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    15 January 2019, Volume 40 Issue 1    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Selection and Comprehensive Evaluation of Cassava Cold-resistant Germplasm Resources and Identification Indexes
    ZHANG Wei,YI Tuo,TANG Wei,SONG Yong
    2019, 40 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.001
    Abstract ( 608 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1639KB) ( 459 )  

    The chilling injury of 18 cassava germplasm resources was classified by natural low temperature in the field. and strong cold-tolerant cultivars (F200), medium-tolerant cultivars (20-4, 52-3), and weak cold- tolerant cultivars (16P, SC8) were selected for low temperature (4 ℃) stress treatment. The seedling leaf relative electric conductivity, the malondialdehyde, soluble sugar, soluble protein, protective enzyme activity and other seven physiological indexes were assayed using the method of principal component analysis (PCA), and the membership function, correlation analysis and stepwise regression method were used to comprehensively assess the cold resistance and screen cold appraisal indicators. Seven single physiological indexes were converted into three independent comprehensive indexes, and it was considered that four physiological indexes including relative electrical conductivity, soluble sugar, malondialdehyde and CAT four physiological indexes could be used as the indexes to accurately and quickly identify the cold resistance of cassava. The evaluation system of cassava cold resistance was initially established, and the results of field and physiological tests were highly consistent. It was found that among the cassava germplasm tested, the most cold-resistant strain was F200 and the least cold-resistant strain was SC8.

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    Flowering Habit and Heritability for GT Sugarcane Parents
    LEI Jingchao,ZHOU Hui,YANG Rongzhong,GAO Lihua,LI Xiang,HUANG Hairong,DUAN Weixing,JING Yan,WANG Lunwang,ZHANG Gemin,WU Yang,GAO Yijing
    2019, 40 (1):  11-17.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.002
    Abstract ( 593 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1627KB) ( 447 )  

    In order to clarify the flowering habits for GT sugarcane parents, the initial flowering time, heading rate and pollen dyeing rate for 25 GT parents were investigated and analyzed among 2011?2018 crossing seasons at Hainan Sugarcane Crossing Station of Sugarcane Research Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The results showed that broad-sense heritability of the initial flowering time, the heading rate and the pollen dyeing rate were 0.9502, 0.9631 and 0.9236, respectively, indicating that the three characters were of high heritability. The parent with the earliest first flowering time was GT28 and the parent with the latest first flowering time was GT11. Twenty-five parents had the earliest flowering time in 2011/2012 crossing season and the latest one in 2017/2018 crossing season. The parents with small heading rate were GT11, GT21, GT32, GT43 and GT47, belonging to difficult flowering parents, and the rest 20 parents were easy flowering parents. The parents with low pollen dyeing rates were GT24, GT34, GT45 and GT48, and the parents with high pollen dyeing rates were GT28, GT41 and GT44. These results would provide a useful reference for the crossing of GT sugarcane parents.

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    Yield of Stropharia rugosoannulata Planted under Rubber Plantation and Analysis of Its Quality of Sporophore
    HUANG Jianxiong,YUAN Shuna,PAN Jian,ZHENG Dinghua,CHEN Junming,LI Juan,GUI Qing,ZHOU Lijun
    2019, 40 (1):  18-23.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.003
    Abstract ( 536 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (472KB) ( 405 )  

    Currently, due to low price of rubber, it is urgently needed to increase the income of rubber plantation. Cultivation of domestic fungus in the rubber plantation was one of the approaches to achieve this goal. By planting Stropharia rugosoannulata on ground, the yield performance of this fungus planted experimentally under rubber plantation and its primary nutritional ingredient was determined. Results showed that air temperature and humidity were suitable for S. rugosoannulata most of the planting period. The yield ranged from 3.46-5.22 kg/m 2. The total content of three major nutritional ingredients of total sugar, crude protein and crude fat reached from 80.5%-85.8%, while ash content, crude polysaccharides, crude fiber and total flavonoids were ranged from 9.15%-9.62%, 5.46%-6.42%, 5.25%-7.35% and 0.153%-0.197%, respectively in the dry sample. Seven mineral elements were assayed, of which the content of potassium and magnesium was relatively higher. The difference of nutritional ingredients of opened-pileus and unopened-pileus S. rugosoannulata was relatively minor. But the nutritional ingredients of pileus was higher than that of stalk. The environment under rubber plantation meets the need of growing S. rugosoannulata judged by yield and nutrition.

