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Table of Content

    25 April 2021, Volume 42 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Omics & Biotechnology
    Identification and Functional Analysis of 4CL Gene Family During Early Somatic Embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour
    HONG Pingjing, XU Xiaoping, WANG Jingyu, CHEN Xiaohui, SHEN Xu, LIN Yuling, LAI Zhongxiong
    2021, 42 (4):  909-919.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.001
    Abstract ( 175 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (10544KB) ( 178 )  

    To understand the molecular characteristics and biological functions of the 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (Dl4CL) gene family in Dimocarpus longan Lour., bioinformatics analysis was used to identify the members of the 4CL gene family of longan, to analyse the protein domain and characteristics, molecular evolutionary tree, expression patterns in somatic embryogenesis and tissue-organ, and to predict the possible interaction of miRNAs. There were 43 members of the Dl4CL gene family, which could be divided into six subfamilies. The basic physical and chemical properties of different subfamilies including isoelectric point, relative molecular weight, amino acid number and signal peptide were different. Dl4CL proteins belonged to the non-secretory pathway, there were multiple conserved motifs. The structural characteristics of the genes were related to the kinship of family members in the evolutionary tree. The Dl4CL promoter sequence contained a large number of light responses elements, anaerobic induction response elements, and MYB binding sites, which suggesting that the Dl4CL gene family may be involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and the accumulation of pigments during the growth and development of longan. Dl4CL gene family might be involved in different somatic embryogenesis process and tissue-organ morphogenesis. A total of 10 Dl4CL members were likely to be regulated by miRNA, and different members were targeted by different miRNA, it was speculated that Dl4CL may interact with miRNA regulation process to participate in somatic embryogenesis, response to environmental stress and other biological processes. This study shows that Dl4CL might not only participate in lignin synthesis, but also participate in a variety of biological metabolic pathways, such as pigment synthesis, tissue-organ specific expression, showing the complexity of its biological functions.

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    Genetic Diversity Analysis of Very Early Maturing Litchi Germplasm Resources Based on SRAP Molecular Markers
    HU Fuchu, WU Xiaobo, CHEN Zhe, WU Fengzhi, ZHOU Wenjing, FENG Xuejie, FAN Hongyan, ZHOU Ruiyun, WANG Xianghe
    2021, 42 (4):  920-926.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.002
    Abstract ( 108 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (2458KB) ( 175 )  

    Utilizing the SRAP molecular markers technology, the genetic diversity and relationship of 30 litchi germplasm resources, including 22 extremely early maturity varieties, 6 early maturity varieties and 2 middle maturity varieties, were analyzed in this study. The results showed that 16 pairs SPAP primers with high polymorphism and clear bands were selected in 182 pairs SPAP primers. A total of 182 loci were obtained using 16 pairs SPAP primers and 140 loci were polymorphic. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic similarity coefficient showed that the similarity coefficient of 30 litchi germplasm resources ranged from 0.47 to 0.99, and 30 resources could be grouped into four distinct families based on similarity of 0.73. There were 20 (66.7%) resources in groupⅠ, including the majority of extremely early maturing resources, 4 (13.3%) resources in group Ⅱ, including ‘Feizixiao’ and some hybrids, 3 (10.0%) resources respectively in group Ⅲ and group Ⅳ. The results would provide theoretical references for the exploration, evaluation and new variety cultivation of extra-early litchi germplasm resources.

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    Expression Analysis of MeMYC2 Transcription Factor in Cassava under Stress Signal
    YU Xiaoling, GUO Xin, LI Shuxia, RUAN Mengbin, PENG Ming
    2021, 42 (4):  927-935.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.003
    Abstract ( 124 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (5183KB) ( 153 )  

    MYC2 TFs is a key node member in Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, which plays an important role in plant growth, development and response to stress signals. In this study, according to the homologous similarity to AtMYC2 protein sequence, the MYC2 gene (No. Manes.17G016000) was cloned from cassava ‘cv. 60444’ cultivar, named as MeMYC2.1. The characteristics of MeMYC2 protein was analyzed using bioinformatics, it encodes 2055 bp open reading frame (ORF) without introns. The N-terminal domain of MeMYC2.1 protein contain a conservative bHLH domain. According to the phylogenetic tree analysis of MYC2, the MeMYC2.1 has high homology with Ricinuscommunis. Under different abiotic stress (exogenous SA/MeJA and low-temperature (4 ℃)/H2O2), the expression pattern of MeMYC2.1 in leaf was analyzed using qRT-PCR. The results showed that the expression of MeMYC2.1was significantlyinduced in leaves under exogenous MeJA/SA/Cold/H2O2 stress. A 1500 bp sequence located in MeMYC2.1 promoter was obtained. PlantCare analysis indicates that MeMYC2.1 promoter sequence contains not only CGTCA/TGACG elements in response to Jasmonic acid but also some stress-defense related elements like LTR, ABRE et al cis-elements. Together, these results indicate that MeMYC2.1 might be a node gene in the molecular interactive network of different phytohormone response to abiotic stress, which contributes to understanding plant resisting abiotic stress through JAs signaling pathway.

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    Characterization and Function Analysis of Cassava MYB Transcription Factor MeMYB2
    YANG Jingyuan, RUAN Mengbin, GUO Xin, PENG Ming
    2021, 42 (4):  936-944.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.004
    Abstract ( 116 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (5081KB) ( 157 )  

    MYB transcription factor family is one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, playing key roles in stress response of many plants. Based on transcriptome data analysis, we have identified several drought-responsive MYB members from cassava (Manihot esculenta). Herein, were perform characterization and function analyses on one of these drought-responsive MYB transcription factors, namely MeMYB2. MeMYB2 had 95% amino acid similarity with AtMYB60 in its N-terminus, whereas only 30% amino acid similarity was found in their C-terminus. MeMYB2 was specifically expressed in cassava leaves and was down-regulated by drought stress. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that MeMYB2 was localized in nucleus. Furthermore, MeMYB2 showed transcriptional activity in yeast, and the transcription activated domain was located within a 20 amino acid fragment between the 247-267AA position. Eight proteins were identified as the MeMYB2 binding protein according to the result of yeast two hybrid analysis. Two of these proteins are related to stomatal movement regulation and photosynthesis. The mature leaves of MeMYB2-RNAi transgenic cassava showed lower water loss rate than that of wild type, suggesting the roles of MeMYB2 in regulation of stomatal movement.

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    Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Relationship among 18 Moringa Species Based on SRAP Marker
    LIN Zongkeng, ZHANG Tianxiang, YANG Junjie
    2021, 42 (4):  945-950.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.005
    Abstract ( 123 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1466KB) ( 165 )  

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular marker was used to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship among 18 Moringa species in this study. A total of 104 bands were amplified from 18 tested germplasm resources by 13 pairs of core primer combinations selected from 170 pairs of primers. The average percentage of polymorphism was 62.50%. Observed alleles were 1.6250, effective alleles were 1.4777, Nei’s gene diversity was 0.2632 and Shannon’s information index was 0.3797, which showed 18 Moringa species existed high genetic diversity. According to Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient, when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.732, the Moringa germplasms could be divided into three categories. Among the 18 germplasms, apart from M. stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod., the rest materials were in category I or category II. Thereinto, category II contained 11 germplasms, mainly including M. oleifera Lam., its improved species ‘PKM1’ and ‘PKM2’, which derived from India. Besides, M. oleifera Lam., its improved species ‘PKM1’ and ‘PKM2’ which came from Hainan and Yunnan, China were clustered into category II. M. stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. which came from Rwanda was clustered in group III, indicating this material had further relationship with others. SRAP molecular marker reflects the genetic relationship among Moringa species and would provide a theoretical basis for the selection of Moringa hybrid parents.

