Welcome to Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops,

Table of Content

    25 May 2022, Volume 43 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Omics & Biotechnology
    Changes of β-carotene and Protein Accumulation and Proteomic Analysis of Chromoplasts in Different Developmental Stages of Cassava Tuberous Roots
    ZHOU Kai, AN Feifei, LI Kaimian, CHEN Songbi
    2022, 43 (5):  871-881.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.001
    Abstract ( 177 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF (10668KB) ( 117 )  

    Cassava is one of the most important crops in the world and has a great potential as food crop in China. Protein and carotenoids are important nutritional quality characteristics. The content of protein in the cassava tuberous root is low. Hence, to improve the carotenoid and protein content and the value nourishment of the tuberous root is an important goal for cassava breeding. In the present study, three cassava varieties including yellow cassava ‘SC9', ‘BGM019' and white cassava ‘SC101' were selected to analyze the nutritional quality characteristics, and measure the change of β-carotene and protein content at different developmental stages of cassava tuberous roots. Additionally, 2-DE in combination with mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteome profile of the chromoplast in order to understand the coupling mechanism of increasing the protein content related with carotenoid accumulation. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) between the genotypes in β-carotene content in the periods of formation, enlargement and maturation of cassava tuberous roots. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between ‘SC9' and ‘BGM019' regarding the protein content of tuberous roots, however, the protein contents in both yellow cassava genotypes weresignificantly higher than that of ‘SC101' (P<0.05). A positive correlation between the carotenoid and protein content was observed during the development of the tubers in the genotypes. The tuberous-root chromoplasts of enlargement period were used as references, proteome profile of tuberous-root chromoplast in maturation period revealed a total of 36 protein spots in ‘SC9', in which 26 were classified as up-regulated and 10 down-regulated, while in ‘BGM019', 49 differential proteins were identified with 28 up-regulated spots and 21 down-regulated, and in ‘SC101' 38 differential proteins identified, in which 20 were up-regulated and 18 were down-regulated. Most of the identified differential proteins were found to be involved in carbon and energy metabolism, detoxifying and antioxidant and signal transduction mechanism. The results indicate that the accumulation of proteins and carotenoid in cassava storage roots is regulated by different proteins complex. There were 20 common proteins observed between or among the genotypes. The proteins played the same expression pattern and were related to carbon and energy metabolism, detoxifying and antioxidant, structure, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, chaperones and protein biosynthesis. The protein biological regulatory network was constructed and revealed the relationship of protein content and β-carotene accumulation in chromoplast of tuberous root, and would provide a new clue for the selection of new cassava varieties with high quality and high nutrition.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Transcriptome-wide Identification and Analysis of UBC Gene Family in Litchi chinensis Sonn.
    DONG Chen, LI Jinzhi, ZHENG Xuewen, WANG Yi, LI Weicai
    2022, 43 (5):  882-892.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.002
    Abstract ( 154 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (4077KB) ( 145 )  

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes play a central role in the ubiquitination cascade. They are the bridge between ubiquitin activating enzymes and ubiquitin ligases, and play a key role in the ubiquitination system. Through the local BLAST search and keyword search of transcriptome database, 32 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene family members, including 5 UEV and 28 UBC genes, were obtained through smart screening of conserved domains. Only LcUBC1- LcUBC28 was studied in the article. Based on the litchi transcriptome database, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene family was identified by bioinformatics methods, and the temporal and spatial expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene family in different tissues and organs of Feizixiao litchi was analyzed by the fluorescence quantitative PCR technology. Meanwhile, the expression of the control and uniconazole treatment at different stages of flower development was analyzed. The results showed that the amino acids were 85-1146 aa. The isoelectric point ranged from 4.03 to 9.61. Five LcUBC proteins were stable, and the others LcUBC proteins were unstable. Two LcUBC proteins were located in cytoplasm, two LcUBC proteins in cytoplasm and nucleus, one LcUBC protein in endoplasmic reticulum and the rest LcUBC proteins in nucleus. There were great differences in the length of the protein and the changes in the characteristics of the protein, indicating that the proteins of the ubiquitin protease gene family had different characteristics. In the multiple sequence alignment, all 28 LcUBC genes contained an evolutionarily highly conserved amino acid residue cysteine active site, and the C-terminal tryptophan (W) located behind the cysteine active site. The 28 LcUBC proteins were also highly conserved, and the “HPNI” conserved motif was located 7-10 amino acids before the active site of cysteine. The LcUBC gene family was predicted to contain 10 conserved motifs. There were certain differences in the number and types of conserved motifs contained in the members of the LcUBC gene family. Among them, the conserved motifs 1 and 2 were very important conserved motifs in the LcUBC domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the litchi UBC protein was divided into 10 subfamilies, namely UBC1, UBC2/11, UBC3/7, UBC4/5, UBC6, UBC8, UBC10/12, UBC13, UBC14, UBC15. The 28 LcUBC genes were expressed in at least one tissue, and the expression levels of different genes in different tissues were different. Among them, the expression of LcUBC4, LcUBC5, and LcUBC18 in seeds were significantly higher than that of other tissues, and the expression of LcUBC7 in male flowers was significantly higher than that of other tissues. The expression level of female flowers of LcUBC14 and LcUBC15 was significantly higher than that of other tissues, and LcUBC10 was highly expressed in pericarp and old leaves. Compared with the control, the expression levels of LcUBC genes in different developmental stages of Feizixiao litchi flower spikes treated with uniconazole were higher at 21 days after the treatment with Uniconazole. This is the first time that the litchi UBC gene family was analyzed at the transcriptome level. The results of the study would provide some referrences for future studies on the classification, cloning and function of this gene family.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Physiological and Transcriptome Analysis of ‘Gannan Zao' Navel Orange under Drought Stress
    LIU Linzhi, OUYANG Huan, LI Xingtao, CHEN Jianmei
    2022, 43 (5):  893-903.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.003
    Abstract ( 145 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (7991KB) ( 106 )  