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    Effects of Different Factors on the Propagation of Lavandula spp. Cuttings
    ZHOU Jinye,GUAN Shikai,TAO Dayan,SUN Mingyan,LI Chunniu,LI Xianmin,BU Zhaoyang
    2019, 40 (1):  24-31.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.004
    Abstract ( 598 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (420KB) ( 386 )  

    In order to study the asexual reproduction method of lavender in subtropical regions intensively and to verify the feasibility of establishing lavender breeding bases in southern regions, the effects of different substrates, different parts of the branch, different concentration of IBA hormone and different treating time on the cutting of L. dentata, L. heterophylla and L. pinnata were studied in Nanning. It showed that the cutting effects of L. heterophylla was obviously better than that of L. dentata and L. pinnata. Sand and perlite could be used as the cutting substrate. The middle branch was more suitable for cuttings. The effects of IBA concentration and treatment time on different lavender varieties were different. Integrated analysis implied that the optimum cutting conditions for L. heterophylla, L. dentata and L. pinnata were as follows respectively: middle cuttings + sand + 1000 mg/L IBA 60 s, middle cuttings + perlite +1000 mg/L IBA 30 s, base cuttings + sand + 500 mg/L IBA 15 s. The experiment indicated that raising lavender seedlings of the three varieties was feasible in Nanning.

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    Effect of Compound Substrate of Hypsizygus marmoreus Residue on Cucumber Growth, Fruit Quality and Yield
    WANG Tao,LEI Jingui,CHEN Yongkuai,HUANG Yuyan,LI Caixia,LIN Biying
    2019, 40 (1):  32-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.005
    Abstract ( 515 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (368KB) ( 333 )  

    The effects of ten different substrate combinations based on the residue of Hypsizygus marmoreus, perlite, vermiculite and tree bark on cucumber growth in film greenhouse were studied using Jinfu 99 cucumber as the test material. The results showed that it was feasible to use the residue of H. marmoreus for cucumber cultivation. With the increase of the proportion of the residue of H. marmoreus, the cultivation effect of cucumber showed a downward trend, and the effect with perlite was better than that of tree bark. The growth index, fruit yield, fruit quality and substrate cost of cucumber were comprehensively considered, and the best use proportion of the residue of H. marmoreus in cucumber cultivation was 33%. The best combination of the residue of H. marmoreus∶perlite ∶vermiculite was 1∶1∶1 for cucumber cultivation. The development of the residue of H. marmoreusas substrate could not only solve the environmental pollution caused by a large amount of accumulation at present, but also reduce the substrate cost and realize the sustainable development of agriculture.

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    Genetic Breeding, Crop Culture and Nutrition
    Effect of Different Microbial Inoculants and Particle Size on Compost of Acacia mangium Bark
    LIU Pengqi,XIA Yufei,LUO Jian,QU Xinjing,DAI Shengyu,YUAN Jun
    2019, 40 (1):  39-44.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.006
    Abstract ( 668 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (916KB) ( 458 )  

    Three kinds of commercial microbial inoculants including enzyme bacteria (J), organic fermenting bacteria (Y), gymboree (B) were employed to ferment fine-grained (diameter <1 mm, T) and coarse-grained (diameter 1-3 mm, C) Acacia mangium bark to prepare substrates, and the physicochemical properties and the influence on the growth of white radish ‘Yangzhouyuan’ were investigated, in order to provide a scientific basis for utilization of the bark of A. mangium . The results showed that the bark supplemented with the bacterial agent could promote the growth of radish. The content of available phosphorus and available potassium in the substrate was the highest, which was 57.60 and 775.50 mg/kg, respectively, and significantly higher than that of other treatments. Whole plant fresh and dry weight of white radish ‘Yangzhouyuan’ grown on the substrate treated with enzyme bacteria was the highest, followed by gymboree and organic fermenting bacteria. The content of total phosphorus and potassium in the white radish ‘Yangzhouyuan’ was the highest, which was 3.95 and 45.20 g/kg correspondingly. The results suggest that the bark of A. mangium treated with enzyme bacteria had the best effect, and was suitable to be used as a substrate.

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    Orginal Article
    The Influence of Shade Treatment on Leaf Anatomical Characteristics and Growth of Different Rubber Variaties
    WEI Liping,TIAN Yaohua,ZHOU Huiping,YAN Xiangshuai,GONG Yanxiong,YUAN Huifang
    2019, 40 (1):  45-53.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.007
    Abstract ( 631 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2654KB) ( 432 )  

    In order to understand the response and adaptation to light of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), six varieties of rubber seedlings (RRIM600, PR107, Reyan523, GT1, Yunyan77-2 and Yunyan77-4) grown under different shading treatments (natural light RI 100%, a layer of sun-shade net RI 50%, two layers of sun-shade net 25% and three layers of sun-shade net RI 5%) were studied by measuring the leaf anatomical structure characteristics and relative growth rate. The result showed that the shading treatment had obvious influences on rubber leaf anatomical structure and growth, but different variaties performed differently. RRIM600, PR107 and Yunyan77-4 performed well in the light environment above RI 25%, showing a relatively high adaptation to light, and GT1, Yunyan77-2 and Reyan523 had a certain extent of shade tolerance, but were more suitable to grow in the light environment above RI 50%.