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    Expression Pattern Analysis of Dendrobium ochreatum DoFT1 Gene During Flower Development and Its Functional Verification
    DU Zhihui, YANG Lan, YAO Xinzhuan, CHEN Zhilin
    2021, 42 (4):  951-957.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.006
    Abstract ( 134 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (6471KB) ( 163 )  

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene plays a key role in integrating flowering signals in plants.To study the function of the FT homologous gene and its role in tender stem flowering of Dendrobium Ochreatum, the FT homologous gene, named as DoFT1, was cloned from Den. Ochreatum on the basis of transcriptome sequencing results. DoFT1 contained a 537 bp open reading frame which encoding 178 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the DoFT1 belonged to the PEBP family, the conserved key amino acid residue Tyr84 and 11-AA stretch of FT homologs were identified in DoFT1. Phylogenetic tree results showed that DoFT1 was closely related to DcFT in Dendrobium candidum and PeFT in Phalaenopsis Equestris. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of DoFT1 was mainly located in leaf tissues, and its expression level was up-regulated during the flower bud differentiation phase, then showed a downward trend after reaching its peak at the flower bud phase. Over-expression of DoFT1 in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in earlier flowering compared to wild-type plants.

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    Germplasm Resources, Genetics & Breeding
    Screening of Sugarcane Parents and Crosses by Combining Ability Analysis
    TAN Fang, YANG Rongzhong, JING Yan, LEI Jingchao, WANG Lunwang, ZHOU Hui
    2021, 42 (4):  958-965.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.007
    Abstract ( 95 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (2965KB) ( 171 )  

    The objective of the present study was to understand the genetic characteristics and breeding potential of sugarcane crosses and parents, and to evaluate and screen sugarcane crosses and parents accurately. Family test of 146 crosses, including 126 parents, was carried on. Combining ability of the main traits of parents and crosses was calculated by R software, and cluster analysis was calculated by combining abilities of cane yield, brix, and sugar yield. 15 female parents, 13 male parents, and 13 crosses were selected with high combining ability of yield and sugar, respectively. Combining ability+cluster analysis method could be used to make a comprehensive analysis of the sugarcane parents and crosses. Crosses YT00-236×GT96-211, GT02-761×NJ03-218, and CP92-1167×CP07-2547 with better combining ability and comprehensive characters could be used as the productive crosses in sugarcane breeding.

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    Ploidy Determination of 29 Pitaya Germplasms Using Flow Cytometry
    HUANG Lifang, WU Zhijiang, LIANG Guidong, LU Guifeng, HUANG Fengzhu, LIU Chaoan, DENG Haiyan
    2021, 42 (4):  966-970.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.008
    Abstract ( 149 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (1546KB) ( 206 )  

    Pitaya which belongs to the cactus family includes two genus, Hylocereus and Seleniereus, the ploidy levels of different pitaya germplasms are still not clear. In order to clarify the ploidy of germplasm resources and the hybrids or mutants, the ploidy of 29 pitaya materials were identified by flow cytometry. 14 of 18 germplasm materials were diploid and others were tetraploid while no triploids were available. The 8 interploid hybrids and colchicine-induced mutants were identified as 3 triploids, 4 tetraploids and 1 diploid, which showed that polyploid materials could be obtained by intergeneric hybridization and chemical mutagenesis of pitaya. The results would provide an important reference basis for genetic evaluation and ploidy cross breeding of pitaya resources.

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    New Recorded Species of Orchidaceae from Zhejiang Province
    ZHOU Zhuang, BAO Honghua, WU Difei, REN Wenguan, XU Lingjun, DING Bingyang
    2021, 42 (4):  971-974.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.009
    Abstract ( 116 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (7976KB) ( 130 )  

    Four new records species of Orchidaceae in Zhejiang, China were reported, including Bulbophyllum retusiusculum Rchb. f., Cestichis pingtaoi G. D. Tang, X. Y. Zhuang & Z. J. Liu, Dendrobium zhenghuoense S. P. Chen, L. Ma & M. H. Li, Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.) J. J. Sm. The voucher specimens of the four species were deposited at the Herbarium of Wenzhou University (WZU). The newly reported plants would replenish the content of flora in Zhejiang Province and provide fundamental data for studying their geographical distribution.

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    Tissue Culture and Plant Regeneration of Amorphophallus bulbifer
    WEI Bo, PAN Denglang, LIU Zifan, ZENG Xianhai, LI Weifang
    2021, 42 (4):  975-981.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.010
    Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1441KB) ( 163 )  

    In order to explore the tissue culture and rapid propagation of Amorphophallus bulbifer, the leaves of different growth period of A. bulbifer were used as explants.The best surface sterilization was achieved by immersing the explants in the solution of 75% alcohol for 30 seconds then in 0.1% HgCl2 solution for 15 minutes and the survival rate reached 96.7%. The best callus induction medium was MS+TDZ 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.1 mg/L+sugar 30.0 g/L+agar 6.0 g/L and the callus induction rate reached 95.6%. The best bud induction medium was MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L+sugar 30.0 g/L+ agar 6.0 g/L on which the bud induction rate and number of differentiation buds of callus with unit inoculation quality reached 71.1% and 2.88. The best medium for rooting was MS+NAA 0.25 mg/L+sugar 15.0 g/L+agar 6.0 g/L, on which the rooting rate reached 100.0% and the average root number reached 1.36. Tissue culture and rapid propagation technology system of A. bulbifer was established by extruding scale leaves as explants,which reached the scale production technology level of konjac seedlings and is of positive significance to solve the problem of shortage of seed taro in the development of konjac industry.

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    Plant Cultivation, Physiology & Biochemistry
    Growth and Decline of Sugarcane Cultivar ‘ROC22’ in Guangxi Sugarcane Area from 2008 to 2017
    LIANG Qiang, LIU Xiaoyan, LI Yijie, LIN Li, WANG Zeping, LI Xiang, SONG Xiupeng, ZHOU Hui, LIN Shanhai, LI Yangrui
    2021, 42 (4):  982-990.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.011
    Abstract ( 89 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1608KB) ( 148 )  

    ‘ROC22’ was the most important sugarcane cultivar in Guangxi sugarcane production from 2008 to 2017. In this study, the performances of the agronomic traits of ‘ROC22’ in the regional trials of the new sugarcane cultivars in Guangxi during this period were investigated, combined with the analyses of its production performance, the changes in its planting area and economic benefit, to provide a reference for sugarcane breeding and cultivation. The tillering and ratoon-shooting ability of ‘ROC22’ declined with year increase while the plant height and stalk diameter fluctuated in a certain degree. Since 2012, the average productivity of ‘ROC22’ had been decreasing continuously, and its sucrose content also has been declining in a certain degree, especially declined more dramatically in November. The smut incidence rate had risen rapidly from 2.94% to 9.02%, and this disease had become the most important disease in Guangxi sugarcane production. The borer damage degree had been getting heavier year by year, and the rate of heart-withered shoots has risen from 2.29% to 4.27%. The planting area of this cultivar reached a peak in 2011, and then began decreasing rapidly, from 756.4×103 hm2 to 255.9×103 hm2, or 69.5% to 31.6% in proportion. The Guangxi farmers’ income from planting this cultivar decreased from 34.04 billion RMB in 2011/2012 milling season to 11.52 billion RMB in 2017/2018 milling season. It was concluded that ‘ROC22’ has contributed greatly to the development of Guangxi cane sugar industry as the main sugarcane cultivar for many years, but its characters have been degenerated dramatically with the increasing of planting years, its damage by pests and diseases has been heavier, and cane yield and sucrose content has been decreased considerably, so it will be unavoidable to be replaced by other new elite cultivars.