    The seasonal drought in the navel orange producing areas in China has a great impact on the yield and quality of navel orange. ‘Gannan zao' navel orange, a new variety, is widely popularized in navel orange producing areas in China. In order to deeply understand the drought tolerance of ‘Gannan zao' and explore its regulation mechanism on drought stress, the differences of photosynthesis and drought related physiological indexes between ‘Gannan zao' and ‘Newhall' under different drought stress were measured, and the transcriptional differences and the regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression were compared by RNA-seq analysis. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) of ‘Gannan zao' were significantly higher than those of ‘Newhall' under drought stress. With the increase of drought stress, the leaves of ‘Gannan zao' were more stretched than that of ‘Newhall', and the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde content of ‘Gannan zao' were significantly lower than that of ‘Newhall', while the activities of protective enzymes superoxide dismutase and peroxide dismutase changed more. There was no significant difference in soluble sugar content between ‘Gannan zao' and ‘Newhall'. After rehydration, the soluble sugar content of ‘Newhall' was significantly higher than that of ‘Gannan zao'. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that the number of DEGs between ‘Gannan Zao' and ‘Newhall' was 1266, 683 and 658 respectively at 0, 10 and 20 days of drought stress. Go enrichment analysis showed that the differential genes of ‘Gannan zao' were mainly concentrated in the process of cell protein modification, protein modification, polymer modification and phosphorus compound metabolism, while ‘Newhall' was not significantly enriched. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differential gene concentration pathways of ‘Gannan Zao' and ‘Newhall' were basically the same, while ‘Gannan zao' was also enriched in starch and sucrose pathway and amino acid and nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway. ‘Gannan zao' was also enriched in starch and sucrose pathway and amino acid and nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway. Both transcription factors were in ERF family, MYB family, NAC family, MYB_Related family, WRKY family, bHLH family, HB-other family, HSF family, B3 family and bZIP family were distributed. In addition, ‘Gannan zao' was specifically distributed in GRAS family. According to the transcriptome molecular results, 30 antioxidant enzyme related genes were screened, of which 48% were up-regulated and 52% were down regulated. The results of this study would provide a theoretical basis for the physiological changes of gannanzao in response to drought stress, and provide a molecular basis for the study of its drought resistance.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Comparative Proteomics Analysis and Identification of Phosphorylated Protein in Latex of Rubber Tree Clones PR107 and CATAS8-79
    WANG Dan, XU Bingqiang, SUN Yong, PENG Cunzhi, CHANG Lili, TONG Zheng
    2022, 43 (5):  904-914.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.004
    Abstract ( 90 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (5257KB) ( 93 )  

    Hevea brasiliensis is an important plant for producing natural rubber. RP107 and CATAS8-79 are two clones of H. brasiliensis with different properties of rubber production and expulsion. The study of protein function in the latex may help understand the regulatory mechanism related to the properties of rubber production and expulsion. This study aimed to compare and analyze the difference in latex protein between RP107 and CATAS8-79 at the level of protein accumulation and post-translational modification. Through the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, 65 proteins derived from 88 spots were found to be accumulated differently in the latex between the 2 clones. Among the proteins, 44 proteins had high accumulation in the latex of PR107 and 21 had high accumulation in the latex of CATAS8-79. The high-accumulation proteins (HAPs) in the latex of CATAS8-79 were involved in intracellular organelles, external encapsulating structure, and membrane-bound organelles in terms of cellular component, and most of them had drug-binding activity and hydrolase activity. Different from CATAS8-79, the HAPs in the latex of PR107 participated in a catalytic complex, nonmembrane-bound organelles, and apoplasts. Most of them had protein-binding and transferase activities. Furthermore, some proteins related to natural rubber synthesis and latex agglutination were found in DAPs. The rubber elongation factors (REFs) and small rubber particle proteins (SRPPs) were identified. The two classes of proteins played an important role in natural rubber biosynthesis in rubber trees. Some proteins mediating rubber particle aggregation (RPA) and participating in response to tapping were found in DAPs too. To determinate the phosphorylated proteins and amino acids in the latex of the two clones, the phosphopeptides were enriched using a Fe-NTA Phosphopeptide Enrichment Kit and shotgun analysis was performed through the high-throughput Tandem Mass Spectrometer (MS/MS). 74 phosphorylated amino acid residues derived from 31 phosphorylated proteins, as well as 166 phosphorylated amino acid residues derived from 80 phosphorylated proteins, were identified in PR107 and CATAS8-79, respectively. Among the phosphorylated proteins, 25 proteins of PR107 and 74 proteins of CATAS8-79 were specific in terms of the phosphorylation amino acids. Between the two clones, the members of REF/SRPP protein family, which regulate the synthesis of nature rubber (NR) in the latex, have high differentiation capacity at both protein accumulation and phosphorylation modification levels. The pro-hevein and hevamine proteins, which influence the process of rubber expulsion, also showed diversity at the phosphorylation modification level. The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of an serine/threonine protein phosphatase kinase might play a regulatory role in NR synthesis. The results could provide a new theoretical basis for the study of the regulatory mechanism of NR biosynthesis.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Bph36-mediated Resistance Mechanism and Related Signal Pathways
    XUE Yanxia, LI Rongbai
    2022, 43 (5):  915-922.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.005
    Abstract ( 82 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1279KB) ( 73 )  

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål., BPH) is one of the most important pests of rice, which causes serious harm to rice production. The mechanisms of brown planthopper resistant genes in rice materials are different. It is of great significance for rice breeding to explore the resistance mechanism and related signal pathway of brown planthopper resistant genes in common wild rice. This work investigated the new BPH resistance gene Bph36 flanked by InDel markers S13 and X48 on the short arm of rice chromosome 4 derived from Guangxi common wild rice ‘W2183'. The mechanism of Bph36-mediated resistance to brown planthopper was analyzed by host selection, honeydew quantity measurement, survival rate and growth rate of brown planthopper based on the susceptible control, 9311 and ‘Kangwenqingzhan', and resistant control, 05RBPH16 and NIL-Bph36. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level of defence-related genes of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) pathways of plant defense against insect invasion based on susceptible control ‘Kangwenqingzhan', and resistant control NIL-Bph36. The results showed that the population density of the brown planthopper on the resistant material was significantly lower than that on the sensitive material, and the survival rate, population growth rate, and honeydew excreted by the brown planthopper on the resistant material were significantly lower than that on the susceptible control. Bph36 mediated resistance was the result of the interaction between host resistance and pest avoidance. qRT-PCR revealed in response to brown planthopper feeding, the expression level of SA synthesis-related genes, EDS1, PAD4, PAL and SA defense-related gene PR10 in NIL-Bph36 was significantly higher than that in ‘Kangwenqingzhan', and the expression level of JA synthesis-related gene LOX2 and JA accumulation-related gene AOS2 in NIL-Bph36 was significantly increased in comparison to that before feeding, but significantly decreased in comparison to that in susceptible plants. The expression of ET signaling pathway gene EIN2 and ACO3 was inhibited and increased, respectively, in both resistant and susceptible materials in response to brown planthopper feeding, but there was no significant difference between the two materials. JA/ET pathways were involved in the basic defense response of NIL-Bph36 against brown planthopper, but the BPH resistance gene Bph36 acquired resistance via SA-dependent activation pathway and JA/ET- -independent activation pathway. The results would lay a foundation in a breeding program for rice quality with multiple resistance mechanisms and defense signaling pathways from the aggregation of the BPH resistance gene Bph36 with other resistance genes.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Cloning and Functional Characterization of CeWRI1, a Gene Involved in Oil Accumulation from Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Tubers
    XU Shuo, ZOU Zhi, XIAO Yanhua, Zhang Li, KONG Hua, GUO Jingyuan, GUO Anping
    2022, 43 (5):  923-929.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.006
    Abstract ( 88 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (3285KB) ( 81 )  

    Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.), which originates from Africa, is an herbaceous oil crop uniquely accumulating high level of oil in underground tubers. In view of the shortage of edible vegetable oil and biodiesel in China currently, it is of great significance to explore key genes involved in tuber oil accumulation. WRINKLED1 (WRI1), which encodes a transcription factor belonging to the AP2/ERF family, has been proven to be a key factor controlling carbon distribution from sugar toward oil during seed development of oil crops. In this study, a gene named CeWRI1 that is homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana WRI1 (AtWRI1) was successfully isolated from tigernut tubers by using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The gene, of an open reading frame 1116 bp, was predicted to encode 371 amino acids with the theoretical molecular weight (MW) of 41.58 kDa, the isoelectric point (pI) of 5.76, the grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) of -0.750, and the instability index (II) of 60.75, implying its hydrophilic and instable features. Subcellular localization analysis suggests that the CeWRI1 protein is located in the nucleus, corresponding to its transcriptional regulatory function as a transcription factor. As observed in AtWRI1, sequence analyses show that CeWRI1 harbors several conserved structural features, i.e. two AP2 domains (PF00847), one VYL motif, and one 14-3-3/BPM-binding motif. Compared with the N terminus and AP2 domains, the C-terminal sequences of CeWRI1 are relatively variable, though a PEST motif associated with protein degradation was found. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis reveals that CeWRI1 is expressed in all tested tissues, i.e. leaf blade, sheath, root, rhizome, and tuber; during various stages of developmental tuber, i.e. initial, early swelling, middle swelling, late swelling, and mature stages, a typical J-shape expression pattern was observed, peaking at the mature stage and minimizing at the middle swelling stage, which is generally consistent with the accumulation pattern of oil. Transient over-expression of CeWRI1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves significantly increased the triacylglycerol (TAG) content, supporting its role in oil accumulation. Taken together, our data suggests that CeWRI1 is most likely to be one of the key genes controlling high oil accumulation in tigernut tubers, which would not only lay a solid foundation for further uncovering the regulatory mechanism of tuber oil accumulation, but also provide a valuable resource for genetic improvement in tigernut and species beyond.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Germplasm Resources, Genetics & Breeding
    Comprehensive Genetic Diversity Analysis of Eighty Late Upland Rice Landrace
    XU Zhijun, LI Yabo, OUYANG Hongjun, XU Lei, AN Dongsheng, LIU Yang
    2022, 43 (5):  930-939.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.007
    Abstract ( 88 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (2114KB) ( 94 )  

    The comprehensive genetic diversity of 80 upland rice landrace was evaluated based on SNP genotyping and phenotype identification, aiming to protect and utilize the upland rice landrace. The results showed that a total of 739 genotyping SNP data of the 80 landrace was obtained using a 1K rice SNP array. Based on the SNP genotyping data, the upland rice landrace was divided into Yunnan group, Hainan group and Guizhou group, through population structure analysis, PCA analysis and phylogenetic analysis. And there were 63, 11 and 6 landrace in the group, respectively. The genetic distance of the three groups was 0.83, 0.63 and 0.80, and the genetic distance between Hainan group and the other two groups was far relatively. The upland landrace, collected from Guizhou, were clustered into Guizhou group and Yunnan group respectively, indicating that there may be different sources of upland landrace in southern Guizhou. The coefficient variation of 11 agronomic and yield related traits ranged from 4.09% to 38.77%, and the coefficient variation of panicle weight and effective tiller was larger than 25.00%, while the coefficient variation of plant height, grain length, grain width, grain length/width ratio and mean grain roundness was smaller than 10%. The traits diversity index ranged from 1.76 to 2.94, and seed length had the greatest genetic diversity among the traits. Correlation analysis revealed complex correlation ship between the traits, and the correlation coefficient between grain length/width ration and mean grain roundness was 0.98. The phenotype PCA analysis showed that the first five principal components explained 29.08%, 23.42%, 12.35%, 9.77% and 7.75% phenotypic variation respectively. And the first five principal components totally explained 82.37% of the phenotypic variation, reflecting most information of the 11 traits. The comprehensive score of the landrace, extremely significant correlated with plant height, panicle length, flag leaf length, flag leaf width and effective tiller, was ranged from 0.15 to 0.73. The landrace ZRG36, ZRG101, ZRG58, ZRG31, ZRG1, ZRG102, ZRG104, ZRG63, ZRG29 and ZRG11 had the top comprehensive score all from higher elevations,. And the landrace, two from center region of Hainan Province, five from southern of Guizhou Province and three from Southwest and southeast of Yunnan Province, performed well in terms of panicle length, grain length, grain width, panicle weight and 1000-grain weight. The landrace were potential parent material for upland rice breeding or intermediate material for rice drought resistance breeding. The result will provide references for protecting and utilizing the upland rice landrace.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Evaluation of Agronomic Traits of Six Imported Oil Palm Varieties
    FENG Meili, ZHANG Haiqing, CAO Hongxing
    2022, 43 (5):  940-947.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.008
    Abstract ( 103 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (4712KB) ( 82 )  

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), the “King of oil world”, is one of the tropical woody oil crops with the highest oil production efficiency in the world. The lack of excellent varieties bred independently is one of the main factors restricting the development of the oil palm industry in China. In order to provide the reference for the selection of oil palm varieties and excellent breeding materials suitable for cultivation in China, the plant growth, bunch, fruit, oil yield and other traits of six oil palm varieties introduced from Costa Rica were measured and comprehensively analyzed. After planting 4 years, the plant height was 3.45-4.78 m, the crown width was 5.28-6.11 m, the trunk height was 81.50- 105.00 cm, the total number of leaves was 32.50-41.50 leaves per plant, the length of leaves was 332.25-391.75 cm, and the number of new leaves was 18.00-22.50 leaves per plant per year. No.2 and No.5 varieties were relatively short. Six varieties were all small and medium-sized fruits and thin-shelled types. Among them, the young fruits of No.1variety were green, and 30%-75% of the fruits in the mature bunches had no drupe (seedless), the young fruits of No.3 variety were green and black, and the young fruits of other varieties were black. The number of bunch of six varieties was 8.48-13.31 bunch per plant per year, mesocarp to fruit ratio was 73.65%-83.50%, fruit to bunch ratio was 53.45%-59.21%, oil to wet mesocarp ratio was 47.92%-54.10% and oil to bunch rate was 20.83%-24.93%, which has the potential of high yield. Principal component analysis showed that there was no obvious separation among the six varieties in the first principal component. Hierarchical clustering and heat-map analysis visualized the clustering of agronomic traits of the six varieties. Comprehensive correlation analysis of the six varieties showed that the oil yield per plant was significantly positively correlated with bunch traits, fruit traits and oil to bunch rate. The indicators could be used as identification indicators of oil yield and provide useful information for breeding new varieties with high yield in the future.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Germplasm Resources, Genetics & Breeding
    Development of Test Guideline of Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability for Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)
    ZHANG Zhongrun, HUANG Weijian, HUANG Haijie, XIAO Liyan, GAO Ling, XU Li
    2022, 43 (5):  948-954.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.009
    Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (962KB) ( 82 )  

