In this study, banana fruits were used as the experimental materials. Banana fruits were treated by heat shock, low temperature and ripening. The volatile substances of the banana fruits were detected by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry. The effects of heat treatment on the volatile substances of ripening banana fruits were studied. The results showed that compared with the control group, the contents of furfuryl alcohol, benzaldehyde, 4-methylphenol, ethyl hexanoate, dimethyldioxanone, 1-pentanol, hexan-2-one, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-hexanol and ethyl butanoate were significantly decreased in both treatments at 7 ℃ 6 d +ripening for 3 d and H+7 ℃ 6 d +ripening for 3 d. On the contrary, the contents of 1-propanol, propyl acetate, pentan-2,3-dione, dimethyl disulfide, 2,3-butanediol, methyl pyrazine, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, alpha-pinene, 1-octene-3-ol, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, E-2-octenal, E, Z-2,6-nonadienal, cis-3-hexenol, octanic acid and heptan-2-one were significantly increased at the two treatment. In addition, the content of hydroxyacetone, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butanol and other components were significantly increased by H+7 ℃ 6 d +3 d ripening treatment. Compared with the treatment of 7 ℃ 6 d+3 d ripening, the treatment of H+7 ℃ 6 d +3 d ripening significantly reduced the contents of triethylamine, phenol, 2-pentanone, 2-pentyl furan, decanal, E-2-octenal, methional, 2-hexanol, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine and other components, resulting in the same content as the control. Further studies showed that heat treatment could significantly reduce the chilling injury index of banana fruits stored at 7 ℃ and alleviate the chilling injury symptoms of banana fruits. The changes of above volatile substances in ripening banana fruits induced by heat treatment may be closely related to the process of cold resistance induced by heat treatment.