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    Effect of Agronomic Water Saving Measures on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane under Seasonal Drought
    AN Dongsheng, YAN Chengming, CHEN Xuan, XU Lei, LIU Yang, SU Junbo, KONG Ran, DOU Meian
    2021, 42 (4):  991-999.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.012
    Abstract ( 102 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1463KB) ( 153 )  

    A major objective of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of different agronomic water saving measures on sugarcane confronting seasonal drought. Four treatments including plastic film mulch + organic manure (T1), water retaining agent + organic manure (T2), sugarcane trash mulch + organic manure (T3), sugarcane trash mulch + water retaining agent (T4) and row-planting (CK) were conducted to explore the effects on relative soil water content (RSWC) and emergence rate (ER), root traits and photo-system indices, dry matter accumulation, agronomic and economic characters for tested cultivar ‘YT 94-128’. The results showed that mulch significantly increased RSWC under the early stage of drought, which was plastic film mulch > sugarcane trash mulch > no mulch, ER of T1 was significantly higher than CK. Compared with CK in 2015, the highest plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), and leaf length (LL) appeared in T1 (18.1%), T4 (30.6%), T1 (21.8%), respectively, but the PH, SD and leaf width (LW) of T2 significantly decreased. Fv/Fm and SPAD significantly increased in T1, +1 leaf PSII quantum efficiency (ΦPSII) significantly increased in T4, there was no significant difference among the other treatments. Dry matter accumulation for T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 94.5%, -37.0%, 53.4% and 79.9% higher than that of CK. T3 significantly increased the root length density (RLD), root surface area (RSA) and roots, which was opposite to T2. T2 and T3 possessed high single stalk weight (SSW) but the millable stalks (MS) were significantly lower than that of T1, which made T1 the highest yield. In 2016, there were no significant differences for agronomic characters, physiological indies and dry matter production among each treatment comparing with CK. But compared with 2015, the agronomic characters of T1, +1 leaf ΦPSII of all treatments and dry matter accumulation of T1, T2 and T3 decreased, while the agronomic characters of T2 and dry matter accumulation of T4 and CK increased. The root biomass and root length density of T3 were significantly higher than that of CK, resulted from the increase of fine roots. The result of the difference analysis between MS and yield was consistent.The Br° of T1, T2 and T3 was significantly higher than that of T4 and CK in both 2015 and 2016, reveling that organic manure improved the sugarcane quality. In conclusion, the agronomic water saving measures promoted the emergence rate and formed strong plants via reducing loss of soil moisture, which could increase the millable stalks and dry mater accumulation, and enhance the root system of sugarcane to resist the seasonal drought, which guaranteed the cane yield and quality.

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    Changes of Endogenous Hormone During Different Stages of Somatic Embryogenesis of Piper nigrum
    JI Xunzhi, HU Lisong, QIN Xiaowei, YANG Yiqiu, FAN Rui, HAO Chaoyun
    2021, 42 (4):  1000-1007.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.013
    Abstract ( 101 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1706KB) ( 167 )  

    In order to investigate the changes of endogenous hormones during different stages of somatic embryogenesis of P. nigrum, the endogenous hormones in five different development processes were detected at non-embryonic callus stage (Y), embryonic callus stage (P), mixed stage of embryonic callus and somatic embryo (H), somatic embryo stage (T) and stage of somatic embryo proliferation (Z) by the LC-MS/MS technique. The content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) decreased gradually in the period of H, T and Z during the process of pepper somatic embryogenesis. The content of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was the highest in the period of Y and the lowest in the period of P, and the content of IBA was basically unchanged in the period of H, T and Z. Indole-3- Formic acid (ICA) content was the highest in the period of H, and ICA only existed at callus stage. Isopentenyladenine (IP) content was the highest at H, and was the lowest at P and close to zero at T and Z. Zeatin (cZ) content was the highest at Y, and cZ content was close to zero at other stages. Methyl jasmonate (ME-JA) only existed at Y and P, and former content was higher than latter content. Jasmonic acid (JA) content was the highest at Z, JA content was the lowest at P and increased gradually at other stages. Salicylic acid (SA) content was the highest at H, and was the lowest at Y and increased after decreased at other stages. Abscisic acid (ABA) content was the highest at H, and was the lowest at P and unchanged basically at T and Z. Gibberellins (GAS) mainly existed at Y and P, the levels were low at H, T, and Z. Therefore, IAA, SA and ABA may be strongly correlated with somatic embryogenesis, while cZ, ME-JA and GAS may be strongly correlatws with callus production.

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    Effects of Different Levels of Nitrogen Application on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Pineapple Variety ‘MD-2’ at Early Growth Stage
    HAN Zhongyu, JIN Xin, DENG Yan, ZHAO Yan, LYU Liewu, HUANG Shunjian, LI Changjiang
    2021, 42 (4):  1008-1013.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.014
    Abstract ( 122 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1267KB) ( 165 )  

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the essential macro nutrients affecting plant growth and nutrient uptake. In this study, the effects of different application levels of N (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 300 mg/kg) on plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and nutrient uptake of pineapple variety ‘MD-2’ at early growth stage were investigated in a pot experiment. The leaf number, above-ground dry weight, root dry weight and total dry weight of the ‘MD-2’ pineapple plant continued to increase with the increase of N application level, and the growth was the best at 300 mg/kg. The content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid in D-leaf firstly increased and then decreased in response to increased N application level, reaching the maximum value at 100 mg/kg. Plant N, P and K uptake generally increased as the N application level went up. The content of Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn increased in stem and leaves with increased N application, but the Fe content reduced, and as a result the total uptake of investigated intermediate nutrients and micronutrients except Fe increased. To sum up, under the condition of this experiment, the increase of N application level promoted the growth and uptake of most nutrients of ‘MD-2’ pineapple.

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    Response of Quality and Yield in Red Pitaya to Change in Amounts of Chaff Organic Fertilizer
    LI Kun, YUE Xuewen, SHI Liangtao, LI Xiaoying, LI Jiancha, PAN Zhixian, CHEN Limei
    2021, 42 (4):  1014-1020.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.015
    Abstract ( 116 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1303KB) ( 147 )  

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the response of quality and yield in red pitaya to different amounts of chaff organic fertilizer to provide the theoretical foundation for red pitaya planting with chaff organic fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of five-year-old ‘Tainong No.2’ red pitaya under three levels of fertilization amounts. The following fertilizer treatments were applied: (1) low fertilization amounts (L) at 22 500 kg/hm2 chaff organic fertilizer, (2) moderate fertilization amounts (M) at 45 000 kg/hm2 chaff organic fertilizer, (3) high fertilization amounts (H) at 90 000 kg/hm2 chaff organic fertilizer. Reducing sugar, soluble protein, vitamin C (Vc), soluble solids, anthocyanin, and fruit yield were compared. The fruit quality, fruit number, and yield in some batches of red pitaya were significantly different among the three treatments. In batches with significant differences, the increase in fertilization amounts significantly increased anthocyanin, soluble solids, Vc, edible rate, fruit number and yield. Compared with L treatment, the anthocyanin content in the July 19 batch in M treatment significantly increased by 5.59%; the soluble solid in the September 6 batch in H treatment significantly increased by 6.95%; the Vc content in the October 23 batch in M and H treatment significantly increased by 24.11% and 14.29%; the fruit number in the September 6 batch in M and H treatment increased by 372.73% and 172.73%; the yield in the September 6 batch in M and H treatment increased by 373.44% and 165.63% (P<0.05). However, reducing sugar and soluble protein significantly decreased with the increasing fertilization amounts (P<0.05). The profitability of fertilization amounts in 22 500 kg/hm2 was the best among the three treatments, and this fertilization practice was relatively good at nutritional quality and edible rate of red pitaya fruit. The results suggest that the application amounts of chaff organic fertilizer significantly improve the quality and edible rate of red pitaya fruit.