    Since 1960s, more than 400 cashew germplasm resources have been collected and well preserved in Ledong Cashew Germplasm Repository of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China after years of investigation, collection and screening. The cashew germplasm resources, with rich diversity, are mainly from Hainan and Yunnan provinces, as well as Brazil, Mozambique, Tanzania, Vietnam, Thailand, etc., where at present there's no cashew DUS test guidelines at home and abroad, the cashew germplasm resources and legitimate interest of cashew breeders cannot be protected effectively. Based on the characteristics test for the resources in Ledong Cashew Germplasm Repository of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China and referring to the cashew related literature, we collected vast number of different characteristics data for the cashew germplasm resources, developed DUS test guidelines for cashew varieties. This paper gave detail description of the development process and main contents of the guideline, including the subject, propagation materials required, selection of test characteristics, DUS assessment criteria, characteristic table and technical questionnaire, etc., among which the characteristic table is the key content. Cashew DUS test guidelines apply to only one specie—cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), which is large-scale commercially planted across the hot zone of the world. The propagation material of cashew is generally grafted seedlings, sometimes scions can also be used as the propagation material to shorten the test time. Totally 41 test characteristics were included in the cashew DUS test guidelines, including 35 basic characteristics and 6 selective characteristics. Leaf, apple and nut are major sources of test characteristics in cashew DUS test guidelines, the number of the test characteristics was 11, 11 and 10, which accounting for 26.8%, 26.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Less characteristics were from plant, branch, flower, kernel and phenology, and the number of the characteristics was only 1, 2, 2, 3 and 1, respectively. Six grouping characteristics, including plant type, leaf shape, cashew apple shape, cashew apple color, shape of nut base and relative position of nut suture protuberance and apex, were included in the guideline. 20 varieties were selected as standard varieties, and the use frequency of cashew fine varieties FL30 and HL2-21 was 13 and 10 respectively, which was much higher than that of other standard varieties. 55 physical maps and 11 sketch maps were also provided in the guideline, which would be much helpful for the cashew DUS testers. The development of cashew DUS test guideline would fill the blank both at home and abroad, provide technical support for the application of cashew new variety protection.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Cold Resistance Determination of Different Passiflflora edulis Germplasm Resources
    GUO Yulin, WU Fengchan, LI Anding, CAI Guojun
    2022, 43 (5):  955-963.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.010
    Abstract ( 110 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2630KB) ( 113 )  

    Passiflflora edulis is an important fruit to raise peasants' income in rough country in subtropical China. Cold resistance of P. edulis is crucial to keep survival rates, quality and yield. In order to screen strong cold resistance varieties in Guizhou, we set five low temperature gradients, 5℃, 0℃, -5℃, -10℃, -20℃, for 6 P. edulis varieties from Pingtang, Guizhou, China, and determined the membrane lipid characteristics, soluble substances, and cell protective enzymes, and then analyzed the variation trend of above indictors under different temperature treatment. Finally we used the membership function method to evaluate the cold resistance capacity of P. edulis comprehensively. The results showed the relative electric conductivity increased with decreasing temperature (mean relative electric conductivity of the varieties 35.19% in 5℃ treatment and 89.71% in 20℃ treatment), the semilethal temperature of P. incarnate, Passiflora Lady Margare' and P. edulis was lower than that of other varieties (-1.426-0.98℃). We also found the variation trends of intracellular malondialdehyde in plants (MDA) were different among varieties, and the MDA content under -20℃ treatment was generally higher than that under 5℃ treatment. When temperature decreased, the soluble sugar of majority varieties declined, the descent range of ‘QueenJuwuba' was the highest (59.24%) while that of ‘Tainong'was the lowest (31.26%). Soluble protein content in the branches of all varieties increased first and then declined with decreasing treatment temperature. Catalase (CAT) activity was processed with temperature drop of all varieties except ‘QueenJuwuba'. Variation trend of peroxidase (POD) enzyme activity was the same as CAT. However, the variation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity with temperature was different among varieties. Through the membership function method, we identified the cold resistance of the varieties was in II level, its ranking with membership was: ‘GuiHanNo.1' (0.543) > P. incarnata (0.542)> P. Lady Margaret' (0.521)> ‘Tainong'(0.501)> P. amethystina (0.489)> ‘QueenJuwuba'(0.459). The results indicated the cold-resistant of ‘GuiHanNo.1' and P. incarnata was the strongest among the six varieties, while the cold-resistant of ‘QueenJuwuba' was the poorest. The cold resistance should be improved for all six varieties.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Breeding a New Tetraploid Spathiphyllum floribundum ‘Lvmeng' Variety
    ZHOU Huiming, LIN Huifeng, MO Zhilong, CHEN Changming, CAO Yiyang, XIONG Jun
    2022, 43 (5):  964-970.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.011
    Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (7294KB) ( 70 )  

    Spathiphyllum floribundum is an important ornamental foliage and flower plant and is an perennial herb native to the tropics of America and Asia. At present, most of the main varieties in China are from abroad, and the offspring of artificial hybridization. The polyploid breeding method of doubling the chromosome sets of plant somatic cells by artificial mutation technology is often applied to ornamental flowers. The variety of selected polyploid plants showed excellent traits such as leaf enlargement, leaf color deepening, flower enlargement and gorgeous flower color, which could greatly improve the ornamental value of the target traits. Using chemical mutagens to induce polyploids is a common induction method in artificial mutagenesis technology because of its simple operation, high mutation rate, strong specificity and wide applicability. Colchicine is a polyploid chemical mutagen mainly used in polyploid induction at present. The effect of colchicine on inducing polyploidy is related to induction time, concentration, plant species and organs. The callus of S. floribundum Meijiu was used as the material. The induction method of tetraploid was optimized. Morphological screening of seedlings in vitro, field selection and comparison of plants regeneratrd were carried out. Furthermore, the number of chromosomes, stomatal size andgenome size identification were used for breeding and identified new varieties of S. floribundum. The results showed that the best way to induce tetraploid S. floribundum was soaking with 0.10% colchicine for 7 days. The flowering duration of the newly selected ‘Lvmeng' was from April to June when it was planted in the greenhouse. Compared with the control S. floribundum ‘Meijiu', there were significant differences in leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, petiole diameter, leaf sheath length, bracts length, bracts width, bracts stalk length, bracts stalk diameter, spadix length, spadix diameter, stomatal length, stomatal width and stomatal density at the flowering stage. The number of chromosomes was 2n=4X=60, which was twice that of the control 2n=2X=30. Flow cytometry DNA analysis showed that the genome size of ‘Lvmeng' was 10.87 Gb, and that of the control ‘Meijiu' was 5.73 Gb. It was identified as a new tetraploid species of S. floribundum. The new polyploid variety ‘Lvmeng' was induced by artificial chemistry, with thickened leaves, deepened leaf color, thickened stem, petiole, bracts stalk and spadix, which greatly improves the ornamental value of S. floribundum.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Plant Cultivation, Physiology & Biochemistry
    Observation on Pollen Morphology of 10 Lemon Germplasms
    LIN Qiujin, WANG Longping, XIE Xiaoqing, WANG Meisheng, LIN Xiuxiang
    2022, 43 (5):  971-977.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.012
    Abstract ( 110 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3144KB) ( 92 )  

