In order to provide scientific references for the identification of main volatile components of mango latex, the latex from eight mango cultivars, including ‘Tainoung No.1’, ‘Guifei’, ‘Chun Hwang’, ‘Yuwen’, ‘Red Ivory’, ‘Sijimi mango’, ‘Jinsui’ and ‘Hongshanlin’, were determined by the GC-MS method. The compounds with matching degree more than 90% were reserved according to NIST 11 standard mass spectrometry library and analyzed the differences among latex from different mango cultivars. The changes before and after peel burned were observed under a VHX-5000 Super-high magnification lens zoom 3D microscope, which provided a reference for preliminary exploration of the mechanism of latex. Thirty kinds of compounds with a matching degree greater than 90% were detected from the cultivars. The compounds were composed of terpenes, phenols, aldehydes and alkanes. The main volatile components were terpenes, and there were a small amount of phenols, aldehydes and alkanes. Ten common compounds were detected in the latex from the cultivars, including α-pinene, 3-carene, α-phellandrene, 4-carene, (R)-(+)-limonene, sabinene, (1R)-(+)-α-pinene, terpinolene, L-caryophyllene and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, among which the main volatile components were 3-carene and terpinolene. The latex from different mango cultivars were clustered into different groups according to the PCA score map. Based on the distance among the cultivars, they were classified into five groups. The first group included ‘Guifei’ and ‘Chun Hwang’, the second group included ‘Tainoung No.1’ and ‘Sijimi mango’, the third group included ‘Red Ivory’ and ‘Jinsui’, the fourth group was ‘Yuwen’, and the fifth group was ‘Hongshanlin’. The distance between two mango cultivars in the same group was small, which indicated the great similarity between them. The distance was large in different groups, which indicated that the main volatile components and relative content were quite different. Mango latex caused browning damage in the lenticels of fruit skin. ‘Tainoung No.1’ had slight burn after contacting with the latex for 1 hour, and ‘Guifei’ had obvious burn after contacting with the latex for 10 min. This study would provide a theoretical basis for revealing the mechanism of latex.