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    Mathematical Model of Biomass Prediction of Hylocereus undatus Britt
    ZHANG Han, LI Hongli, LI Han, CHEN Qi, SUN Huiju, YANG Fusun
    2021, 42 (4):  1021-1028.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.016
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1481KB) ( 124 )  

    The biomass of crops is closely related to the formation of yield. The establishment of a biomass prediction model can analyze the growth of plants in real time, which is conducive to scientific management and reasonable fertilization. In this experiment, the biomass of pitaya was fitted by measuring some morphological indicators of three varieties of pitaya in three different periods. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of the fruit branches of the pitaya and the length, width and thickness of their leaf flesh significant correlation, the prediction model was W (resulting branch) = -43.5430+0.7100×leaf flesh length+0.5919×leaf flesh width+2.7955×leaf flesh thickness, the verification coefficient R is equal to 0.8760. The dry matter accumulation of pitaya flowers was closely related to indicators such as flower length and base diameter. Its prediction model was W (flower) = -14.8919+0.4499×flower length+4.5402×base diameter, and the verification coefficient R was equal to 0.8815. The dry matter accumulation of fruit was significantly related to the fruit diameter and aspect ratio. The prediction model was W (fruit) = -35.7435+16.3456×fruit diameter-62.6395×aspect ratio, and the verification coefficient R was equal to 0.8782. The accumulation of dry matter above the ground was significantly related to the number of branches, leaf thickness of the main stem, the number of nodes, the diameter of the pith, and the thickness of the pith. The prediction model was W (above ground)=0.058707+0.1337955×min number of branches+0.0153781×thickness of main stem leaf-0.041053 ×number of nodes-0.083695×diameter of xylem tube+0.2397029×tube wall thickness, verification coefficient R was 0.8864. In this paper, through the observation and analysis of multiple morphological indicators of red meat pitaya, an empirical model of red meat pitaya biomass prediction is established, which could estimate the biomass of fruit branches, flowers, fruits and aerial parts of pitaya plants, and has certain application value.

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    Influence of Different Altitude on Flower Bud Differentiation of ‘Guanximiyou’ Pummelo (Citrus grandis) in Different Altitudes
    HU Shaobin, WANG Jintao, ZHAO Qiuyue, DAI Yalan, LIU Ruonan, LIU Linting, ZHU Donghuang, LI Yan, WANG Ping
    2021, 42 (4):  1029-1034.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.017
    Abstract ( 105 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1555KB) ( 154 )  

    The diameter growth and flower bud differentiation of ‘Guanximiyou’ pummelo (Citrus grandis) spring shoot were studied at different elevations of 100 m and 500 m in Pinghe, Fujian to explore the influence of different elevations on flower bud differentiation, and to provide a basis for the adoption of pummelo girdling measures at different elevations. There were a few buds to start physiological differentiation at the end of September, and flower primordium formed gradually. The physiological differentiation began to accelerate when the diameter growth rate of spring shoot experienced a growth peak. The differentiation rate was higher at lower than at higher elevations during the same period. The flower bud entered a morphological differentiation stage when the diameter entered a low-speed growth period with a growth rate of about 1.4%. The time interval of reaching the same flower bud differentiation rate, entering low growth rate, entering morphological differentiation and flowering at low and high elevations were roughly consistent with about 14 d. Girdling could be carried out at the physiological differentiation stage and the initial stage of morphological differentiation of flower buds, the number of flowers and fruits could be increased, flowering and ripening advanced, the earlier the girdling time was, the more obvious they were. Therefore, compared with the traditional girdling in the middle of December, the time of girdling in low-altitude pummelo could be advanced to mid-October, while high-altitude pomelo in early November or so, it had good effect of promoting flower and made the fruit ripened ahead of time.

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    Analysis on the Law of Psidium guajava L. Fruit Growth and Nutritional Quality
    ZHANG Chaokun, HUANG Wanli, CHEN Hongbin, KANG Shicheng
    2021, 42 (4):  1035-1040.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.018
    Abstract ( 108 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1511KB) ( 162 )  

    The study of the changes of fruit growth and nutritional quality of two varieties of Psidium guajava L. would provide a reference for formulating high-yield and high-quality cultivation techniques of Psidium guajava L. and the promotion of varieties. The fruits of varieties ‘Rainbow’ and ‘Ruby’ cultivated in Zhangzhou City, Fujian Province were used as the test materials. Samples were taken every 7 d until the fruit matured from the first day after flowering. Single fruit quality, fruit longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter, fruit shape index, soluble solids, titratable acid, total sugar and vitamin C and other indicators were assayed. ‘Rainbow’ and ‘Ruby’ Psidium guajava L. The fruit mass growth curves of the varieties were very similar, which showing a “fast-slow-fast” double S-shaped dynamic change curve. The quality growth process could be divided into three growth periods, the first expansion period, growth slow period and the second expansion period. The change of longitudinal and transverse diameter in the whole growth process was also divided into three growth periods, two growth peak periods and one slow growth period, which was expressed as a “fast-slow-fast” double S-shaped dynamic change curve, and the shape of the fruit changed from oblong to elliptical. The second expansion of fruit (‘Rainbow’ 78-113 d after flowering, ‘Ruby’ 71-99 d after flowering), the soluble solids, titratable acid, total sugar and vitamin C content of the two varieties increased with time. But the content of soluble solids, titratable acid and vitamin C of ‘Ruby’ was significantly higher than that of ‘Rainbow’ in the whole process.

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    Effect of Bagasse on Growth of Ganoderma Mycelium and Evaluation of Strain Preservation
    ZHANG Liulian, HUANG Qinghua, WANG Lining, WANG Qingfu, LIANG Lei, LIN Mingwei
    2021, 42 (4):  1041-1046.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.019
    Abstract ( 112 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3218KB) ( 147 )  

    In order to select the most suitable culture medium for the rejuvenation and preservation method of Ganoderma strains, by adding different contents of bagasse extract as the medium for the rejuvenation and observed hypha growth rate under different culture medium and growth conditions, and through the comparison of several different preservation methods on the vigor and the analysis of the enzyme activity. The results showed that the mycelium growth was better promoted by adding extraction solution of bagasse into PDA medium, and the mycelium growth rate of Ganoderma lucidum GL102, Ganoderma sinensis GS63 and GS15 increased by 48%, 70% and 28% respectively with the addition of 100 g/L bagasse extract. Compared with PDA preservation and paraffin oil preservation medium, bagasse preservation of Ganoderma mycelia grew fast, grew well and had high dehydrogenase activity. It was concluded that bagasse can be used for the rejuvenation and preservation of Ganoderma strains.

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    Effects of Eclamation and Fertilization on Growth and Soil Nutrient Content after Strip Clear Cutting in Phyllostachys Edulis Forests
    ZHANG Yangyang, FAN Lili, HUANG Xia, XIONG Tingting, RONG Jundong, LI Shikun, ZHENG Yushan
    2021, 42 (4):  1047-1054.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.020
    Abstract ( 77 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1491KB) ( 128 )  

    In order to understand the effect of reclaiming and fertilizing management method on the rapid regeneration of bamboo forest after strip clear cutting of Phyllostachys edulis forest, the optimal combination model was screened to provide a theoretical basis for efficient cultivation in the process of regeneration and restoration of P .edulis forest.In this study, taking the Phyllostachys edulis forest in Zhangping City, Fujian Province as the research object., set 8 m strip clear cutting widths,and using applying fertilizer to the base of bamboo (A), the reclamation method (B) and ratio of fertilizatio (C) 3 factors 3 levels L9 (34) orthogonal test Design,to explore the effects of reforestation and fertilization of P. edulis forest on Shoot yield, Stand density index, and soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium nutrient content, and to analyze the relationship between the growth of new bamboo and soil nutrients. The results show that the three factors have the same order of importance on bamboo shoot output and stand bamboo degree, all of which are B>C>A, but they have different performances on different nutrient indicators of the soil, of which factor B is the most important factor; correlation analysis The results showed that the shoot output and stand bamboo degree were significantly positively correlated with soil total phosphorus, total potassium, and available potassium (P<0.05), and the shoot output was significantly correlated with stand bamboo degree and stand bamboo degree, and soil available potassium (P<0.01). Considering comprehensively the effect of reforestation of bamboo land after strip felling, the optimal combination of reclamation and fertilization is A3B2C3, that is, bamboo fertilization 2(200 g/base of bamboo), the reclamati on method is deep stripping, and the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is 17: 8: 5.