    Pollen morphology has a certain value in conservatism, so it is often used as a classification basis for plant resources. In order to clarify the pollen morphology and relationship among different lemon germplasms, which would provide an important reference for the identification and innovative utilization of different lemon germplasms. In the flowering period (February to March), the flowers were picked up in the upper part of the crown periphery from robust plants, and the petals and calyx were removed with sterile tweezers. The anthers were placed indoors in the shade for 3 days. The pollens were collected and stored at low temperature. The pollens were used as the test materials and the morphological characteristics of pollen shape, pollen size and pollen exine ornamentation morphology were observed by the field emission environmental scanning electron microscope. Six quantitative features, including equatorial axis length, polar axis length, polar axis equatorial axis ratio, polar axis equatorial axis product, width of net ridge, mesh number were investigated. Data were normalized by DPSv3.01 software and clustered. The genetic distance was calculated as the euclidean distance, and the UPGMA method was used for the cluster analysis. The results showed that lemon pollen existed in the form of single grain, which was spherical, long spherical, nearly spherical, with 4-5 germination pore grooves. The germination pore grooves were distributed in an equidistant ring along the polar axis, and the groove length reached the two poles. The pollen shape, pollen size, mesh density and mesh diameter were different. The polar axis length was 33.56-41.20 μm. The equatorial axis length was 22.06-33.70 μm. The pollen grain (P×E) size was 844.90-1385.98 μm2. The pollen exine ornamentation was reticular ornamentation. The width of net ridge was 0.39- 0.88 μm. The mesh diameter size was 0.87-1.68 μm. The mesh was round, nearly round or irregular polygon. The pollen was medium-sized, the polar view was tetragonal or pentagonal, and the equatorial view was round, elliptic or oblong. Ten lemon germplasms showed diversity in pollen shape, size and exine ornamentation morphology, which could be used as a basis to distinguish different lemon germplasms. Femminello lemon (4×) had the largest pollen grain size, which was significantly larger than that of other germplasms. However, since only Femminello lemon (4×) was a ploidy variant in this study, whether the ploidy of lemon could be identified by observing the size of pollen needs further research.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Physiological Study on Grafted Affinity of Camellia azalea with Different Species Bud Seedling Rootstocks
    LI Xianmin, HUANG Zhanwen, LU Jiashi, CUI Xueqiang, SU Qun, LI Chunniu, BU Zhaoyang
    2022, 43 (5):  978-985.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.013
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1073KB) ( 70 )  

    Camellia azalea is an evergreen shrub or small tree of Camellia in Theaceae. It is a rare and endangered species, which can only be found in China. It has broad application prospects in gardens and ornamental horticulture, and has extremely high scientific research value. The research on the grafting and propagation of C. azalea at home and abroad mainly focuses on the grafting of lignified rootstocks, while there are few reports on the nurse seed grafting technology and the physiology of the affinity of bud seedling with rootstock. In order to reveal the affinity difference between C. azalea scion and different species of oil-tea camellia bud seedling rootstocks from the physiological level, bud seedling rootstocks (from C. gauchowensis, C. semiserrata, C. oleifera ‘cenxiruanzhi', C. oleifera), large area cultivated in Guangxi, and scions (from C. azalea Semi-lignified branches) were grafted. After 90 days grafting, the effects of different species bud seedling rootstocks treatments on graft mortality, primary metabolites content, antioxidant physiological indexes and photosynthetic pigment content of C. azalea current year semi lignified branches scion were studied. Different species of bud seedling rootstocks had significant effects on the mortality of C. azalea. When C. gauchowensis was used as bud seedling rootstock, the grafting mortality rate (18.5%) was the lowest. Different bud seedling rootstocks had significant effects on the contents of soluble protein and starch in the scion leaves of C. azalea. When C. gauchowensis rootstock was used, the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein and starch in the grafted seeding leaves was at the highest level. Different bud seedling rootstocks had significant effects on proline content and POD activity in the leaves of C. azalea grafted seedlings. Using C. gauchowensis as bud seedling rootstock, the content of proline and MDA in the leaves of grafted seedlings was the lowest, and the activity of SOD and POD was the highest. Different bud seedling rootstocks had significant effects on the content of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. When bud seedling rootstock was from C. gauchowensis, the content of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in the C. azalea grafted seeding leaves was the highest. Therefore, the scion of C. azalea and C. gauchowensis bud seedling rootstock had good affinity. The grafted seedlings had better resistance, compared with other species of bud seedling rootstock treatments. Besides, the leaves growth status of grafted seedlings was better and had strong photosynthetic ability.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Microstructure Research of Agarwood from Cultivated Qinan trees
    LIU Xinyi, WANG Lulu, YUAN Jingzhe, MEI Wenli, DAI Haofu, WANG Jun
    2022, 43 (5):  986-1000.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.014
    Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (101985KB) ( 59 )  

    In order to explore the microstructure characteristics of the agarwood from different cultivated Qinan trees, 15 agarwood samples from cultivated Qinan trees were collected, the anatomical research was carried out by means of wood slicing and microscopic observation. The microstructure characteristics of three sections of the agarwood samples from cultivated Qinan trees were observed, described, counted, compared and analyzed, in the meantime, they were compared with the agarwood from common Aquilaria sinensis. The results indicate that the agarwood samples from cultivated Qinan trees had common characteristics in terms of microstructure, the resin of them were all mainly distributed in the interxylary phloem, wood rays and vessels, what's more, the resin of them were rich and had a tendency to diffuse into the wood fibers, and this characteristic was evident in the agarwood sample from cultivated Qinan Qianlixiang. In contrast, the resin of agarwood from common Aquilaria sinensis sample was mainly concentrated in the vessels and the content was less. There were great differences between two types of agarwood samples. In terms of resin enrichment areas and content, the agarwood samples from cultivated Qinan trees were obviously better than those from common A. sinensis. In addition, a large number of calcium oxalate crystals could be seen in the interxylary phloem and the phloem in the pith of partial agarwood samples from cultivated Qinan trees. Crystals, as a way for trees to resist external damages, which are speculated to be beneficial to the expansion of the resin enrichment areas and the increase of the resin content of the agarwood trees after being wounded and began to form resin. Statistical research on quantitative data of some characteristics indicated that there were great differences between the agarwood samples from cultivated Qinan trees, for example, the density and diameters of pores, the width and density of interxylary phloem as well as rays of Jinsiyou were quite different from other samples. Cluster analysis of quantitative features indicated that ‘Jinsiyou' and ‘Wushenyuanye' were special, located in the root. Qianlixiang, Zhangshaozi, Toudinglü and Aoshenmu are clustered into one clade, and the other nine agarwood samples from cultivated Qinan trees of Lüyouwang, ‘Reke2', Yingtaoye, Tangjie, Ziqi, Lanbaoshi, Xiguaye, Zhitianjiao and Youyezi are clustered into the other one clade. The research could provide basis for varieties breeding, resource utilization, testing, identification, and market standardization of the cultivated Qinan trees. Only by perfecting relevant research as soon as possible can we continue to promote the sound development of the agarwood industry.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Supplementary Description of Floral Morphology of Ardisia crenata and A. crenata Sims. var. bicolor (Primulaceae)
    AI Xingmei, ZHAO Caibao, LIU Xincen, XIE Huan, SUN Yuanyuan
    2022, 43 (5):  1001-1009.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.015
    Abstract ( 100 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (32411KB) ( 50 )  

