The nutritional and volatile oil components of Pouteria campechiana seeds were analyzed and the inhibitory effect of volatile oil on five kinds of bacteria was studied to further develop and utilize its potential value. Results showed that the contents of starch, polysaccharide, crude fat, polyphenol and ash were high, which was 13.89, 8.04, 6.27, 2.58 and 2.22 g/100 g, respectively. The contents of other components such as Vc, flavone, crude protein and amino acid was 0.002, 1.90, 1.12, 2.295 g/100 g, respectively. Twenty-two compounds were identified in the volatile oils of seeds, and the main components were oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate , erucylamide, which was 10.466%, 8.158%, 6.643% and 4.216%, respectively. The results also confirmed that the seed volatile oils had a good inhibitory effect on Micrococcus tetragenus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus albus and Escherichia coli, especially had a strong inhibitory effect on M. tetragenus, B. cereus. The rich nutritional and medicinal value of the seeds of P. campechiana cuold be developed.