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    Soil Improvement and Application Effect of a Novel Tobacco Soil Conditioner on Sandy Soil
    LU Yusheng, GU Wenjie, LI Jiqin, YANG Shaohai, LI Shuling, SUN Lili, LI Wanling, HUANG Zhenrui, LIU Yixuan
    2021, 42 (4):  1055-1060.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.021
    Abstract ( 84 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1221KB) ( 116 )  

    A pot experiment of a newly developed conditioner was conducted to investigate the impact on soil physicochemical properties of sandy soil, the promotion of tobacco growth, and tobacco quality and to compare the soil improvement effects of novel tobacco soil conditioner and other three products in tobacco-sandy mud fields. The novel soil conditioner promoted the growth and development of tobacco. Compared with the control treatment, the effective leaf number and stem fresh weight of the novel soil conditioner treatment increased significantly by 10.71% and 54.3%. The amount of 1604.18 g was significantly higher than that of the control treatments including Jiandi conditioning agent treatment, and Yanyebao conditioning agent treatment. The application of the novel soil conditioner treatment significantly improved the soil physicochemical properties of the sandy soil. Before transplanting, the soil pH was significantly increased to 7.36, and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the soil were significantly increased by 22.5% and 48.8% respectively. The novel soil conditioner treatment significantly increased the reducing sugar and potassium content of tobacco leaves. In conclusion, under the conditions of the pot experiment, the novel soil conditioner had a better effect on improving the sandy soil and promoting the growth of tobacco.

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    Plant Protection & Bio-safety
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase Gene of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae
    YAO Quansheng, YANG Qian, LIU Feng, ZHAN Rulin
    2021, 42 (4):  1061-1065.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.022
    Abstract ( 110 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1413KB) ( 158 )  

    Mango bacterial black spot which is caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae is one of the most important bacterial diseases in mango. In this study, the CEL gene from Xcm was cloned using the homologous cloning method, the biochemical feature, tertiary structure and phosphorylation sites of the CEL protein were predicted by a variety of bioinformatics softwares. The results showed that the total length of cDNA was 1134 bp, encoding 377 amino acid polypeptides. The molecular weight of the protein was 40.72 kDa, the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.01, the instability index was 39.93, which was a stable protein, the hydrophilicity was -0.081, and there was a signal peptide in the endoglucanase. The total phosphorylation sites were 51, with no transmembrane helix. In the secondary structure prediction, the α - helix, β - corner, irregular curl and extended structure was 35.28%, 6.10%, 16.45% and 42.18%, respectively. According to the prediction of conservative domain, it had cellular conservative domains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CEL gene had the closest genetic relationship with X. citri pv. punicae str. LMG 859 (CCF67690.1). Using gyrB, GAPHD and rpoD as internal reference genes, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CEL expression was increasingly higher with the Xcm infecting mango leaves after 12 hours. The maximum expression was at 72 hours, which suggested that the gene played an important role in the infection of Xcm.

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    Isolation, Identification and Functional Analysis of Intestinal Microorganisms of Brontispa longissimi Gestro
    ZHANG Yulu, LYU Baoqian, YANG Fan, TU Yan, JIANG Fangyiding, QI Kexin, LI Zicheng
    2021, 42 (4):  1066-1070.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.023
    Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1309KB) ( 140 )  

    Brontispa longissima Gestro is one of the major invasive pests of Palmae in recent years, which has great damage to many Palmae plants. In this paper, we isolated and cultured the intestinal symbiotic bacteria of B. longissimi Gestro, and identified its related functions, in order to explore the role of intestinal symbiotic bacteria on the environmental adaptability of B. longissimi Gestro. The intestinal symbiotic bacteria of B. longissimi Gestro were isolated and cultured, DNA was extracted, amplified and identified with universal primers, and analyzed its function by transparent circle staining experiment. 22 culturable bacteria and 2 fungi were isolated and sequenced from the larval intestines. The gut bacteria were dominated by Proteobacteria. Preliminary functional analysis proved biodegradable activity on cellulose of the strains of Bacillus and xylan of the strains of Rhodococcus fascians. There were microorganisms that could degrade cellulose and xylan in the intestines of B. longissimi Gestro, and they occuped a certain dominant position. Therefore, B. longissimi can damage a variety of Palmae plants with high cellulose content, and this kind of intestinal symbiotic bacteria also provide some help for the adaptability of B. longissimi Gestro to the new environment.

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    Effect of Silicon Fertilizer on Sugarcane Production and Its Resistance to Stalk Borer
    LIN Zhaoli, ZHANG Hua, LUO Jun, GAO Shiwu, YAO Junli, XU Liping
    2021, 42 (4):  1071-1079.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.024
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1216KB) ( 152 )  

    In order to validate the effect of silicon fertilizer on the increase of sugarcane resistance to Chilo sacchariphagus Bojer, the silicon content, the resistance indexes of stalk borer and yield traits of sugarcane were investigated under the natural population of stalk borer in the field. The application amount range of 187.5-750 kg/hm2 silicon fertilizer could significantly increase the silicon content in sugarcane in the whole growth period, significantly reduce the boring rate and damage degree of stalk borer. The positive responses observed due to the amount of silicon fertilizer were consistent with the content of silicon in sugarcane and the indexes of stalk borer resistance. In term of the results of factor analysis, the seven resistance indexes could be simplified to three main factors, including the damage factor of stalk borer at seedling stage, the damage factor of stalk borer and growth and development factors of stalk borer at technically matured stage. The rate of dead heart at seeding stage, the rate of bored internodes and the rate of adult emergence at technically matured stage could be used as the indexes for evaluation the effect of silicon fertilizer on sugarcane resistance to stalk borer. Based on the stepwise regression analysis, the dead heart rate and the length of cumulative tunnels among the seven resistance indicators had the greatest effect on sugarcane yield. The dosage of 562.5 kg/hm2 silicon fertilizer could result in the best effects on the control of sugarcane borer and increment of sugarcane yield. This study shows that silicon fertilizer can significantly increase the silicon content in sugarcane and enhance the resistance to stalk borer, and thus effectively reduces the occurrence and damage of stalk borer, together with the promotion to increase sugarcane yield and income.

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    Biological Characteristics of the Pathogen and Fungicides Screening in Laboratory for Anthracnose of Passiflora edulia Sims
    RAN Fei, CHEN Jia, MO Feixu, FAN Rong, YIN Xianhui, LONG Youhua, WU Xiaomao
    2021, 42 (4):  1080-1085.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.025
    Abstract ( 103 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1378KB) ( 138 )  

    The experiment was conducted in order to clarify the biological characteristics of Colletotrichum karstii and screen fungicides with better prevention and control. The mycelial growth rate method was applied to explore the biological characteristics of the pathogen and the laboratory toxicity of 9 fungicides to the pathogen. Results indicated that the pathogen was suitable for growth on the SDAY medium with the optimum pH of 6 to 9 and the suitable growth temperature of 20 to 30 ℃, preferably 25 ℃. Besides, it could efficiently utilize sucrose and glycine. Laboratory toxicity test revealed that 9 fungicides had a certain inhibitory effect on the growth of the mycelium of the pathogen. Among them, 75% trifloxystrobin·tebuconazole WG was the most effective with an EC50 of 0.0667 mg/L, followed by procyclidine·azoxystrobin 18.7% SE, fluxapyroxad·pyraclostrobin 42.4% SC, pyraclostrobin 25% SC, prochloraz-manganese chloride complex 50% WP with an EC50 of 0.3335, 0.4567, 0.4630, 0.8187 mg/L, respectively.