    Ardisia crenata and Ardisia crenata Sims. var. bicolor are members of genus Ardisia in Primulaceae in the latest taxonomy systems. There are some transition traits between them which lead to lack of clear interspecific delimitation. Floral morphology is a key trait for subgeneric and interspecific delimitation, which has a high classification value. Therefore, the floral morphology and anatomic structure of the two plants were carried out on the description of the original morphology to further understand the differences of the morphological characters accurately. A. crenata and A. crenata Sims. var. bicolor belong to Subgen. Crispardisia Mez, the main difference of them is transition on leaf color, and the other morphology are not significant, the black glandular spots are distributed in all organs of the two plants which have high ornamental value. There are many inflorescences, the pedicels elongate gradually with flower bud differentiation from outside to inside. It is found by paraffin section anatomy that the flower bud differentiation of A. crenata and A. crenata Sims. var. bicolor are earlier and tinier. We sampled the minimum inflorescences about 0.5 mm, which were all at the end of flower bud differentiation, therefore, the appearance of inflorescence could not reflect the internal structural changes. There were two types of ovary expansion of A. crenata, when the growth rate of transverse diameter was faster than that of longitudinal diameter, the ovary divided into two chambers, the ovules and pollen matured and were easier to fertilize. Conversely, the stigma grew quickly and exceeded the stamen, but the ovary was not divided, and the pollen was not matured, which led to failed fertilization and abscission of stigma. While the ovary and stigma of A. crenata Sims. var. bicolor grew simultaneously and fertilized easily, and the fruit setting was slightly higher than that of A. crenata. Usually, both two plants formed 2-loculed ovary. The ovary was divided into 3 locules in A. crenata, and 4 locules in A. crenata Sims. var. Bicolor. There were no obvious differences of external floral morphology in the later stage, and the duration of phenological stages of the two plants such as flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit setting were consistent, but the flower bud differentiation of A. crenata was about 7-10 days earlier than that of A. crenata Sims. var. bicolor, which maight be related to the habitats. The result could provide a reference basis for species identification and revision of intragenus classification.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Plant Protection & Bio-safety
    Forty Years of Research on “Yellow Leaf Disease of Areca Palm” in China: New Progress of the Casual Agent and the Management
    TANG Qinghua, MENG Xiuli, YU Shaoshuai, LIN Zhaowei, NIU Xiaoqing, SONG Weiwei, QIN Weiquan
    2022, 43 (5):  1010-1022.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.016
    Abstract ( 129 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2142KB) ( 124 )  

    Since yellow leaf disease of areca palm (YLD) was observed in Tunchang County, Hainan Province in 1981, issues regarding to areca palm leaf yellowing are increasingly serious which have become the most important factors restricting the sustainable development of the areca palm industry in China. Meanwhile, a temporary conception ‘areca yellow leaf phenomenon' was proposed by the academic circle based on the facts that some other factors including areca anthracnose, areca bacterial leaf spot, coconut leaf beetle, and drought stress etc. except YLD could cause areca palm leaves to turn yellow and confusions were existed in the understanding of the causal agent or cause of ‘YLD'. The questions above have been researched systematically and breakthroughs have been achieved recently. In this review, firstly, the occurrence and progress on the etiological agent of YLD were briefly retrospected, achievements of another key novel areca palm yellow leaf related disease, areca palm leaf yellowing virus disease (ALYVD) caused by Areca palm velarivirus 1 (APV1), together with 2 recently reported virus diseases areca palm necrotic spindle-spot virus disease and areca palm necrotic ringspot virus disease were introduced. Detection of the pathogens of diseased leaf samples showing yellow symptom collected from 6 demonstration bases showed that a part of the samples were only infected by AYLP or APV1 while another parts were co-infected by AYLP and APV1. Questions that the difficulty in the detection caused the even distribution and low title of the pathogen AYLP and that the easy-to-cofused symptoms for the diagnosis in field in the research of YLD were probed and characteristic yellow symptoms caused by 9 types of factors including YLD and ALYVD, leaf-spot-type diseases, root-rot-type diseases, bud rot, coconut leaf beetle, drought & chilling stress, herbicide phytotoxicity etc were summarized. Problems in the control practices and the pressing situations confronted in the management currently were then analyzed, and key points from tactical and detailed methodical perspectives in the plain paper for the management of areca palm ‘leaf yellowing related diseases' were elaborated and its aspects to be further improved together certain problems in the management were pointed out. At the end, foresight of the integrated control measures for the two key leaf yellowing related diseases, which were urgent to implement, were prospected. The aim of this review is to make the latest progress regarding ‘YLD' known to researchers and agricultural technicians.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Responses of Ramie to Antioxidant Enzymes and Plant Chelating Peptides to Cd Stress
    QUAN Ruiping, CHEN Jianfu, ZHANG Lei, XU Mingzhi, YANG Ruifang, SHE Wei, CUI Guoxian
    2022, 43 (5):  1023-1031.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.017
    Abstract ( 64 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (2237KB) ( 84 )  

    In order to explore the role of antioxidant enzymes and plant chelating peptides in the physiological mechanism of ramie tolerance to cadmium, Cd-tolerant ramie variety ‘Chuanzhu 8' was treated with 5, 25, 50 mg/L cadmium, and the biomass, cadmium content, antioxidant enzyme activity, plant chelating peptide content and related gene expression were assayed seven days later. The plant height, root length and biomass treated with 5 mg/L cadmium were promoted, and the plant height, root length and biomass treated with 25, 50 mg/L cadmium were affected. Cadmium was mainly accumulated in the root, the transport coefficient under different cadmium treatment was less than one, and the cadmium accumulation and transport coefficients under 25 mg/L cadmium was significantly higher than that of other treatments. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased, the, malondialdehyde (MAD) activity significantly decreased in cadmium stress. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content significantly increased, the underground plant chelating peptides (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) content was significantly lower than that of the control under 5 mg/L and 25 mg/L cadmium treatments, and was higher than that of the control under 50 mg/L cadmium, but did not reach a significant difference. PCs and GSH had different detoxification effects in aboveground and underground parts. The relative expression of aboveground BnPCS1 and cadmium content under various concentration treatments were extremely significantly positively correlated (P<0.01), and the relative expression of aboveground BnGCL1 at a high concentration (25 mg/L and 50 mg/L) was positively correlated with cadmium content (P<0.01). SOD activity under low concentration (5 mg/L) was significantly higher than that of the control, and had the same cadmium content in all parts. There was a very significant positive correlation (P<0.01). The SOD activity and cadmium content in the underground was extremely significantly negatively correlated (P<0.01) when treated with high concentration of cadmium, and the PCs content and the cadmium content in the underground were extremely significantly positively correlated (P<0.01). Comprehensive analysis showed that ‘Chuanzhu 8' mainly used antioxidant enzyme activity to eliminate the toxicity of free radicals in cells under low concentration cadmium stress. Under high concentration cadmium stress, it relieved cadmium by regulating antioxidant enzyme activity and the synthesis of PCs and GSH.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Optimal Nitrogen Organic Replacement Ratio for Synergistic Crop Quality and Efficiency Enhancement and Soil Fertility Enhancement- Taking Panzhihua Mango as an Example
    ZHOU Weijie, LI Zhonghao, LI Tingyu, WU Heyi, LIU Bin, GAO Wei, RUAN Yunze
    2022, 43 (5):  1032-1044.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.018
    Abstract ( 82 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (2229KB) ( 99 )  

