Since 1960s, more than 400 cashew germplasm resources have been collected and well preserved in Ledong Cashew Germplasm Repository of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China after years of investigation, collection and screening. The cashew germplasm resources, with rich diversity, are mainly from Hainan and Yunnan provinces, as well as Brazil, Mozambique, Tanzania, Vietnam, Thailand, etc., where at present there's no cashew DUS test guidelines at home and abroad, the cashew germplasm resources and legitimate interest of cashew breeders cannot be protected effectively. Based on the characteristics test for the resources in Ledong Cashew Germplasm Repository of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China and referring to the cashew related literature, we collected vast number of different characteristics data for the cashew germplasm resources, developed DUS test guidelines for cashew varieties. This paper gave detail description of the development process and main contents of the guideline, including the subject, propagation materials required, selection of test characteristics, DUS assessment criteria, characteristic table and technical questionnaire, etc., among which the characteristic table is the key content. Cashew DUS test guidelines apply to only one specie—cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), which is large-scale commercially planted across the hot zone of the world. The propagation material of cashew is generally grafted seedlings, sometimes scions can also be used as the propagation material to shorten the test time. Totally 41 test characteristics were included in the cashew DUS test guidelines, including 35 basic characteristics and 6 selective characteristics. Leaf, apple and nut are major sources of test characteristics in cashew DUS test guidelines, the number of the test characteristics was 11, 11 and 10, which accounting for 26.8%, 26.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Less characteristics were from plant, branch, flower, kernel and phenology, and the number of the characteristics was only 1, 2, 2, 3 and 1, respectively. Six grouping characteristics, including plant type, leaf shape, cashew apple shape, cashew apple color, shape of nut base and relative position of nut suture protuberance and apex, were included in the guideline. 20 varieties were selected as standard varieties, and the use frequency of cashew fine varieties FL30 and HL2-21 was 13 and 10 respectively, which was much higher than that of other standard varieties. 55 physical maps and 11 sketch maps were also provided in the guideline, which would be much helpful for the cashew DUS testers. The development of cashew DUS test guideline would fill the blank both at home and abroad, provide technical support for the application of cashew new variety protection.