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    Identification of the Pathogen of Stenotaphrum helferi Leaf Spot
    ZHENG Jinlong, LIU Wenbo, HE Chunping, YI Kexian, XI Jingen, LIANG Yanqiong, Gbokie Jr Thomas, WU Yang
    2021, 42 (4):  1086-1091.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.026
    Abstract ( 157 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1688KB) ( 147 )  

    This study aimed to identify the pathogen of the leaf spot of Stenotaphrum helferi. A total of 61 leaf samples of S. helferi with suspected leaf spot disease were collected from six provinces in China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Fujian and Jiangsu), the United States and the South Africa. The potential causal agents were isolated and 120 bacterial strains were obtained. The strains were identified in morphology, and by conducting pathogenicity assay in the accesions from Hainan. In addition, the strains were identified by the PCR method based on the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (rDNA-ITS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-tubulin (TUB2) sequences. The analysis followed Koch's law and showed 40 strains with no pathogenisis, 70 strains with weak pathogenisis, and 10 strains with strong pathogenisis. The strains of No.55 with strong pathogenisis were selected for morphological observation, and the pathogens of the disease were preliminarily determined. Sequence identities of rDNA-ITS, GAPDH and TUB2 between No.55 strains and Curvularia lunata reached 99%, suggesting that the pathogenic bacteria of the leaf spot in S. helferi was C. lunata. Our findings would provide data to support future studies on the epidemiology, resistance mechanism and control strategy of the leaf spot disease of bluestocked grass.

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    Different Roles of Beauveria bassiana Bbchitinase 1 and Bbchitinase 2 in Host Infection
    WANG Yongsong, GENG Tao, LU Fuping, WU Huazhou, LOU Dezhao, TU Nana, WANG Shuchang
    2021, 42 (4):  1092-1098.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.027
    Abstract ( 94 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1853KB) ( 112 )  

    Two extracellular chitinases were secreted by Beauveria bassiana during the infection process, named as Bbchitinase 1 and Bbchitinase 2, but the roles were not clear yet. The correlation analysis between chitinase activity and virulence, correlation analysis between gene expression level and virulence, bioinformatics analysis and expression patterns assay were performed in this paper in order to clarify different roles of Bbchitinase 1 and Bbchitinase 2. Statistical analysis and inhibition test showed that extracellular chitinase activitiy was positively correlated with the virulence, while the expression levels of Bbchitinase 1 and Bbchitinase 2 were different in strains. The expression level of Bbchitinase 1 was positively correlated with the virulence of the strains (MMT and LT50); meanwhile, there was no significant relationship between Bbchitinase 1 and virulence of the strains. In addition, the bioinformatics analysis showed that there were significant differences in structure and function of Bbchitinase 1 and Bbchitinase 2, which might combine with different ligands and participate in different metabolic processes. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis showed that Bbchitinase 1 was significantly up-regulated only in the formation of penetration peg and penetration of perisoma stage of infection, meanwhile Bbchitinase 2 was slightly up-regulated in the formation of blastospore stage and significantly up-regulated in the mycelial vegetative growth stage. The results suggested that Bbchitinase 1 might be involved into body wall penetration at early infection stage and had positive correlation with virulence, while Bbchitinase 2 into the proliferation and metabolism of mycelium at the later infection stage. The results of this study clarified the role of different chitinases in the infection process of B. bassiana, and established a mathematical model to determine the virulence of B. bassiana based on the expression level of Bbchitinase 1 gene, which provides the important scientific basis for screening of high toxicity and high stability biocontrol strains and great significance for improving the application effect of green ecological control.

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    Identification and Biological Characteristics of the Pathogen Causing Postharvest Decay of Cowpea
    HONG Xiaoyu, LI Min, GONG Deqiang, GAO Zhaoyin, YANG Yan, WANG Yi, HU Meijiao
    2021, 42 (4):  1099-1105.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.028
    Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (4904KB) ( 152 )  

    Cowpea is one of the most important winter vegetables in Hainan. The postharvest decay was occasionally found during storage of cowpea in 2019. The pathogen was confirmed to be Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. based on cultural features, pathogenicity, morphological characteristics and molecular identification. In this study, the biological characteristics of P. aphanidermatum were preliminarily studied by the mycelium growth rate method. The results showed that the suitable temperature was 30 ℃ to 35 ℃, and the optimum temperature was 35 ℃. The lethal temperature was 50 ℃ for 10 min. The suitable pH value was 7.0 to 9.0, and the optimum pH value was 9.0. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source were starch and peptone, respectively. Different light had no effect on the colony growth. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. aphanidermatum caused postharvest decay of cowpea in China.

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    Post-harvest Treatment & Quality Safety
    Extraction, Isolation and Identification of Coconut Protein from Coconut Milk
    LIN Yuan, WU Yuwei, WANG Yan, JI Zherong, LE Xueyi
    2021, 42 (4):  1106-1112.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.029
    Abstract ( 197 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (2579KB) ( 190 )  

    In order to better understand the quality of coconut protein in commercially available coconut milk, 10 types of coconut milk were used as the samples bought from the market. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and sodium laurylsulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to analyze the extracted proteins, identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). There were two peaks in RP-HPLC of coconut milk at 10.4 min and 11.9 min, the peak area of most samples were consistent with the protein label content. The number of SDS-PAGE bands and intensity were consistent with the peak area results obtained by RP-HPLC. Some samples had high label content, and SDS-PAGE could separate more protein bands, but the peak area of coconut protein from RP-HPLC was small. The protein bands were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and no coconut-related peptides or proteins were identified. This method could be used for the isolation and identification of coconut protein in coconut milk.

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    Effects of Rice Seed Protein Composition and Accumulation Morphology on Rice Quality
    LIU Huifang, WU Fugui, NIE Jiajun, WEI Yunfei, MA Qilin
    2021, 42 (4):  1113-1119.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.030
    Abstract ( 82 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (3551KB) ( 169 )  

    A hydroponic test is set for the processing of CK (nitrogen 2800 μmol/L, sulfur 80 μmol/L), N (nitrogen 3640 μmol/L, sulfur 80 μmol/L), S (nitrogen 2800 μmol/L, sulfur 260 μmol/L) and N+S (nitrogen 3640 μmol/L, sulfur 260 μmol/L) for the ‘16-17’ (with high content of the precursor polymer of glutelin) and ‘16-20’ (with low content of the precursor polymer of glutelin), by changing the rice quality and the composition and content of rice storage protein, in order to analyze the rice protein components and related quality traits. The crude protein content increased under different processing of N, S and N+S, that of ‘16-20’ significantly increased by 2.35%, 2.67% and 2.73%. The content of prolamin and glutelin of ‘16-17’ increased by 9.75%, 4.21% and 4.67%, 3.92%, 7.38% and 12.92%, respectively for the two varieties. The glutelin content of ‘16-20’ significantly increased by 17.72% and 29.38% under the processing of S, the prolamin content increased by 3.73% under the processing of N+S,the percentage of globulin was reduced by 2.86%, 3.78% and 3.69% under the processing of N, S and N+S., and the albumin significantly reduced under the processing of N and S. The relative content of the two subunits of glutelin, 57 kDa glutelin precursor and glutelin polymer obviously increased in ‘16-20’. With regard to rice quality, the combined application of N and S didn’t generate obvious impact on the grinding quality of the two varieties, but was conductive to improving the appearance quality and taste quality of the two varieties, and significantly increased the nutritional quality of ‘16-20’. Besides, the thousand seed weight of ‘16-20’ significantly increased under the processing of S and N+S. Hence, under the combined application of N and S, the protein stored in different varieties of rice has great difference in the component and accumulation form, and changes the accumulation amount and accumulation form of the compounds containing sulfydryl proteins. Especially in the condition of abundant S, the protein forms much sulfydryl and disulfide bond in the accumulation process and changes the polymerization contents among protein subunit containing the sulfydryl through disulfide bond to form glutelin polymer with different molecular weight. As a result, the accumulation form of the protein has obvious change, further changing the relevant quality of rice.

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    Extraction of Camellia Oil from Wuyi Shuixian Tea by Ethanol and Quality Analysis
    YU Lizhi, LIU Qilin, ZHANG Tingting, FU Chunjin
    2021, 42 (4):  1120-1126.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.031
    Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1354KB) ( 131 )  

    The extraction of camellia oil of Wuyi Shuixian tea was carried out by aqueous ethanol. The effects of extraction temperature, ratio of material to liquid, concentration of ethanol and pH on the extraction rate were investigated by the single factor experiment. The orthogonal experiment design was used to optimize the extraction conditions. The results showed that the best extraction conditions were ethanol concentration 30% (V/V), material to liquid ratio 1∶7, pH 9, extraction temperature 60 ℃, under which the extraction rate of camellia oil was 93.61%. 18 kinds of fatty acids were detected in the extracted camellia oil from Wuyi Shuixian tea, mainly oleic acid (51.77%), linoleic acid (23.14%), ΣSFA∶ΣMUFA∶ΣPUFA = 1∶2.64∶1.27, and all physicochemical indexes measured meet the national standards. The results show that camellia oil from Wuyi Shuixian tea is a kind of plant edible oil with high nutritional value. The conclusion could provide theoretical basis for the extraction and quality evaluation of tea seed oil in Wuyishan tea production area.

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    Macroporous Resin Purification Process and Component Analysis of Pithecellobium clypearia Polyphenols
    LI Zhichao, FU Yongmei, ZHANG Shu, CHEN Xianglan, XIE Zhenhui, DENG Hong
    2021, 42 (4):  1127-1135.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.032
    Abstract ( 114 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1854KB) ( 155 )  

    The aim of the study was to establish and optimize the purification process of Pithecellobium clypearia polyphenols and qualitatively analyze its components. In this study, the crude polyphenol extract of P. clypearia was used as the raw material, and the optimal macroporous resin was screened based on the adsorption and desorption effects. Taking adsorption, desorption and purity as the evaluation indexes, the influence of various technological parameters on the purification of polyphenols by AB-8 resin was investigated. Finally, the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was used for qualitative analysis of polyphenol composition. AB-8 resin was preferred, the crude extract was loaded with 10 BV at a mass concentration of 3 mg/mL and a flow rate of 1 mL/min (column volume: 1 BV=10 mL), after washing with water, eluted with 60% ethanol 5 BV at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Under this process condition, the purity of polyphenol reached 58.64%. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS qualitatively analyzed 14 components of purified. The purification process of the established P. clypearia polyphenols was stable and feasible, and the qualitative analysis of its components was realized, which would provide a basis for further research.

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    Analysis of Composition and Content of Anthoxanthins in Petals of Freesia hybrida
    ZHU Jiayi, TANG Dongqin, LI Xin
    2021, 42 (4):  1136-1144.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.033
    Abstract ( 106 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1742KB) ( 139 )  

    In this study, the petal color of Freesia hybrida was measured by the colorimetric card and color meter, then the composition and content of anthoxanthins in petals were analyzed using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS in order to explore the relationship between petal color and the anthoxanthins content. The results showed that 5 flavonoid aglycones, up to 13 flavones and flavonols, were detected in the petals of F. hybrida for the first time. Quercetin and its glycosides proved to be an important flavonol in the petals. During flowering stages, the content of anthoxanthins decreased in general. There were significant differences in the content and components of anthoxanthins among cultivars, namely the content in red and purple cultivars, especially in ‘SN Hongtaige’, ‘Red Passion’ and ‘Castor’, were significantly higher than that in yellow and white cultivars. Significant difference in the content of anthoxanthins between the top and the base petals of ‘Red Passion’ and ‘Castor’ was reported. Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the accumulation of anthoxanthins and the brightness of the petals. The redness of petals showed a significantly positive correlation with quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides, and a positive correlation with naringenin and kaempferol glycosides. The saturation of petals was positively correlated with kaempferol glycosides. Anthoxanthins proved to be closely related to flower color.

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    Agricultural Ecology & Environmental Protection
    Comparison on Biomass and Carbon Storage of Rubber Plantation with Other Types of Forest in Xishuangbanna
    XU Rui, XIE Jiang, YAN Xiangshuai, ZHANG Yongbo, CHEN Guoyun, HUANG Jing, ZHOU Huiping
    2021, 42 (4):  1145-1153.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.034
    Abstract ( 150 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1381KB) ( 177 )  

    In order to better understand the role of rubber plantation in carbon sink of local system, the biomass, carbon storage and distribution characteristics of mature rubber plantation and other 2 types of plantation (macadamia plantation and tea plantation) in Xishuangbanna were studied. The whole plants of average woods were completely harvested, and the samples of soil, undergrowth and litter were collected by sample survey method. After the weight and C content of all samples were practically measured, the biomass and carbon storage were calculated. The total biomass of rubber plantation was (289.18±15.15)t/hm2, and of which wood biomass accounted for 97.06%. The total carbon storage of rubber plantation was (285.02±15.12)t/hm2, and of which soil carbon reserve accounted for 54.18% and wood carbon reserve accounted for 45.30%. The total biomass of rubber plantation was much higher than that of tea plantation [(56.82±12.10)t/hm2] and macadamia plantation [(44.46±3.83)t/hm2], but showing same distribution characteristics that wood biomass was the majority while litter and undergrowth was the fraction. The total carbon storage of rubber plantation was also much higher than macadamia plantation [(162.70±3.83)t/hm2] and tea plantation [(112.03±8.52)t/hm2], and the proportion of soil carbon reserves was the largest, followed by wood carbon reserves. However, in macadamia plantation and tea plantation, the proportion of soil carbon reserves (88.18% and 77.64%) was far higher than that of wood carbon reserves (10.76% and 21.70%). Although the biomass and carbon storage of rubber plantation were much lower than tropical rainforest (biomass 420 t/hm2, carbon storage 310 t/hm2), but higher than other types of plantation. Furthermore, adopting mixed rubber plantation could significantly promote biomass accumulation as well as carbon storage and sequestration, improving the net productivity and carbon sink of rubber plantation ecosystem. This study could provide basis for assessing the impact of rubber plantation on the carbon balance of regional ecosystem.

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    Prediction Model of Annual Rubber Potential Productivity Based on Climatic Suitability
    LIU Shaojun, TONG Jinhe, CHEN Xiaomin, LI Weiguang
    2021, 42 (4):  1154-1158.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.035
    Abstract ( 112 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1307KB) ( 144 )  

    In order to accurately evaluate the change of rubber potential productivity in the rubber tree planting areas, the meteorological impact index of rubber production and rubber tree climatic suitability index were established respectively based on the remote sensing and climate data from 2000 to 2015. Prediction model of annual rubber potential productivity based on climatic suitability was developed by the statistical analysis and ArcGIS spatial analysis function, the spatial resolution of the model was 1 km × 1 km, which realized the refined evaluation of rubber potential productivity, and overcome the defect of relying on single station data to predict rubber productivity. The results showed that the model can objectively and quantitatively predict the rubber production capacity in different regions based on climate data, and can distinguish the differences in study regions from a macro perspective, which can provide the rubber refinement meteorological decision-making service.

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    Stock and Nutrient Characteristics of Litter at Different Forest Types in the Southeast Coast of Hainan Island
    CHEN Yiqing, CHEN Zongzhu, CHEN Xiaohua, LEI Jinrui, LI Yuanling, WU Tingtian
    2021, 42 (4):  1159-1165.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.036
    Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1586KB) ( 114 )  

    This paper aims to investigate the difference of the existing litter stock and nutrient element storage capacity of different forest types in tropical coastal areas. Selecting Casuarina equisetifolia forest and Vatica mangachapoi forest with almost the same habitat conditions in the Southeast coast of Hainan Island, permanent plots were established in each vegetation community. Litter samples were collected from un-decomposed layer litter, semi-decomposed layer litter and decomposed layers. The standing crop of litter, the main nutrient elements content, reserves and release rates were measured. The standing crop of litter in C. equisetifolia forest was 29.49 t/hm2, which was twice that of Vatica mangachapoi forest and different decomposition layers were in the order of decomposed layer>semi-decomposed layer> un-decomposed layer. The content of the main nutrients in litters layer and its different decomposed layers was in the order of C>N>Mg>K>P at the two types, with the decomposition of litter, the content of various nutrient elements in green forest decreased step by step, C. equisetifolia forest was different with different nutrient elements, but the content was the lowest in the decomposed litter layer. The loss rate of excessive loss of C content in litters was greater than the rate of decomposition and release of nutrients, resulting in the relative increase of N, P and Mg content in the semi-decomposition layer. The nutrient reserve value of litter layer in C. equisetifolia forest was 8448.23 kg/hm2, which was twice as much as that of Vatica mangachapoi forest, the storage of nutrient elements in litter layer followed the order of C>N>Mg>K>P, consistent with nutrient element content change rule. The nutrient release rate increased from the un-decomposed layer (-1.79%, -0.97%) to the semi-decomposed layer (0.65%, 1.23%). In summary, under the same habitat condition, the difference of litter stock, nutrient content and reserve in different forest types may be related to the biological characteristics of plant leaves, microenvironmental conditions, microbial population and activity.

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    Effects of Green Manure on Weed Diversity and Functional Groups in Coffee Orchards
    FU Xingfei, HU Faguang, LI Guiping, HE Hongyan, HUANG Jiaxiong, LUO Xinping, LI Ya’nan, ZHANG Xiaofang, LYU Yulan
    2021, 42 (4):  1166-1174.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.037
    Abstract ( 85 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1291KB) ( 116 )  

    In order to explore the effects of green manure on the weed diversity and functional groups in coffee orchards, the weed communities were investigated in three types of conventional planting coffee orchard CK, coffee orchard with green manure Sesbania cannabina (SC) and coffee orchard with green manure Macrotyloma uniflorum (MU) in Baoshan County, Yunnan Province. 21 species of weeds belonging to 12 families were found in coffee orchard CK, 16 species of weeds belonging to 10 families were found in coffee orchard SC, 10 species of weeds belonging to 7 families were found in coffee orchard MU. There were 10 species of weeds with niche breadth greater than 0.600 in the three types of coffee garden, including 6 species of weeds in coffee orchard CK, 2 species in coffee orchard SC and 3 species in coffee orchard MU. The species richness, individual number, ACE estimate, Fisher α index, Shannon-Wiene index and biomass of weeds in the coffee garden planted with green manure were lower than those in the conventional coffee garden, among which the species richness, ACE estimate and fresh weight of weeds reached significant levels. The weed community structures of the conventional planting coffee orchard were dissimilar with coffee orchard SC and coffee orchard MU. The function group of monocotyledonous annual or biennial plants in the three types of coffee garden was the most dominant, but the proportion of green manure coffee garden was higher. The niche, community structure and functional group of the weed community were changed, the diversity of the weed community was reduced, and the weed communities were affected by planting green manure in coffee orchards.

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    Population Composition and Diversity Features of Weed in Farmland of Karst Rocky Desertification Region of Baoshan, Yunnan, China
    LIU Qian, YAN Wei, ZHANG Linhui, SHEN Zhengsong, XIONG Xiankun, LI Zhongxian, ZHOU Yingchun, DUAN Chunfang, JIANG Tailing, LI Yuexian, LI Ya’nan, TAI Jie, DU Li, LIU Guanghua
    2021, 42 (4):  1175-1181.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.038
    Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1146KB) ( 123 )  

    In order to understand the population composition and diversity features of weeds in farmland of karst rocky desertification region of Baoshan, Yunnan, and to provides a basis for the scientific control of local farmland weeds, a survey on the diversity of farmland weeds was carried out in the main crops (Pennisetum sinese Roxb, Juglans regia L., Nicotiana tabacum L. and Zea mays L.) in the rocky desertification region of Baoshan. There were 49 species of weeds in 30 families in the region, of which Compositae and Gramineae weeds had the most species. The top ten weeds with the highest occurrence frequency were Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch.-Bip., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Commelina communis, Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) Hara, Polygonum nepalense Meisn., Siegesbeckia orientalis L., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Drymaria diandra, Acalypha australis L.. The top ten weeds in the niche breadth value were consistent with the most frequent weed species. Juglans regia L. fields had the largest number of weed species and Nicotiana tabacum L. fields the least. The average of Shannon (H) index and evenness of the plots was 2.83 and 0.64, respectively. The Jaccard dissimilarity coefficient and Baray-Curtis distance coefficient of Juglans regia L. and Nicotiana tabacum L. were the largest between the farmland. The smallest Jaccard dissimilarity coefficient was Nicotiana tabacum L. and Zea mays L., the Baray-Curtis distance coefficient was Juglans regia L. and Zea mays L., and the averages was 0.67 and 0.74, respectively. It shows that the diversity of weeds in the farmland of karst rocky desertification area of Baoshan is high, and the weed control should be combined with soil climate and agricultural operation scientific controls.

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    A Preliminary Study on the Distribution Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Community in Tea Plantations with Different Habitats of Jingmai Mountain, Yunnan, China
    YANG Ruijuan, WANG Qiaomei, PENG Wenshu, GONG Wanying, ZHAO Miaomiao, YAN Liang
    2021, 42 (4):  1182-1189.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.039
    Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1468KB) ( 133 )  

    To explore the diversity and difference of rizosphere soil microbial community structure in tea gardens of different habitats in Pu-erh tea area of Jingmai Mountain, so as to better ensure the consistency of microorganisms in Pu-erh tea production in the original place of Jingmai Mountain, the plate coating separation technology was used to culture the microorganisms collected from three organic terraced tea gardens (TS-A, TS-B, TS-C) and Jingmai Mountain ancient tea garden (GS-D), and the molecular biology technology was used to identify the species. A total of 417 strains of bacteria and 143 strains of fungi were isolated and purified, respectively distributed in 27 bacterial genera and 18 fungal genera. The rizosphere microbial diversity of the four tea gardens was different, the order of bacterial diversity and fungal diversity was GS-D>TS-A>TS-C>TS-B and TS-A>TS-B>TS-C>GS-D, respectively. The soil rizosphere microbial communities of the four tea gardens all contained Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium, Bacillus and Penicillium were the dominant genera. The results showed that the composition of the rizosphere soil microbial community in different habitats of Jingmai Mountain was different. The bacterial diversity of the three terraced tea gardens was lower than that of the ancient tea garden, but the fungal diversity was higher than that of the ancient tea garden. More intercropped plants would result in higher bacterial diversity and fungal diversity in organic terraced tea gardens. More varieties of tea trees would lead to higher bacterial diversity and lower fungal diversity in terraced tea gardens.

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    Sorption of Oxytetracycline by Biochar with DOMs Preloading Treatment
    SU Fan, WU Tingxun, DENG Hui, ZHAO Yuanyuan, LIN Tian, YU Huamei, WU Xiaochen, GE Chengjun
    2021, 42 (4):  1190-1197.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.040
    Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (3555KB) ( 115 )  

    In the present work, biochar (BC650), prepared from the pyrolysis of sugarcane wastes at a heating temperature of 650 ℃, was loaded with two different types of DOMs, i.e. gallic acid (GA) with a smaller size and larger fulvic acid (HA). The main properties were characterized with elemental analyzer, scanning electron microscope, etc. Oxytetracycline was selected as the target micropollutants, and its sorption by biochar with DOMs loading was also investigated. Biochar with DOMs treatment increased the specific surface area of biochar, and the chemical properties were also changed. Sorption of oxytetracycline by biochar was reduced significantly in the presence of DOMs, and the inhibition of GA for oxytetracycline sorption by biochar was larger than that of HA. The reduction seemed to be related to the change of chemical structure of biochar after DOMs loading. All isothermal curves were non-linear, and sorption of oxytetracycline to biochar was mainly governed by H-bonding interaction. The results could provide an important information for the practical application of biochar for antibiotic pollution control.

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