    Late-ripening mango is an important pillar industry in Panzhihua. In recent years, due to heavy chemical fertilizer application and light organic fertilizer application, the orchard quality degrades, acidification phenomenon is serious and mango quality declines. In this paper, on the basis of research and investigation, according to the characteristics of the mature mango orchard soil in Panzhihua, low, medium and high fertility level of mango orchards were treated with different nitrogen organic replacement ratio for two years to optimize the fertilization technology for crop yield, quality and soil fertility promotion effect. In general, the fruit yield and fruit quality were the best in all orchards when the nitrogen organic replacement ratio was 40%, significantly higher than those of traditional, NPK optimization and 100% total replacement treatments, and the Vc content was significantly higher than those in other treatments. When the replacement ratio was 100%, the yield of low-fertility orchards and high-fertility orchards decreased significantly, and nitrogen partial productivity was significantly lower than that of other replacement ratios, which also resulted in excessive accumulation of soil phosphorus. Soil organic matter content and soil pH increased with the increase of substitution ratio. Through principal component analysis, the soil fertility level of each treatment increased gradually with the increase of the proportion of organic replacement. When the proportion of organic replacement was 100%, the comprehensive score was the highest, followed by the partial replacement, and the traditional and optimized fertilization treatments were lower than than those of the organic replacement treatments. Considering crop yield, quality and soil fertility, the optimal ratio of organic replacement was different under different soil fertility. Low and high fertility soil should not have a high ratio of organic replacement in the short term, otherwise the yield would decrease significantly. By yield, quality, comprehensive analysis of the factors such as soil fertility levels, the organic replacement ratio of Panzhihua late ‘Keitt' mango is 40%, too low organic replacement ratio can't effectively improve the soil fertility and improve fruit quality, and high replacement ratio can easily lead to crop failures in nutrient supply, especially in orchards of low content of soil nutrients and organic matter. Due to the low capacity of soil fertilizer conservation, it is necessary to ensure sufficient inorganic nutrient supply while increasing organic fertilizer application, and emphasizing the coordinated optimization of carbon and nitrogen.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Post-harvest Treatment & Quality Safety
    Evaluation of Nutrition and Quality of Banana from Different Producing Areas Based on Principal Component Analysis
    RONG Yu, WANG Mingyue, LYU Daizhu, SONG Jia, MA Chen
    2022, 43 (5):  1045-1054.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.019
    Abstract ( 82 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1651KB) ( 105 )  

    In this study, principal component and cluster analysis methods were used to compare and analyze the functional nutritional components and quality indexes of banana samples collected from Guangxi, Yunnan, Fujian, Hainan and Guangdong in China. Firstly, five principal components were obtained according to the correlation coefficient matrix analysis conducted on nutritional and sensory indexes of banana samples. The five main component factors were detailed as follows: F1 as the index of flavor and mineral elements (sweetness, soluble solids, total acid, water, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper), F2 as the vitamin index (vitamin B6, niacin, β-carotene, polysaccharides), F3 as the appearance index (length and diameter), F4 as the sensory index (flavor, edible rate), and F5 as the functional index (quercetin and total resistant starch), the cumulative variance contribution of the above five principal component factors reached 78.89%. Therefore, they could be used as the main indexes to analyze banana quality. Through the three-dimensional scatter plot and the calculation of the comprehensive score, the overall scores of Yunnan, Guangdong and Hainan were higher than that of Guangxi and Fujian, indicating that the nutrition quality of bananas in the three places was of superior grade, while the nutrition quality of bananas in Fujian was lower. The results of hierarchical clustering and K-means clustering were consistent with the results of principal component analysis. The quality of banana in Yunnan was the highest, and the quality of other producing areas belonged to class I and class II. This might be related to the fact that the contents of β-carotene, banana polysaccharide and mineral elements in banana samples of Yunnan were significantly higher than those in other four producing areas (P<0.05). Through the comprehensive analysis of the above different methods, the nutrition quality level of banana samples from the five major producing areas could be obtained, which would provide a theoretical basis and reference significance for the species cultivation and the selection of the production area of the banana in China.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Analysis of Aroma Substances in Black Pepper by Three Different Extraction Methods by GC-MS
    WANG Jue, ZHONG Yiming, SUN Yeqiao, HU Lisong, WU Baoduo, HAO Chaoyun, FAN Rui
    2022, 43 (5):  1055-1063.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.020
    Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1826KB) ( 87 )  

    The study was aimed to explore the effects of different extraction methods on the volatile components of black pepper. Using black pepper as the material, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), pentane:diethyl ether (1:1) solvent extraction and MTBE solvent extraction were used to extract the aroma components in black pepper, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the extracted aroma substances. A total of 33 substances in 6 categories (alkenes, alcohols, phenols, hydrocarbons, olefins, and olefin oxides) were obtained under the three extraction methods. 25, 23, 27 volatile compounds were respectively detected in the pentane:diethyl ether (1:1) solvent extraction method, MTBE solvent extraction method and headspace solid phase microextraction method. The compounds with relatively high content of volatile compounds obtained by the three extraction methods were 3-carene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, and β-pinene. α-terpinene, α-terpineol, β-farnesene were only detected in the pentane:diethyl ether (1:1) solvent extraction method. Camphor, 4-terpene alcohol, 2-(4-methylphenyl) propan-2-ol, and nerol, alloaromadendrene, β-Bisabolene and guaiazulene were only found in HS-SPME. Combined with principal component analysis (PCA), β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, and β-caryophyllene contributed significantly to the aroma and flavor of black pepper. Among them, the composition of HS-SPME and the two solvent extraction methods were significantly different. In the solvent extraction methods, the pentane:diethyl ether (1:1) solvent extraction method was better than the MTBE solvent extraction method, and there were differences in the types and quantities of substances obtained by the solvent extraction method and the headspace solid phase microextraction method. In the detection of pepper aroma substances, the combination of the two methods could ensure the richness and comprehensiveness of the obtained compounds to a greater extent.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    UPLC-Q-TOF-MS Based Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Seeds and Peels of Alpinia oxyphylla
    WANG Maoyuan, WANG Zhunian, WANG Qinglong, YANG Qing, ZHANG Min, YAN Xiaoxia
    2022, 43 (5):  1064-1075.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.021
    Abstract ( 84 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (2424KB) ( 84 )  

