted for 40.37%, 36.03%, and 21.90%, respectively, as well as small quantities of ester and ketone constituents.

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    Chemical Components and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Melaleuca leucadendron
    XIAO Yu,FENG Hongyu,CHEN Huiping
    2019, 40 (2):  388-395.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.025
    Abstract ( 640 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (647KB) ( 585 )  

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of M. leucadendron was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the inhibitory activity of the oils on four plant pathogenic fungi was determined by the mycelial growth rate method to provide a theoretical basis for the development of environment-friendly pesticides and the comprehensive application of M. leucadendron. In total, 74 chemical components, accounting for 97.28% of the essential oil, were identified. The main chemical components were (-)-α-Pinene (2.07%), β-Myrcene (1.05%), Eucalyptol (67.29%), g-Terpinene (2.52%), Linalool (2.36%), α-Terpineol (7.93%), (+)-g-Eudesmol (1.26%), etc.. Further research indicated that in the concentration range of 5-10 μL/mL, the inhibition rate of the mycelium growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn was 100%. Two days after treatment, the inhibitory rate of the mycelium growth of Pestalotiopsis microspora (Y2-4),Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra,Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (E.F.Smith) Snyder et Hansen reached over 71.59% with the concentration of the essential oils ranged from 2.5 to 10 μL/mL, and the antifungal activities increased with the increased treatment concentration and time. The essential oils of M. leucadendron had strong antifungal activity against four the plant pathogenic fungi, and had good potential in the application as agricultural antifungal agents.

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    The Effects of Different Fixation Methods on the Quality of Green Tea Harvested by Machines
    YE Fei,GUI Anhui,GONG Ziming,GAO Shiwei,WANG Xueping,ZHENG Pengcheng,TENG Jing,WANG Shengpeng,ZHENG Lin,LIU Panpan
    2019, 40 (2):  396-402.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.026
    Abstract ( 563 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (456KB) ( 403 )  

    The effects of different fixation methods (including microwave, steam-hot air, electric heating roller and and electromagnetic heating roller-hot air fixation methods) on the sensory quality, tea color, main taste and the aroma components of green tea harvested by machines were studied. The electromagnetic heating roller-hot air fixation treatment significantly improved the sensory quality of the green tea. The hue of color (a/b) of the dry tea was obviously improved (p<0.01). The ratio of polyphenols to amino acids was the lowest (p<0.05). The content of simple catechines and complicated catechines decreased (p<0.01). Total catechines, the content of baked and roasted aroma components including safranal, decanal, β-cyclocitronillon, heptaldehyde, 3,7-dimethyl octenal, geranylacetone, β-ionone, 1-penten-2-one, (E)-oct-2-en-1-ol, linalool, trans-nerolidol, methyl pyruvate sulfide, 2-methylfuran, 1-ethylpyrrole were the highest. The electromagnetic heating roller-hot air fixation had the combined advantages of different fixation methods, and could produce green tea with refreshing chestnut aroma taste, which could be used for green tea production harvested by machines.

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    Resources Division and Review
    Investigation and Analysis of Seed Plants in the Campus of Huaqiao University
    YAO Xueying,SONG Linping,GAO Xiaoqin,LIU Jianfu,LONG Ruimin,WANG Qizhi
    2019, 40 (2):  403-409.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.027
    Abstract ( 548 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (692KB) ( 398 )  

    The seed plants in the campus of Huaqiao University were statistically investigated to provide a theoretical basis of campus botany teaching and afforestation, and to enrich the research content of urban green space planning. There were 568 kinds of seed plants, belonging to 118 families and 375 genera, including 9 families, 15 genera and 21 species of gymnosperm and 109 families, 360 genera, 547 species of angiosperm. There were 102 families, 300 genera and 398 species of indigenous plants, 73 plants, 128 genera and 170 species of exotic plants. The seed plants were mainly native species, supplemented by exotic plants, which not only have ornamental characteristics but also medicinal value. Trees and herbs dominated. The dominant family and genus were not obvious. There were 101 families in monotypic and oligotaxic families, accounting for 85.60% of the total number of families, and 366 species in monotypic and oligotaxic genera, accounting for 97.50% of the total number of genera. Monotypic and oligotaxic families, monotypic and oligotaxic genera occupied a large proportion. Seed plants were diverse in geographical composition, mainly in tropical distribution. The total number of tropical components was 66 families, accounting for 77.65% of the total number of families. The total number of tropical components was 266 genera, accounting for 76.66% of the total number of genera. Indigenous plants were more abundant than exotic plants in the areal types of families and genera, but exotic plants had a great influence on the distribution in the campus of Huaqiao University.

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    Research Progress of Purple Acid Phosphatase in Plants
    LIU Pandao,HUANG Rui,XU Wenrong,LUO Jiajia,CHEN Zhijian,LIU Guodao
    2019, 40 (2):  410-416.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.028
    Abstract ( 1218 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (2490KB) ( 664 )  

    Acid phosphatase (APase) belongs to the hydrolase enzyme, which hydrolyzes orthophosphate from phosphomonoester or anhydride with an acidic pH optimum (pH < 7.0). Among APase, purple acid phosphatase (PAP) has distinctive biochemical and molecular characteristics, such as appearing purple or pink in extracted enzyme solutions, insensitive activity to tartrate inhibition, harboring of a binuclear metal center and five conserved motif blocks in amino acid sequences. It has been documented that PAP plays an important part in plant adaptation to phosphorus deficiency. In this review, we summarized the biochemical characterization, subcellular localization, biological function, and recent research progress of PAP in plants.

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