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    Phytophysiology and Biochemistry
    Correlation of Microspore Development Period and Flower Morphological Characteristics of Chinese Flowering Cabbage
    PANG Qiangqiang,LI Deming,ZHOU Man,ZHU Baibi,ZHAO Shuniu,CAI Xinglai
    2019, 40 (1):  54-60.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.008
    Abstract ( 1362 )   HTML ( 11212 )   PDF (639KB) ( 1918 )  

    The cytological characteristics of microspores in Chinese flowering cabbage at different developmental periods were studied to reveal the relationship between microspore development and buds morphology, which would provide evidences for the culturing of anthers and microspores. The results showed that the microspore developed in tetrad, early- or mid-uninucleate, late-uninucleate and binucleate stages obviously. The microspore development showed correlativity with the morphological characteristics of buds and anthers. The buds 3.05-3.39 mm in height, the calyx 3.25-3.46 mm in length, the petal 2.10-2.33 mm in length, the ratio of flap to calyx 0.63-0.71, the anther 2.57-2.89 mm in length, and the ratio of flap 0.77-0.85 were discovered to contain microspores at the late uninucleate. These were suitable for the identification of optimal sampling period of flower buds in different materials. At the late uninucleate stage, it was necessary that the anthers should be covered by the sepal, the anthers slightly longer than petals, and the flower bud was full, the petals and anthers showed pale yellow. Therefore, we can judge the development stage of Chinese flowering cabbage microspore by morphological characteristics of flower organs so as to define the standard of bud selection in correspondence with the optimal stage of anthers culture.

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    Differential Effects of Up-regulation of Cell Wall Invertase Activity on Fruit and Seed Development in Tomato
    XIN Shuli,GUO Desheng,LAI Hanyang,LIU Yonghua
    2019, 40 (1):  61-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.009
    Abstract ( 625 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (895KB) ( 321 )  

    The T4 transgenic tomato with elevated CWIN activity was employed to study the effects of CWIN on seed and fruit development. It was found that the elevated CWIN activity resulted in increased fresh weight per fruit, but decreased seed number per fruit, seed germination rate and germinability. These results showed that although the development of fruit was enhanced by the elevated CWIN activity, the development of seed was impaired. Further investigations at physiological level revealed two possible reasons for the above-stated phenomenon: ①The elevation of CWIN activity led to decreased starch content and increased hexose (i.e. glucose and fructose) content, indicating there was enhanced capability of transgenic fruits in utilizing photo-assimilates, which facilitating the development of fruit and the hexose accumulation in fruit, instead of the development of seed. ②The elevation of CWIN activity also resulted in decreased content of chlorophyll in fruits, implying decreased photosynthetic activity of fruit and thus inhibiting seed development due to inadequate supply of photo-assimilates to seed from fruit photosynthesis. Altogether, the elevation of CWIN activity inhibited the development of seed, but promoted that of fruit, which could provide a new pathway to increase the yield and quality of tomato.

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    The Seed Coat Structure of Protea magnifica and Its Effects on Seed Dormancy
    SHAN Jinfeng,LIU Zijia,ZENG Ying,CHEN Jun,WU Xiangchong,ZHU Zunling
    2019, 40 (1):  67-72.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.010
    Abstract ( 702 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2430KB) ( 424 )  

    In order to discuss the seed dormancy characteristics of Protea magnifica, the seed morphology anatomical structure, seed coat ultrastructure and water permeability were observed. The results showed that: ①The seed coat of P. magnifica consisted of three layers, the fence structure of the external seed coat enhancing the impermeability of the seeds, the highly lignified middle seed coat protecting the seeds, the thin inner seed coat covered with a layer of water-impervious wax. ②The acid etching treatment could make the seed coat loose, the seed coat thin, and the seed hole exposed. However, the middle seed coat and inner seed coat etched had already undergone destructive cracking after the 4-hours treatment, which seriously affected the vitality of the embryos. ③The dry seeds and seeds etched for 0.5 h could absorb water quickly in the first 14 h treatment, and nearly saturated after 50 h treatment. Since then, the two water absorption rates fluctuated in a small range until they were fully saturated. ④The seed treated by acid etching did not allow the embryo to absorb water, therefore, the seed coat structure of P. magnifica did not hinder the water absorption of the embryo, but it couldn’t be ruled out the the effect on embryo respiration and the possibility of mechanical resistance to radicle elongation and growth.

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    Biotechnology and Tissue Culture
    Histochemical and Molecular Characterization of Laticifer Cells in Calli Derived from Petioles of Rubber Tree
    TAN Deguan,PENG Jing,HAN Bingying,FU Lili,SUN Xuepiao,ZHANG Jiaming
    2019, 40 (1):  73-78.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.011
    Abstract ( 877 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1771KB) ( 388 )  

    The trunk bark of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is usually used as the material for the study of laticifer differentiation. In this study, we confirmed the presence of laticifer cells in petiole-derived calli by histochemical staining, nile red fluorescence staining, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology. Laticifer cells in petiole-derived calli were distributed randomly, similar to the primary laticifers. They contained less rubber particles in the early developmental stage, and were full of rubber particles in the late developmental stage. The laticifer-specific genes including REF, SRPP, Hevein and CPT were confirmed to be expressed from the petiole-derived callus by RT-PCR, and their transcripts were the same as those reported in the latex of the trunk barks. These results indicated that the laticifer cells in the petiole-derived calli and in barks had similar functions, which would provide a basis for petiole-derived callus as a novel research model to study laticifer differentiation in the rubber tree.

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    Karyotype and Cluster Analysis of Five Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties
    LI Xiaoli,HE Xinya,XIAO Xinhui,GAO Heqiong,ZHUANG Nansheng,WANG Ying
    2019, 40 (1):  79-86.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.012
    Abstract ( 668 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (2162KB) ( 475 )  

    Karyotype analysis was performed on five cassava cultivars to reveal the karyotype characteristics. The similarity and genetic relationship among the five cultivars were analyzed by cluster analysis, using young leaves as the materials and the squashing method to analyze the features of chromosomes. The results showed that the chromosome number of the five varieties was 2n=36, and the karyotype formula of SC12, SM2300-1, Guire No. 5 was 2n=36=34m+2sm, 2n=36=36m(4SAT), 2n=36=36m, respectively, and that of both Yunnan No. 8 and ZM8752 was 2n=36=34m(4SAT)+2sm. The asymmetrical karyotype coefficient was ranged from 56.58 to 58.85, and the karyotype types was 1A, 1B, 1B, 2A and 1A, respectively. The degree of symmetry was high. The clustering results showed that when the genetic distance was 0.4, the five varieties were divided into 3 categories. The first category was Yunnan No. 8, the second category included ZM8752 and SM2300-1, and the third category included SC12 and Guire No. 5. The five cultivars had certain karyotype differences, indicating that they had abundant genetic diversity.

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    Genetic Diversity Analysis of Thirteen Mango Germplasm Resources Based on SRAP Molecular Markers
    LIU Rong,GONG Deyong,LIU Qingguo,HUANG Hai,FAN Jianxin
    2019, 40 (1):  87-91.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.013
    Abstract ( 541 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (489KB) ( 427 )  

    The genetic diversity and genetic relationship of mango germplasm resources were explored in Guizhou to provide the theoretical basis for mango germplasm identification, innovation and utilization. SRAP was used to assess the genetic diversity of 13 mango germplasm resources. 161 bands were amplified using 17 pairs of primers selected from 108 primers, of which 133 were polymorphic bands, and the polymorphic percentage of bands was 82.61%. Genetic similarity coefficients between genotypes was in the range of 0.602-0.820, with the minimum between mango Guire 10 and Panxi Red Mango, and the maximum between Guire 82 and Hongxiangya. Cluster analysis results showed that Mi-8 and Guire 82 had the closest relatives. Mi-9 and Red Mango 6 had the closest relatives. Mi-5, Chuan Mango, Guire 10 and Panxi Red Mango had the closest genetic relationship. Mi-6, Kate Mango and Jinhuang Mango had the closest genetic relationship. The test showed that SRAP technology could be used in the genetic diversity analysis of mango germplasm resources in Guizhou, and the genetic background of mango germplasm resources was complex in Guizhou.

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    Rapid Propagation of Tillandsia cyanea ‘Bert’ Through Liquid Shake Culture
    LI Zhiying,FU Yunliu,XU Li
    2019, 40 (1):  92-97.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.014
    Abstract ( 769 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (948KB) ( 535 )  

    Using the leaf of Tillandsia cyanea as the explants, the fragile callus was induced. The rapid multiplication of embryonic callus was realized through liquid shake culture. In solid medium, the germination of the embryos and rooting of adventitious shoots were induced respectively. Rooting plantlets were transplanted and survived with high rates. In the optimized culture condition, the induction rate of callus was more than 90%. All the embryonic callus turned into embryos after liquid culture and the induction rate of the explants volume reached 5.0. More than 90% embryos developed into adventitious buds and 95% of the buds rooted after culture in solid medium. The transplanting survival rate was also more than 95%. These results indicated that the liquid oscillation and rapid propagation of T. cyanea was successful.

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    Tissue Culture and Plant Regeneration of Leaves of Primulina guigangensis
    YAN Haixia,HUANG Changyan,ZHANG Zibin,CUI Xueqiang,DENG Jieling,GUAN Shikai,BU Zhaoyang
    2019, 40 (1):  98-106.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.015
    Abstract ( 564 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1193KB) ( 585 )  

    The effects of different media on the primary induction, adventitious buds proliferation, callus differentiation and rooting culture were investigated using the leaves of P. guigangensis as the explants. The results showed that the rip cutting was the suitable method; the suitable medium for adventitious buds regeneration was MS+6-BA 4.0 mg/L+IAA 1.5 mg/L; the suitable medium for callus induction was MS+6-BA 3.0-5.0 mg/L+2,4-D 0.5-1.5 mg/L; both rate of adventitious buds induction and rate of callus induction were 100.00%; the suitable medium for callus differentiation was MS+KT 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L+potato 30 g/L+banana 30 g/L+apple 20 g/L+coconut juice 100 mL/L, and the differentiation coefficient was 12.64; the suitable medium for adventitious buds proliferation was MS+ZT 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.10 mg/L+potato 30 g/L+banana 30 g/L+apple 20 g/L+coconut juice 100 mL/L, and the multiplication coefficient was 8.55; the suitable medium for rooting culture was 3/4 MS+NAA 0.01-0.05 mg/L+active carbon 1.0-3.0 g/L and the rooting rate was 100%. It was concluded that the leaves rip cutting could be used to establish the tissue culture system of P. guigangensis by the regeneration methods of adventitious buds and callus which had high induction and proliferation rates of adventitious buds and good rooting growth.

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    Crop Pests, Diseases and Their Control, Environmental Protection
    Identification and Biological Characteristics of the Pathogen Causing Lasiodiplodia Leaf Spot of Robber Tree
    WU Ruhui,LI Zengping,ZHANG Yu,SHI Zekun
    2019, 40 (1):  107-114.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.016
    Abstract ( 760 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1879KB) ( 689 )  

    A new leaf spot disease of rubber tree was found in Sanya, Hainan. The pathogen strain HNSY003 was isolated and purified by methods of tissue isolation and single spore isolation. The pathogen was identified as Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae by morphological observation, sequence analyses of rDNA-ITS and EF1-α, and its pathogenicity was confirmed by Koch’s postulate. The fungal species is reported the first time as the pathogen of robber tree leaf spot. The results of biological characteristics test showed that the optimum conditions for the pathogen growth were as follows: temperature 32 ℃, pH 5, D-fructose as the carbon source, yeast extract as the nitrogen source. Different light conditions had little effect on the growth rate of the pathogen hypha.

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    Extracts from Tendrils and Leaves of Piper nigrum Linn.: Components Analysis and Activity to Three Types of Agricultural Pathogenic Fungi
    ZHAO Fangfang,HAN Bingjun,LI Pingping,MA Chen,LYU Daizhu,XIE Defang,LUO Jinhui
    2019, 40 (1):  115-122.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.017
    Abstract ( 584 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1644KB) ( 392 )  

    The ingredients in the tendrils and leaves of Piper nigrum Linn. were analysed by the GC-MS method, including types and amounts of the chemicals. The activities of the extracts to three types of critical agricultural fungi were also investigated. The results showed that abundant volatiles were included in the tendrils and leaves. More components were obtained by the way of decompressing concentration than natural volatilization. Relative content of piperine was the highest in the tendrils, about 34.97%, while that of olefins compounds were more in the leaves, represented by δ-elemene at 13.268%. Besides these characteristic components, plenty of fatty acids, esters, ketones and alcohols with rings or bridges were also obtained, as well sterols. The extracts at the concentration of 2.5 mg/mL evidently inhibited three types of agricultural fungi, most intensively on Alternaria solani. Furtherly, the extracts of the leaves demonstrated more inhibition on these fungi than the extracts of the tendrils. Toxic regression equations of the extracts to the fungi and the characterization parameters, such as EC50, were also calculated. Potential exploration and utilization value of the waste of P. nigrum Linn. in the prevention and treatment of agricultural pathogenic fungi were indicated by the results.

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    Allelopathy of Water Extracts from Cassava Organs and Decomposing Products to Rigidoporus lignosus of Hevea brasiliensis
    YAN Wenjing,LIU Zifan,ZHANG Tingting,SU Jianmin,ZHAO Xuemei
    2019, 40 (1):  123-129.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.018
    Abstract ( 535 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (412KB) ( 343 )  

    The allelopathic effect of water extracts from the root, stem or leaf of cassava and the decomposing products on the Rigidoporus lignosus (Klotzsch) Imaz. of rubber tree at three concentrations and different days after treatment were studied using the mycelial growth rate method. The water extracts from the root of cassava could significantly promote the growth of Rigidoporus lignosus (Klotzsch) Imaz. between the 2-5th day after treatment, but there was no significant difference among the three concentrations. The promotion effect of the three concentrations extracts from the leaf was significant at the 2th or 5th day after treatment, while the promotion effect to the 10 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL extracts was significant at the 3th day or 4th day. The allelopathic promotion effect of the extracts from the stem was not obvious at the 2th or 3th day, while there was a significantly positive effect of the 100 mg/mL extracts at the 4th and of 1000 mg/mL extracts at the 5th day. The allelopathic inhibition effect of the extracts from the root decomposing product increased gradually with the concentration increased. The effect was significant when the concentration increased to 200 mg/mL. With the concentration increased, the inhibition effect of the extracts from the leaf decomposing product decreased gradually. The effect was no significant when the concentration increased to 200 mg/mL. The inhibition effect of the extracts from the stem decomposing product was significant.

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    Survey, Pathogen Identification of a White Spot Disease on Cassava and Its Biological Characteristics in China
    CAI Jimiao,SHI Tao,LI Chaoping,WANG Guofen,LU Cuimei,HUANG Guixiu
    2019, 40 (1):  130-138.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.019
    Abstract ( 589 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (846KB) ( 359 )  

    During cassava disease survey from 2007 to 2018, one new leaf spot disease was found in the main cassava planting areas of China. The pathogen mainly infected the cassava leaves with densely formed round or irregular, white to tawny lesions. The disease was widely happened in Yunnan, Hainan, Guangxi and some other provinces, and most of the main cassava planting varieties and part of late breeding germplasms were also infected. The results of pathogen isolation, pathogenicity test, strain morphology observation, sequences analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer and beta-Tubulin gene showed the disease was caused by Alternaria alternata. The pathogen in vitro cultured showed V9, OA, CA or CMA medium, 28 ℃, D-maltose, D-sorbitol or D-lactose, NaNO3, alternative light and pH 8 were the optimum conditions for mycelial growth. The optimum temperature for conidia germination was 28 ℃ and the lethal temperature for conidia was 60 ℃ remained for 5 min. Sensitivity test confirmed 10% difenoconazole WG and 25% pyraclostrobin WG had the best mycelium inhibition effect from 10 fungicides, and the EC50 value was 0.12 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively.

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    Genome Sequence of Tomato mottle mosaic virus Isolated from Tomato in Hainan, China
    LIU Xiaoxuan,LI Weilin,ZHANG Tong,ZHOU Guohui
    2019, 40 (1):  139-144.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.020
    Abstract ( 538 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1053KB) ( 375 )  

    Small RNA deep sequencing and RT-PCR techniques were used to detect the viral pathogen infecting cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) samples collected from Lingshui County, Hainan Province in 2016. Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) was identified from the plants showing dwarf, leaf chlorotic and mottle symptoms. The virus was preserved on the Nicotiana benthamiana by mechanical inoculation, and named as tomato mottle mosaic virus Hainan isolate (ToMMV-HN). Then its whole genome sequence was obtained by RT-PCR. It was determined that the complete genome of ToMMV-HN was 6399 nt in length and contained 4 open reading frames. The identity of nucleotide and encoded amino acid of this isolate with other reported 9 ToMMV isolates was 98.0%-100% and 99.2%-100%, respectively. The identity of nucleotide with Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (TBRFV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) which belonging to the genus Tobamovirus was 84.7%, 80.7% and 79.0%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ToMMV-HN shared the closest relationship with pepper isolates from Tibetan and Yunnan, China, followed by tomato isolates from California and South Carolina, USA, and relatively distant from Spanish and Brazilian tomato isolates of this virus. This is the first report of the whole genome sequence of ToMMV isolated from tomato in China, which would provide basic information for the diagnosis and prevention of tomato viral disease in China, especially for disease-resistant variety breeding.

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    Effect of Six Different Pollens on Population Parameters of Euseius ovalis (Evans)
    YU Jingjing,WANG Hongbin,XU Tianwei,CAO Fengqin,HAO Huihua
    2019, 40 (1):  145-149.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.021
    Abstract ( 536 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (406KB) ( 538 )  

    In order to assess the life history of E. ovalis feeding on Ixora chinensis Lam. pollen, Vigna unguiculata (Linn.) Walp pollen, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis pollen, Acacia confusa pollen, Gossypium spp. pollen and Zea mays Linn. sp. pollen, we compared the developmental periods, survival rate, total egg production and the life history parameters of E. ovalis. The results showed that the growth and reproduction of E. ovalis was achieved by feeding on the six kinds of pollen. Among them, the shortest developmental period (5.07±0.06) d, the highest survival rate 93.75%±3.05%, the highest net reproductive rate 16.78±1.22, and the second biggest total egg production 32.33±2.17 were found when feeding on V. unguiculata under the condition of (25±1) ℃, RH 70%±5%, L∶D=13∶11. The results showed that the pollen of V. unguiculata was more suitable for the growth and reproduction of E. ovalis.

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    Agricultural Product Processing, Preservation, Storage, Analysis and Detection
    Effect of Different Starch Debranching Enzymes on the Molecular Structure of Jackfruit Seed Starch and Pasting Properties
    ZHANG Yutong,ZHANG Yanjun,XU Fei,TAN Lehe,LI Shize
    2019, 40 (1):  150-157.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.022
    Abstract ( 869 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (727KB) ( 710 )  

    Debranched jackfruit seed starch (DS) and debranched jackfruit seed amylopectin (DAP) were prepared by pullulanase or isoamylase, and the differences between the DS and DAP was investigated. The results showed that DS had a broad molecular weight distribution while DAP had a narrow molecular weight distribution. Pullulanase DS and DAP had a lower average molecular weight due to more complete hydrolysis of the α-1,6 glycosidic bonds. Pullulanase hydrolysis was more effective for shorter lateral chains, whereas isoamylase could hydrolyze outer branching linkages of amylopectin. Isoamylase DAP had a higher proportion of B2, B3 chains and the longest average chain length, resulting in a lower peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback, but a higher gelatinization temperature. Therefore, both the selection of starch debranching enzymes and the amylose/amylopectin composition could lead to the significant differences (p<0.05) in the molecular structure and pasting properties. According to the specific needs, the appropriate methods could be used to enhance or inhibit the inherent properties of jackfruit seed starch or endow it new specific properties.

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    Optimization for Enzymatic Extraction Process of Polysaccharide from Moringa oleifera Lam. and the Contents
    ZHOU Danrong,YE Xinfu,WANG Xiao’an,WEI Xiaoxia,LIU Ping
    2019, 40 (1):  158-165.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.023
    Abstract ( 576 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (589KB) ( 385 )  

    Single factor experiments incluing enzymatic dosage, extraction temperature, extraction time, ratio of liquid to material, and quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design were used to optimize the enzymatic extraction process of polysaccharide from Moringa oleifera Lam.. The quadratic orthogonal regression model of extracted polysaccharide rate (Y) for enzymatic dosage (X1), extraction temperature (X2), extraction time (X3) and ratio of liquid to material (X4) was Y=18.6602+0.8134X1+0.7572X2-0.4312X3+0.6909X4-0.5181X1 2-0.4935X2 2-0.6277X4 2, which had a good fitting degree. The four factors had significant effects on rate of polysaccharide extracted (p<0.05). Furthermore, the optimal compound enzymatic extraction process conditions were as follows: enzymatic dosage of 1.60%, extraction temperature of 53 ℃, extraction time of 68 min, and ratio of liquid to material of 52∶1. Under optimal conditions, the verified value of extracted polysaccharide rate was 19.83%. The contents of polysaccharide from different parts of Moringa had remarkable difference. The content was ranked downward in root, flower, tender leaves, and stalk. It was accurate and reliable that the quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design was used to optimize enzymatic extraction process conditions,and the extraction efficiency of polysaccharide from Moringa could be improved effectively, so it could be applied in the actual production. Furthermore, the content of polysaccharide in the root of Moringa was the highest and it was worthy of exploitation and utilization.

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    Analysis Conditions of Volatile Aroma Components in Passion Fruit Juice by HS-SPME-GC-O-MS
    LONG Qianqian,LIN Lijing,YUAN Yuan,GONG Xiao,LI Guopeng,MA Lina,LI Jihua,HUANG Wei
    2019, 40 (1):  166-173.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.024
    Abstract ( 583 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (888KB) ( 481 )  

    Passion fruit juice has rich aroma of various fruits, and it is possible to establish more comprehensive conditions for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of 14 types of aroma from passion fruit juice were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS), and the main aroma components under different extraction conditions were analyzed by head space-solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Through experimental analysis, the conditions was as follows: passion fruit juice without NaCl 0.5 mL, extraction fiber 65 μm DVB/PDMS, extraction temperature 40 ℃, extraction time 20 min, desorption time 5 min. Sixty-two volatile components were determined, including esters, alcohols, alkenes and ketones, and the esters (71.58%), which dominated the aroma of passion fruit juice, this method was effective and feasible.

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    Difference Between Ingredients of Citrus chachiensis Tanaka and Other Typical Citrus
    LUO Zheng,GUO Yuanyuan,CHEN Feiping,GONG Xiaobo,CHEN Yulong
    2019, 40 (1):  174-179.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.025
    Abstract ( 1272 )   HTML ( 7490 )   PDF (691KB) ( 1002 )  

    In this paper, the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein, total flavonoids and total polyphenols of the peel of Citrus chachiensis Tanaka was compared with that of three other typical citrus peels, and the feasibility of other citrus peels as a substitute of C. chachiensis Tanaka was analyzed. The results showed that the soluble sugar, soluble protein, total flavonoids and total polyphenol content in the peels of Wenzhou mandarin orange, navel orange and Hubei citrus were significantly different from those of C. chachiensis Tanaka and the GC-MS method was used to detect the essential oil compositions in the peels of the above-mentioned four kinds of citrus, showing that the main contents were D-limonene, terpinenes, γ-terpineol and 2-amino benzoic acid methyl ester, with D-limonene as the highest. The characteristic contents of the essential oils of navel orange were more similar to those of C. chachiensis. The peel of navel orange as the substitute for the raw material of C. chachiensis Tanaka to produce citrus chachiensis hortorum is prospective.

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    Effect of Heat Treatment Temperature on Starch Content of Rubberwood
    LI Guanjun,LI Tongtong,LI Min,LI Xiaowen,JIANG Huichuan,LU Quanji,LI Jianing
    2019, 40 (1):  180-183.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.026
    Abstract ( 566 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (456KB) ( 451 )  

    The starch content changes of thermally modified rubberwood, which was treated at 125, 145, 165, 185 ℃ for 2 h, respectively, were assayed using perchloric acid. The starch content of fresh rubberwood was 11.681%, but it was significantly reduced after thermal modification. When the thermal treatment temperature was 125, 145, 165, 185 ℃/2 h, the starch content was 8.792%, 8.500%, 7.529%, 4.386%, correspondingly. The results indicated that the starch content of rubberwood decreased as the thermal treatment temperature increased. Starch was degraded during thermal treatment, and no new functional groups were detected through FTIR analysis.

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    Xanthan Gum Secreted by Xanthomonas axonopodis
    ZHENG Meixia,ZHU Yujing,LIU Bo,CHEN Zheng,HUANG Sufang
    2019, 40 (1):  184-190.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.027
    Abstract ( 1218 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (2501KB) ( 529 )  

    In order to study the xanthan gum secreted by Xanthomonas axonopodis FJAT-10151, The growth curve of FJAT-10151 was determined by the turbidimetric method. The yield of xanthan gum was determined by the dry-weighing method. The content of pyruvic acid was determined by the 2,4-dinitrobenzene hydrazine chromogenic method. The secretion of xanthan gum from X. axonopodis was studied by SEM and TEM. The result showed that the logarithmic phase and stable phase of FJAT-10151 was 0-26 h and 26-72 h, respectively. FJAT-10151 was a short rod of 2 μm long with 7.9 μm of flagellum on the ends, and formed a thick capsule outside, and many bacteria together with xanthan gum. Xanthan gum had flake and filamentous forms, and gathered or wrapped around FJAT-10151 surface. The yield of xanthan gum increased with the extension of fermentation time. The yield of xanthan gum and pyruvic acid reached the highest at the fermentation time of 72 h. We could obtain high quality of xanthan gum at the fermentation time of 72 h.

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    Advances in Utilization of Spent Mushroom Substrates Plant Growing Medium
    LIU Jingkun,WU Songzhan,CHENG Hanting,LI Guangyi,LI Ye,WANG Jinchuang,LI Qinfen
    2019, 40 (1):  191-198.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.028
    Abstract ( 1457 )   HTML ( 11848 )   PDF (380KB) ( 1571 )  

    The article reviewed the researches on the characteristics and utilization of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in recent years in detail. Basic physical and chemical properties of spent mushroom substrate were introduced, and compared with the traditional substrate materials, the advantages and disadvantages of its application in cultivation were also analyzed. Research progress on the application of spent mushroom substrate in the cultivation of horticultural crops, Chinese herbs and mushroom were present, at the same time, the role and mechanism of spent mushroom substrate in improving soil were also mentioned. Finally, the problems still existed in the utilization of fungal residue matrix were mentioned and suggestions were given in order to provide a reliable and in-depth theoretical basis for the efficient utilization of mushroom residue.

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    Research Progress on DNA Methylation During Plant Tissue Culture
    SHI Peng,WANG Yong,JIN Longfei,ZHANG Dapeng,ZHAO Zhihao,CAO Hongxing,LEI Xintao
    2019, 40 (1):  199-207.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.029
    Abstract ( 1392 )   HTML ( 11500 )   PDF (454KB) ( 816 )  

    Tissue culture is the important technical basis for plant asexual propagation and genetic transformation. Tissue culture includes explants dedifferentiation, callus formation, callus redifferentiation and plantlets formation. DNA methylation pattern is constantly changing during tissue culture, which means many epigenetic reprogramming events occur in cells. Generally speaking, DNA methylation can promote or accelerate the tissue culture process, it’s very important for many plants that are difficult to regenerate. The paper mainly summarizes the pattern change and molecular mechanism of DNA methylation during plant tissue culture, as well as new methods and ideas. We hope the paper could help the study of DNA methylation in plant tissue culture.

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