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze and identify the nonvolatile components of the ethanol extract in the seeds and peels of Alpinia oxyphylla. The extracts were prepared by the refluxing methods, high-resolution mass spectrometric data of the extract were collected by the ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The main components in the extracts were separated by the gradient elution method with waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), the mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid and 0.01% formic acid acetonitrile, with the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Mass spectrometry was applied for the qualitative analysis with ESI ion source. Through molecular feature extraction (MFE), Masslynx software was then used to process the original MS data. Furthermore, the structures of the compounds were speculated according to the MS fragmentation patterns and confirmed by comparison with reference standards. Thirty-two and fifty compounds were identified from the seeds and peels respectively, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, saccharides, fatty acids and terpenes. 58 compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. The main constituents of the seeds were phenolic acids (11 compounds), which were representative constituents of the seeds, accounting for one third of the total identified structural compounds of the seeds. On the contrary, there were few phenolic acids in the peels. The main constituents of the peels were flavonoids (19 compounds) of various kinds, accounting for one third of the total identified structural compounds of the peels. On the contrary, there was only one flavonoid identified in the seeds. A total of 4 components were found both in the nonvolatile component of the ethanol extract in the seeds and peels, including monosaccharides of D-gluconic acid and D-glucopyranuronic acid, disaccharide of sucrose, flavonoid of chysin. The results showed that the nonvolatile components of the seeds were lesser than that of the peels. The chemical constituents of the seeds and peels were found to be quite different. The main constituents of the seeds were phenolic acids, and the main constituents of the fruit were flavonoids and terpenoids. It should be treated differently in comprehensive utilization and quality control of the seeds and peels of A. oxyphylla.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Quality Evaluation of Beauty Tea Produced by Different Tea Varieties
    ZHUANG Mingzhu, LI Daisheng, TU Yudong, LI Pengchun, YAN Jiawei, HE Chunmei, CHEN Meixia, JIN Shan
    2022, 43 (5):  1076-1084.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.022
    Abstract ( 116 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1921KB) ( 103 )  

    Varieties have an important influence on the quality of Beauty Tea. The common varieties of Beauty Tea are Qingxindamao, Jinxuan, Maoxie, Tieguanyin, Jinguanyin, Huangguanyin, Jinmudan, Meizhan. In order to investigate the quality characteristics of Beauty Tea in Fujian Province and investigate the variety suitability of Beauty Tea, 20 Beauty Tea samples (8 varieties) were collected from Datian that is the main production area in Fujian Province. The sensory quality, main biochemical components and aroma components of the tea samples were analyzed. The sensory evaluation score of Qingxindamao (94.10 points), Jinxuan (93.96 points), Jinguanyin (93.90 points) and jinmudan (93.63 points) ranked the top four. The taste of the tea was sweet and mellow, or mellow and thick, or mellow and refreshing, and the aroma was honey or nectar. The determination of biochemical components showed that the content of soluble sugar (2.48%), free amino acid (0.33 mg/g), theaflavins (0.12%), thearubicin (0.72%) and theabrownin (1.24%) of Qingxindamao Beauty Tea was relatively high, ranked the top three. On the basis of sensory evaluation results, seven Beauty Tea samples with good quality and different varieties were selected from the above samples for the determination of aroma components. A total of 31 aroma components were detected, including three aldehydes, seven alcohols, two ketones, five esters, seven terpenes, three alkanes, and four other compounds, which together constituted the unique aroma characteristics of Beauty Tea. Among them, Qingxindamao Beauty Tea had the most aroma components (25 kinds), and the total content of aroma components (430.43 ng/g) was the highest. Compared with the Beauty Tea produced from other varieties, the content of 1,3-cyclohexanediene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl) (4.21 ng/g), citral (7.01 ng/g), benzaldehyde (18.24 ng/g), 3,7-dimethyl-1,5,7-octatriene-3-ol (150.23 ng/g), β-ocimene (5.47 ng/g) in Qingxindamao was the highest, and the content of linalool (30.60 ng/g), methyl salicylate (15.02 ng/g), geraniol (66.69 ng/g) and phenylethanol (8.52 ng/g) was in the top three. The results of sensory evaluation, biochemical analysis and aroma analysis showed that the quality of Beauty Tea produced by Qingxindamao was the best. The results have certain guiding significance for the selection of suitable varieties of Beauty Tea in production practice.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles
    Effects of Sugar Permeability Methods on Nutrition, Aroma and Structure of Candied Prunes
    SHEN Xueyu, CHEN Rihui, LIN Yuting, CHEN Chongguang, HUANG Wei
    2022, 43 (5):  1085-1093.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.05.023
    Abstract ( 101 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (6196KB) ( 81 )  

    Jiayingzi is a representative product of Cantonese candied fruit, and sugaring is an important part of the processing of Jiayingzi. Traditional sugar process mainly uses osmotic pressure caused by high concentration sugar solution to dehydrate fruit and vegetable tissues. However, it is limited by long sugar penetration, low production efficiency and serious loss of nutrition and flavor. To solve the above problems, detection methods such as electronic nose, scanning electron microscope and fuzzy mathematical sensory evaluation method were introduced. The effects of vacuum, microwave and ultrasonic technologies on sugar infiltration rate, nutrient composition, aroma quality, sensory quality and flesh microstructure of Jiayingzi were compared with traditional hot soak. Compared with the control, the three new technologies significantly increased the sugar infiltration rate, microwave was the highest, followed by vacuum. However, in terms of retention of nutrients and characteristic aroma substances, the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and the response value of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in vacuum were significantly better than that of the control (P<0.05), while microwave was significantly inferior to the control (P<0.05), and ultrasound was not significantly different from the control (P>0.05). Among the four sugar permeability methods, the nutritional, sensory and aroma quality of the Jiayingzi by vacuum were the best, and the content of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins was the highest, reaching 2.69 mg/g, 5.44 mg/g, 4.45 mg/100g. AADPPH, AAABTS and iron ion reduction capacity reached 14.23, 128.54, 35.61 mmol/g. The sensory score was 85.73 points, and the response value of electronic nose sensor W2S (sensitive to alcohols and aldehydes and ketones) was 29.65. The sugar infiltration rate ranked second, the total sugar content at the drying end point reached 63.05%. Vacuum sugar infiltration had a low degree of damage to the pulp cell structure, which maintained high nutrition. It was the preferred sugar infiltration method for preparing high-quality Sanhua plums (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. sanhua). The microwave sugar infiltration rate was the highest, the total sugar content at the end of drying reached 65.79%, but the nutrient and flavor were lost the most, and the pulp cell structure was seriously damaged. The ultrasonic sugar infiltration rate was slightly higher than that of the control, the nutritional and sensory quality was similar, and the difference in the pulp cell structure was not obvious. The results would provide a useful reference for the selection of sugar penetration technology in the processing of preserved fruit.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles