Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops
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    15 March 2019, Volume 40 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Crop Culture and Nutrition, Genetic Breeding
    The Effect of Increasing Bio-organic Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Edible-cassava
    CHEN Huixian,CAO Sheng,YAN Huabing,XIE Xiangyu,SHANG Xiaohong
    2019, 40 (3):  417-424.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.001
    Abstract ( 670 )   HTML ( 43 )   PDF (618KB) ( 420 )  

    A randomized block test with three experimental treatments using no bio-organic fertilizer as CK was undertaken to reveal change of growth situation, yield and quality of edible cassava in different fertilization mode, and to provide a theoretical foundation for high yield and quality cultivation. Results showed that applying bio-organic fertilizer could increase the plant height, stem diameter, SPAD in root formative period, the photosynthetic rate in root formative period and root expand period, and it could increase yield by improving tuberous root thickness and tuberous root number. It could also promote the content of starch, protein, dry matter, soluble sugar, the ratio of branch/chain starch, and the comprehensive quality of roots. However, the effect on SPAD value, potato length, harvest index and crude fiber of tuber was small. In addition, the correlation analysis results showed that the total fertilization amount of biological organic fertilizer was positively correlated with the yield and quality, and most of the correlation coefficients reached significant or extremely significant level. In summary, the conclusion is drawn that the application of bio-organic fertilizer can improve the photosynthesis of cassava to promote its growth, increase the yield of tubers, and effectively improve the quality of tubers. The optimal fertilization way is increasing bio-organic fertilizer application in the basal and seedling, and the rate of fertilizer application is respectively 3000 kg/hm 2 and 1500 kg/hm 2.

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    Effects of Different Cultivation Patterns Under Forest on Growth in Ganoderma lucidum and Carbon Transformation in Culture Medium
    LIN Yi,YE Jing,CHEN Hua,LIU Mingxiang,WANG Yixiang
    2019, 40 (3):  425-431.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.002
    Abstract ( 502 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (539KB) ( 572 )  

    The effects of different cultivation patterns on yield, absolute biological efficiency, major bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum and carbon transformation of culture medium were studied and analyzed by setting outdoor (T1) and undergrowth shade (T2) treatment, meanwhile, CO2 emission flux during fruit body growth stage was monitored. The average yield, absolute biological efficiency and triterpene acids content in T2 treatment was 36.76%, 36.76% and 17.67% higher, and the average polysaccharide content was 25.30% lower than that in T1 treatment, respectively. The solid carbon transformation rate, the carbon loss rate was 48.56%, 28.96% higher, and the residue rate was 25.62% lower than that in T1 treatment, respectively. The average CO2 emission flux in T2 treatment was 46.23% higher than that in T1 treatment during fruit body growth stage. There was a significant negative correlation between CO2 emission flux and air humidity, with a correlation coefficient 0.24.

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    Fruiting Body Yield and Quality Improvement of Fammulina filiformis by Substrates Weakly Alkalified
    ZHANG Weirui,LIU Shengrong,SU Guiping,MA Liyan,LUO Fuhai,CAI Xianxian
    2019, 40 (3):  432-437.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.003
    Abstract ( 505 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (395KB) ( 539 )  

    To investigate the effect of substrate weakly alkalified on fruiting body yield and quality of Fammulian filiformis, substrate pH, mycelial growth, mushroom yield, fruiting body characteristics, nutritional composition, and heavy metal accumulation was determined after solid substrates added with different amounts of shell ash as an additional alkali reagen. The results showed that the addition of shell ash in the test range (0.5%-4.0%) could significantly improve the alkalization of the substrates before and after sterilization, and also mushroom yield. The optimal addition range was 1.0%-1.5%, which increased the substrate pH value up to 6.2-6.4 after sterilization, higher than that of the control (5.1), and improved the biological efficiency by 12.4%-18.4%. Moreover, the shell ash addition improved the contents of crude protein and crude fibre of the fruit bodies, but did not cause a decease in the fruit body commercial ratio and an increase in heavy metal accumulation. The cultivation of F. filiformis is feasible using substrate weakly alkalified with shell ash as an additional alkali reagent.

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    Mineral Nutrient Characteristics and Diagnostic Indicators of Mineral Nutrients in Mango Leaves from Hainan
    FAN Jiahui,ZHANG Peng,CHENG Ningning,SI Ruotong,LIU Wei,LIN Dian
    2019, 40 (3):  438-444.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.004
    Abstract ( 674 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (517KB) ( 410 )  

    The leaves of normal mango fruit trees in the representative mango planting areas of East Forest Farm Base, Ledong Sunshine, Lingshui Futian, Lingshui Liuhe, and Ledong Qianjia Base in Hainan were randomly collected to analyze the first and second tents. The contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the leaves were analyzed to determine the nutrient diagnosis of the leaves and appropriate sampling time and indicators. The variation coefficients of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S of the second blade leaves in December were small, which could represent the nutrient status of the whole year. Therefore, it is suitable to analyze the content of the six minerals of the second blade leaves of Hongjinlong in December to evaluate the mineral nutrition. The nutritional diagnostic indicator are nitrogen 14.74-18.28 g/kg, phosphorus 0.99-1.33 g/kg, potassium 8.98-12.1 g/kg, calcium 21.91-30.03 g/kg, magnesium 1.77-1.89 g/kg, sulfur 1.25-1.51 g/kg.

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    Drought Resistance Evaluation of F1 on Hybrid Generation from Reciprocal Crosses Between Saccharum robustum 57NG208 and Nanjian Chewing Cane
    YU Huaxian,TAO Lian’an,TIAN Chunyan,JING Yanfen,AN Rudong,LANG Rongbin,BIAN Xin,ZHOU Qingming,SUN Youfang,YANG Lihe
    2019, 40 (3):  445-454.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.005
    Abstract ( 467 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1036KB) ( 370 )  

    In this study, twelve progenies from reciprocal crosses between Saccharum Robustum 57NG208 and Nanjian chewing cane were selected as the test materials. The materials were treated by artificial water stress including normal water supply (as the control), mild water stress and severe water stress at the early elongation stage. The morphological indexes, physiological and biochemical indexes related to drought resistance were measured. The drought tolerance at jointing stage was comprehensively evaluated by membership function analysis, grey correlation analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that different water stress degrees had significant effects on the indexes selected. Under different water stress, PMP, contents of MDA and proline, activities of SOD and POD data raised, while the contents of CHL and Hight value declined with different extents depending on difference of tested materials and stress degree. The results of fuzzy membership function analysis indicated that, under different water stress degrees, the number of orthogonality materials was more than reverse cross materials in the first five. All materials tested were classified into four groups under mild water stress and severe water stress by cluster analysis. The drought resistance of Yunrui 2012-9-11 and Yunrui 2012-38-81 was strong in mild and severe water stress and clustered in a same group. The grey relation analysis revealed that the correlation between physiological indexes and membership value was different because of different water stress degrees. Three physiological and biochemical indexes including CHL, Pro and POD had a close correlation on drought tolerance of sugarcane. This could be selected as an excellent indicator on the evaluation of drought tolerance of sugarcane.

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    Phytophysiology and Biochemistry
    Effects of Different Seed Stems on Germination and Emergence of Sugarcane
    LUO Yawei,QIN Zhenqiang,LIANG Tian,WANG Weizan,LI Dewei
    2019, 40 (3):  455-459.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.006
    Abstract ( 645 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (303KB) ( 366 )  

    The effects of different parts, bud numbers and quality of cane seed stems on germination and emergence of sugarcane were observed in field in this study. The results showed that the germination and emergence of the middle seed stem of sugarcane, 72.81%, 46.33 cm, respectively, were better than the other two treatments. Meanwhile, the germinate rate of the single bud seed stemwas lower, and the height of cane seedling was shorter. There were no significant differences on germination and emergence among the three buds seed stem, four buds seed stem and many buds seed stem. Among the quality of cane seed stems, there was no significant difference on germination between the normal seed stem and fall damaged seed stem, while there were significant differences between the normal seed stem and other three treatments. In addition, there was no significant difference on the height of the seedling between normal seed stem and borers damaged seed stem, while there were significant differences between the normal seed stem and other three treatments. There were only 3.82% plants in the smut damaged seed stem emergence as the normal plants, and the others as the smut seedling. The results of this experiment could be concluded that it would benefit to germination and emergence of sugarcane when the middle seed stem and tops seed stem of healthy cane as the cane seed stem and planting with the double buds seed stem, three buds seed stem, four buds seed stem and many buds seed stem.

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    Effects of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) and Nitrogen Fertilizer Mixture on Resistance Physiology Indexes of Dendrocalamus latiflorus
    RONG Jundong,FAN Lili,CHEN Liguang,HE Tianyou,ZHENG Jingjing,ZHENG Yushan
    2019, 40 (3):  460-467.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.007
    Abstract ( 519 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (743KB) ( 386 )  

    Different dosage of super absorbent polymers (SAP) and nitrogen fertilizer were studied in coastal protected bamboo forests to identify the stress resistance physiology of bamboo leaf. Super absorbent polymers (SAP) (30, 60, 90 g/plexus) and nitrogen (200, 400, 600 g/plexus) were applied to the bamboo shoots of two-year old Dendrocalamus latiflorus (July, August, and September). The variation in photosynthetic pigments, biochemical attributes (proline, soluble protein, and soluble sugar), and antioxidant enzymes (malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte penetration rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) were determined. The results revealed that the photosynthetic pigments, proline, soluble protein, soluble sugar, and activity of SOD and POD were higher in different dosage of SAP and nitrogen fertilizer compared to CK, whereas MDA content and electrolyte penetration rate were both lower in different treatments than CK. During growing season (July, August, and September), concentrations of photosynthetic pigments varied little, while the contents of proline, soluble protein, soluble sugar, and the activities of SOD and POD were minimum in August. On the contrary, MDA content and electrolyte penetration rate were higher in August. The order of super absorbent polymers (SAP) and nitrogen fertilizer mixture treatments: A3B3>A2B3>A1B2>A3B2>A3B1>A2B1> A1B1>A1B3>A2B2>CK.

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    Brassinosteroid Induces Asymmetric Growth of Primary Roots in Brassica chinensis L.
    CAO Lu,FU Ying,YU Xudong,CAI Zeping,LUO Jiajia,TANG Zhu,HUANG Xiaowei
    2019, 40 (3):  468-474.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.008
    Abstract ( 537 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (15992KB) ( 179 )  

    Brassinolide (BL) can induce asymmetric growth of primary roots of monocots, but has not been reported in dicots. The text used the seedlings of Brassica chinensis L. as the experimental materials to observe the growth of primary root by exogenous application of different concentrations of 2,4-epibrassinolide (2,4-eBL). The results showed that 2,4-eBL could induce asymmetric growth of the primary root of B. chinensis L. to form curls, while the curling ratio and curvature of the root growth gradually increased. For the first time, the test found that the external application of 2,4-eBL induced the asymmetric root growth of dicotyledonous plants, and provided a new way to study the role of Brassinosteroids (BRs) in root growth and development.

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    Biotechnology and Tissue Culture
    Correlation Between the Expression Level of Natural Rubber Biosynthesis Genes and Rubber Yield
    YANG Shuguang,CHEN Yueyi,LI Yan,ZHANG Shixin,ZHANG Xiaofei,ZENG Xia,CHAO Jinquan,TIAN Weimin
    2019, 40 (3):  475-482.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.009
    Abstract ( 551 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (796KB) ( 376 )  

    Latex is thought to be a protective substance associated with injury response in rubber trees. Tapping can significantly promote rubber production, which should be closely related to the expression of genes involved in rubber biosynthesis in the laticifer cells of rubber trees. However, the exact relationship between the expression of the rubber biosynthesis genes and the dry rubber yield is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, qPCR was used to analyze the expression of six rubber biosynthesis genes, HbHRT2, HbSRPP, HbREF, HbHMGR1, HbHRT1 and HbGAPDH, in the laticifer cells of five Wichham germplasms and five 1981°IRRDB germplasms following tapping them with S/2 d/3 tapping system. The results showed that the expression of these genes was significantly higher in most Wichham germplasms than in 1981°IRRDB germplasms, as shown by fold increases of 1.05-14.62, 0.97-4.26, 1.46-12.56, 0.83-2.99, 0.43-7.54, 1.92-11.31, respectively, for HbHRT2, HbSRPP, HbREF, HbHMGR1, HbHRT1 and HbGAPDH. Correspondingly, the average fold change was 7.54, 2.55, 5.69, 1.71, 2.71, 4.91. Correlation analysis showed that the expression level of these genes was positively related to dry rubber yield. Two of the genes, HbREF and HbGAPDH, could be exploited as the molecular markers in high rubber yield breeding programs for both genes showed a highest correlation between their expression level and the corresponding rubber yield.

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    Cloning of Cassava Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Genes and Their Responses to Low Temperature Stress
    WU Yuanhang,LIU Qin,LIU Pandao,GUO Pengfei,LI Min,JIANG Lingyan,LUO Lijuan
    2019, 40 (3):  483-489.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.010
    Abstract ( 517 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (15196KB) ( 231 )  

    Cassava phenylalanine ammonia-lyase encoding genes (MePALs) were identified from the whole genome sequence data. Six MePALs genes, MePAL1-6, were subsequently cloned by RT-PCR from the leaves of the cultivar KU50 and their expression patterns were analyzed, together with PAL activity, total phenolic content, flavonoid content and total antioxidant capacity, in the leaves under low temperature stress treatment (7 ℃). It was found that low temperature treatment resulted in rapid leaf wilting and curling and correspondingly a significant increase in PAL activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content and total antioxidant capacity in the leaves. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the relative expression level of MePAL1 and MePAL2 was 0.83 and 1.19 respectively before low temperature treatment, which was significantly higher than the other 4 MePALs. Low temperature treatment increased the expression of all the six MePAL genes and the up-regulation of MePAL5 was the highest (increased from 50.5 to 142.5 folds). Our preliminary results showed that low temperature treatment increased the expression of MePALs, promoted the synthesis of total phenols and flavonoids, and enhanced anti-oxidative capacities in cassava leaves.

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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of EjNADP-ME2 Gene and Its Promoter in Loquat Fruit
    YANG Jun,ZHENG Xuelian,GAO Huanhuan,KOU Yan,CHEN Xu,GUO Ao,ZHENG Guohua
    2019, 40 (3):  490-498.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.011
    Abstract ( 552 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1709KB) ( 382 )  

    Fruits of a high-acid cultivar ‘Jiefangzhong’ and a low-acid cultivar ‘Baili’ were used as the materials to study the EjNADP-ME2 (Unigene0001461) gene whose expression level was relatively high yet different between the two cultivars as shown by transcriptomic data. Its full-length cDNA was successfully cloned by RACE and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EjNADP-ME2 was closely related to the NADP-ME gene of apples. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the EjNADP-ME2 protein should be located in the cytoplasm. The promoter of the gene was successfully cloned by chromosome walking and predicted that contained cis-acting elements responsive to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, anaerobic induction, and sites for MYB, MYC and MBS (yellowing and drought induction) binding. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the trends were similar in the expression of the gene between the two cultivars, showing a lower, higher and lower pattern at the earlier, middle and later stages of the fruit development, respectively. Correlation analysis suggested that EjNADP-ME2 expression was negatively correlated to malic acid content in the fruit of the low acid cultivar ‘Baili’, but not such in the other cultivar. The results of this study would provide starting materials for further exploration of the function of the EjNADP-ME2 gene in the metabolism of malic acid in the fruit of loquat.

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    Cloning of Glutathione Reductase 1 in Eucalyptus grandis×E. ophylla and the Expression Pattern in Chilling Resistance
    ZHAO Yanling,HAN Yao
    2019, 40 (3):  499-503.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.012
    Abstract ( 563 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (942KB) ( 363 )  

    Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the conversion of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSH). EuGR1 (GenBank Accession Number: KU904639) is located in the Eucalyptus grandis×E.ophylla cytoplasm containing 1485 bp nucleotides and encoding 495 amino acids. A prokaryotic expression vector of pET-EuGR1 was constructed and showed high GR activity in E. coli BL21. Quantitative PCR was used to analyze the spatiotemporal expression of EuGR1 in eucalyptus. The results showed that the expression of EuGR1 was the highest in the young leaves of eucalyptus seedlings and decreased with the maturity of leaves. In the tissue culture of eucalyptus the expression of EuGR1 was the highest in the stem, followed by the leaf, and the expression in the root was the lowest. The expression of EuGR1 gene in the cold-resistant transgenic eucalyptus was studied under low temperature stress. The result showed that plants with strong cold tolerance under normal temperature and low temperature stress had higher expression of EuGR1 (such as P40, P41, P52) than the plants with weak cold tolerance (such as P36, F44, F76), indicating that the expression level of EuGR1 in eucalyptus was associated with cold resistance. However, the expression of EuGR1 kept decreasing in the tested plants at low temperature treatment after 36 h suggesting that cytoplasmic EuGR1 might play an important role in the early stage of low temperature stress tolerance in Eucalyptus.

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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of D14, the Key Gene in the Signal Transduction of Strigolactones from Nervilia fordii
    LI Yankun,ZHUO Yinan,ZENG Xiangda,HE Rui
    2019, 40 (3):  504-513.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.013
    Abstract ( 658 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (6549KB) ( 398 )  

    D14 as a key gene encoding strigolactones (SLs) receptor in the signal transduction of SLs, enables SLs to release active small molecules and regulate axillary bud initiation. In this study, two highly homologous fragments in the transcriptome data were selected according to the sequences of D14 genes from other species, named NfD14a and NfD14b. Using RT-PCR and RACE technologies, the full-length cDNA sequences of NfD14a and NfD14b were cloned and the GenBank accession numbers of them are MH028026 and MH028027 respectively. The full-length of NfD14a was 1206 bp, which contained an 861 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 286 amino acids. The full-length of NfD14b was 1082 bp, and it contained an 813 bp ORF encoding 270 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteins encoded by NfD14a and NfD14b revealed that both NfD14a and NfD14b belonged to the Abhydrolase superfamily. However, the phylogenetic analysis showed a low homology of these two proteins. Plant expression vectors containing 35S::NfD14a-EGFP and 35S:: NfD14b-EGFP were successfully constructed using the one-step rapid cloning method, and transformed into bacteria. Transient expression of these two plasmids showed that both NfD14a and NfD14b located in the nucleus and cytoplasm of tobacco protoplasts. The cloning and subcellular localization analysis of full-length cDNA sequences of NfD14 genes would lay a foundation for study in signal transduction of SLs and mechanism of plant branching in Nervilia fordii.

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    The Amylopectin Characteristics and the GeSBE1 Gene Expression in Seed Kernels of Euryale ferox Salisb
    XU Xu,WU Yangfeng,ZHANG Yu,WU Peng,LI Liangjun
    2019, 40 (3):  514-521.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.014
    Abstract ( 565 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (3066KB) ( 594 )  

    The amylopectin content, the starch pasting properties and the starch grain structures of the seed kemel of two gordon euryale cultivars of Euryale ferox Salisb, ‘Zihua Suqian’and‘Zihua Ciqian’, were analyzed and a full-length cDNA of the GeSBE1 gene was cloned to characterize the amylopectins in the seed kernel and reveal the role of SBE in the synthesis of amylopectins in the seeds of the two cultivars. It was shown that the amylopectin content and the ratio of amylopectin to amylose content were higher in ‘Zihua Suqian’ than in ‘Zihua Ciqian’. The starch grains of ‘Zihua Su qian’ were mostly irregular polyhedrons with prominent angles, and relatively uniform in sizes. In contrast, the starch grains of ‘Zihua Ciqian’ were more or less rounded with much less angles, and more variant in sizes. The starch pasting temperature of the ‘Zihua Suqian’ was lower than that of the ‘Zihua Ciqian’. The cloned GeSBE1 cDNA was 2782 bp long with an open reading frame of 2466 bp which would encode a peptide of 821 amino acid residues. A sequence comparison showed that the GeSBE1 shared a 78% of homology with the SBEI from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. The expression of GeSBE1 in seed kemels of ‘Zihua Suqian’ was higher than in those of ‘Zihua Ciqian’ during seed kemel development, suggesting that the gene may be responsible for the differences in amylopectin content in the two cultivars.

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    Crop Pests, Diseases and Their Control, Environmental Protection
    Biological Characteristics and Toxicity Test of Pathogen Strains Causing Rubber Red Root Rot from Different Regions
    HE Chunping,LI Rui,LIANG Yanqiong,WU Weihuai,HUANG Xing,XI Jingen,ZHENG Jinlong,YI Kexian
    2019, 40 (3):  522-529.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.015
    Abstract ( 517 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (412KB) ( 392 )  

    Red root disease of the rubber tree, which occurred widely, not only causes severe damage to rubber tree production, but also becomes one of the major obstacles to the sustainable development of the rubber tree industry in China. To clarify the biological characteristics and sensitivity to different fungicides, the mycelia growth of Ganoderma pseudoferreum was determined using the crossing method, and the inhibitory activities of 10 fungicides on G. pseudoferreum were also studied. The results showed that the mycelia of the pathogen grew better on the medium CMA with rubber root. They could grow at temperature of 13 to 31 ℃, best at 28 ℃. They grew well at pH varied from 3 to 10, best at 7–9. They could utilize many substances as carbon and nitrogen sources. Among carbon sources tested, fructose, galactose, maltose, glucose and mannose were found to be the best ones for the growth of G. pseudoferreum. Tyrosine and beef extract were the most suitable nitrogen sources while tryptophan and ureal were the worst. Darkness was good for mycelial growth while light had an inhibitory action. The lethal temperature for the mycelium was 47 ℃ for 10 min. The sensitivity of the isolates sourced from different regions to fungicides was different from each other. Tebuconazole was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen with an EC50 of 0.0312 μg/mL, followed by azoxystrobin, tridemorph, prochloraz and mycolbutanil with an EC50 of 0.5581, 0.6759, 1.3763 and 1.5603 μg/mL respectively.

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    Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Preparation and Its Combined Efficacy With Steinernema carpocapsae to Control Major Cashew Pests
    ZHANG Zhongrun,GAO Yan,HUANG Weijian,HUANG Haijie
    2019, 40 (3):  530-534.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.016
    Abstract ( 685 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (330KB) ( 384 )  

    The efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to control cashew leaf miner (Acrocercops syngramma) larvae and cashew apple and nut borer larvae (Nephopteryx sp.) was tested in the laboratory. The results showed that, at the dose of 500 or 1000 dilution, Bt had a stronger toxicity against the 1st-3rd instar of A. syngramma larvae (70%-100% mortalities) and a lower toxicity against the 4st-5rd instar (20.0%-52.5% mortalities). The lethal efficacy of Bt to the 3rd instar of Nephopteryx sp. was only 75% mortality after 120 h treatment at the dose of 500 dilution. The synergistic interaction was observed, after 48 h treatment in the combination of Bt 2000 dilution and 200 IJs per disc of Steinernema carpocapsae All to the 3rd instar of Nephopteryx sp. larvae.

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    Parasitic Behavior of Coccophagus japonicus Compere
    LI Xian,FU Yueguan,ZHU Junhong,WU Xiaoshuang,CHEN Junyu,LI Lei,HAN Dongyin,NIU Liming,ZHANG Fangping
    2019, 40 (3):  535-540.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.017
    Abstract ( 561 )   HTML ( 10785 )   PDF (401KB) ( 894 )  

    Coccophagus japonicus Compere is one of the important natural enemies of Parasaissetia nigra Nietner. In order to understand the parasitic behavior of the parasitic wasp and the effect of female body size on oviposition, the parasitic behavior of the parasite wasp and the oviposition of female wasps with different body sizes were observed in the laboratory. The results showed that the parasitic process of C. japonicus Compere consisted of five stages: searching for hosts, identifying hosts, probing by ovipositor, laying eggs and post-oviposition treatment. The parasitic duration, parasitic rate, and average egg numbers increased with the parasitic time. The coincidence ratio between parasitic frequency and egg number decreased with the parasitic time. When the wasps parasitized for the first time, the parasitic duration, the parasitism rate, the coincidence ratio between parasitic frequency and egg number, the average egg number was 19.75 s, 73.12%, 69.89% and 0.76, respectively; When the wasps parasitized the same hosts for the third time, the parasitic duration, the parasitism rate, the coincidence ratio between parasitic frequency and egg number and the average egg number was 24.37, 83.33%, 8.33% and 1.67, correspondingly. There was a positive correlation between the body size of female wasps and oviposition, and the daily fecundity and parasitic rate of female wasps increased with the body sizes of female wasps. When the body length of female wasps is less than 1.20 mm, the average fecundity and parasitic rate were relatively smaller, which was 16.83 and 49.4%, respectively. When the body length was between 1.40 mm and 1.50 mm, the average fecundity and parasitic rate was 33.06 and 72.3%, respectively. When the body length was longer than 1.50 mm, the average fecundity and parasitic rate was 37.5 and 72.2%, respectively; The length of the posterior tibia of female wasps had a similar effect on oviposition and parasitic rate. It is suggested that the larger female wasps should be used in the reproduction expansion.

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    Research on Detection of Cymbidium mosaic virus by RT-LAMP
    FAN Ronghui,HUANG Minling,ZHONG Huaiqin,LUO Yuanhua,YE Xiuxian
    2019, 40 (3):  541-545.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.018
    Abstract ( 646 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (988KB) ( 408 )  

    Cymbidium mosaic virus, the main viru infecting the orchids, seriously affects the ornamental value. It is especially important to establishing a quick and sensitive detection method. In order to establish the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay, primers were designed from the conserved region in the coat protein(CP) gene of CyMV available in GenBank, and its reaction conditions was optimized. The assays on specificity and sensibility were conducted. CyMV was specifically identified by RT-LAMP using this primer while Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Freesia mosaic virus (FreMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) were not amplified. Sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was 10-fold higher than that of RT-PCR. The positive rate of 20 samples using the RT-LAMP was 60%, the same as RT-PCR, suggesting the RT-LAMP assay worked as well as RT-PCR. In addition, amplification products were able to be detected by visual inspection using SYBR GreenⅠand, and there was no need for gel electrophoresis. Hence, RT-LAMP assay is a specific, sensitive and rapid method for detecting CyMV, which is suitable for the detection and identification of CyMV in the entry quarantine and seedling breeding.

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    Population Dynamic of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) at Citrus Orchard in Guilin, Guangxi from 2015 to 2017
    QIN Zhenqiang,ZHANG Gebi,WU Jianhui,QIU Baoli
    2019, 40 (3):  546-551.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.019
    Abstract ( 553 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (581KB) ( 603 )  

    The population dynamic of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was analyzed according to the investigation of eggs, nymphs, pupa and adults at citrus orchards in Guilin, Guangxi Province in this study. The results showed that temperature from mid-March to early December at citrus orchards in Guilin could meet the requirement of the growth and development of A. spiniferus. The population of A. spiniferus had great changes during 2015 to 2017. The peak population from eggs to pupa of A. spiniferus was from mid-May to early July, followed by late August to early September. While the peak population of A. spiniferus adults was in early May, and followed by early to mid-September. The season of higher population of A. spiniferus was from May to September, when prevention and controlling measures should be taken according to the population dynamic of the pest.

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    Pathogen Identification and Fungicide-screening of the Peanut Black Rot
    LI Na,WANG Zetian,HE Guibi,XIANG Meimei,ZHANG Yunxia
    2019, 40 (3):  552-557.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.020
    Abstract ( 657 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1376KB) ( 499 )  

    Peanut black rot is an severe disease on peanuts, which has a serious impact on production. It is also a quarantine plant disease in China. To identify the pathogen of peanut rot and get the effective fungicide which can inhibit the mycelium growth of the pathogen, the pathogen of peanut black rot was identified by colony characteristics, morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis. The inhibitory effect of 8 fungicides on C. iliciola was determined by the mycelium growth rate method. The results showed that the pathogen of peanut black rot was Calonectria iliciola. 10% Tebuconazole was the best fungicide to inhibit the mycelium growth of C. iliciola, and the EC50 value was 1.12 μg/mL. 300 g/L Difenoconazole·propiconazol EC, 29% isopyrazam·azoxystrobin SC, 25% Fludioxonil SC, 15% pyraclostrobin SC and 22.5% picoxystrobin could inhibit SC the mycelium growth of C. iliciola, and the EC50 value was under 10 μg/mL. 30% metalaxy-hymexazol was the worst fungicide to the mycelium growth of C. iliciola and the EC50 value was 76.71 μg/mL. The results above could provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of black rot of peanut.

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    Agricultural Product Processing, Preservation, Storage, Analysis and Detection
    Comparative Study on Volatile Components of Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica L.) from Main Producing Regions of Hainan Province
    XIE Ruonan,MA Chen,ZHANG Qun,LIU Chunhua,YANG Xinfeng
    2019, 40 (3):  558-566.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.021
    Abstract ( 713 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (561KB) ( 469 )  

    The composition of mango aromatic components were determined by HS-SPME-GC-MS, and the optimal conditions were obtained by analyzing the equilibrium time, extraction temperature, extraction time and desorption time of HS-SPME, and the composition and relative content of mango aromatic components were identified by spectral library comparison. The aim of this study was to explore the optimal extraction conditions of aromatic components from mango fruit by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and the composition and difference of aromatic components of the major cultivars, Guifei and Tainong in Hainan, and to provide a basis for the evaluation of aromatic quality and germplasms of mango fruit. The optimal analysis conditions for HS-SPME were equilibrium for 10 min, extraction at 45 ℃ for 60 min and desorption for 5 min. A total of 102 volatile aromatic compounds with a matching degree above 70% were identified. The aromatic components of the two varieties were mainly composed of terpenes, which accounted for 74.70% in Guifei and 86.79% in Tainong. In addition, there were a small amount of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and carboxylic acids. Fifteen volatile aromatic compounds were detected both in Guifei and Tainong, including α-terpinolene, 3-carene, limonene, 3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexenal, 5-ethyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one, isophorone and n-hexadecanoic acid. Therefore, α-terpinolene and 3-carene are the main aromatic components of the fruit of Guifei and Tainong from Hainan, and the amounts of the main components of Tainong are significantly higher than that of Guifei.

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    Extraction of SDF from Coffee Peel by Shearing Emulsification Assisted Enzymatic Hydrolysis
    WANG Dandan,DONG Wenjiang,ZHAO Jianping,LONG Yuzhou,HU Rongsuo,CHU Zhong,ZONG Ying
    2019, 40 (3):  567-575.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.022
    Abstract ( 511 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (6238KB) ( 403 )  

    The optimization of process parameters for shearing emulsification assisted enzymatic extraction of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from coffee peel was investigated in this study. Based on the results of single factor experiments, the Plackett-Burman (PB) design was used to screen out the most significant factors which affecting the yield of SDF from coffee peel by shearing emulsification assisted enzymatic hydrolysis method significantly-shearing emulsification time, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature, and enzymatic hydrolysis pH values. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained by the central combination test design and response surface analysis, solid and liquid of ratio of 1:30 (g/mL), the shearing emulsifying speed of 7000 r/min, enzyme addition of 0.2%, shearing emulsification time of 24 min, hydrolysis temperature of 57 ℃, and enzymatic hydrolysis time of 1.96 h. Under the optimum conditions, the actual yield of SDF was 13.96%, which was not significantly different from the theoretical prediction value of 14.00%. The results showed that the conditions of extracting SDF from coffee peel by shearing emulsification assisted enzymatic method could be optimized by response surface analysis, which supported the theory of comprehensive utilization and functional product development of coffee peel.

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    Analysis on Volatiles of Oolong Tea Varieties Induced by Empoasca sp.
    JIN Shan,HAN Liwei,YE Naixing,WANG Wei,HUANG Huoshui,LIU Wei
    2019, 40 (3):  576-582.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.023
    Abstract ( 610 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (759KB) ( 497 )  

    The changes of tea plant volatiles induced by tea green leafhopper Empoasca sp. were determined to provide basis for breeding of resistant tea varieties. Based on the field observation of Empoasca sp. on different tea varieties from Fujian province, Rougui and Tieguanyin were found to have the highest population density and the lowest population density of Empoasca sp. respectively, and selected as the research materials in this paper. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to determine and analyze constitutive volatiles of tea and induced volatiles by Empoasca sp. The results showed that P-Cymene, beta.-Ocimene, Trans.-beta.-Ocimene, alpha.-Farnesene, gamma.-Terpineneand and 3-Methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one were the main constituent volatiles of Tieguanyin and Rougui. The 1,6-Octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl- was detected only in the health shoots of Tieguanyin, while Tridecane, Acetic acid octyl ester, Hexadecane and Cedrol were be detected only in Rougui. The content of beta.-Myrcene, beta.-Ocimene, Trans.-beta.-Ocimene, alpha.-Farnesene and 1,6-Octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl were far higher than that of Rougui. In combination with other literature, it is inferred that these volatile chemicals possibly resulted in the significant difference in the population density of Empoasca sp. between Tieguanyin and Rougui. After a period of damage by Empoasca sp., the composition and content of volatiles in Tieguanyin and Rougui changed greatly. Both of them released large amounts of beta.-Myrcene, beta.-Ocimene, Trans.-beta.-Ocimene and alpha.-Farnesene, the contents of these chemicals largely increased in 4 h and 8 h damage treatments with Empoasca sp. ranged from 1.49 to 41.22 times than them released from health tea shoots. In addition, Empoasca sp. feeding also induced new volatile chemical including (Z)-Butanoic acid 3-hexenyl ester, Decanal, Indole, Hexanoicacid 3-hexenyl ester, and phenylethyl alcohol. The 10 volatile chemicals mentioned above may be related to the induced resistance of tea plant and the resistance of Tieguanyin against to Empoasca sp.

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    Optimization of Rapid Detection of Volatile Compounds in Oolong Tea by Electronic Nose Sensors
    WANG Wei,WEI Rifeng,GUO Yaling
    2019, 40 (3):  583-589.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.024
    Abstract ( 533 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1164KB) ( 400 )  

    In this study, the optimized extraction conditions of three factors, including tea sample dosage, equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time were determined using the L9(3 4) orthogonal test combined with single factor tests and taking the eigenvalue of 10 sensors as the indexes. The results showed that the influence degree of different extraction conditions on different sensors was different. The equilibrium temperature had the greatest influence on the response value of the eigenvalue of most sensors, while the equilibrium time had the smallest effect. The optimal conditions for the detection of volatiles in Oolong tea by the electronic nose were as follows: the equilibrium temperature was 100 ℃, the equilibrium time was 45 min, and the tea sample dosage was 3 g. Under the extraction condition, the RSD was smaller, the response curve of the sensor was denser and stabler than that of other extraction conditions, and the response value was the highest. Thirteen different varieties of Oolong tea could be clearly distinguished by the optimal conditions of electronic nose sensors. It would provide a fast and objective method for aroma-discriminating of Oolong tea and is an effective method of electronic nose detection.

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    A Comprehensive Evaluation of Nutrional Value of 11 Calopogonium Germplasm Materials
    YAN Linling,ZHANG Yu,BAI Changjun
    2019, 40 (3):  590-595.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.025
    Abstract ( 553 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (561KB) ( 445 )  

    The nutritive components of Calopogonium were determined by chemical analysis, and the comprehensive evaluation was carried out by membership function method and cluster analysis. The results showed that the crude protein, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, calcium and phosphorus of 11 strains were significantly different. Through the comprehensive evaluation of membership function, the clustering was divided into two categories. Among them, 041130150, 051210057, 050320021, 050106023, 050319007 had higher nutritive value. The total phosphorus, neutral detergent fiber and crude protein can be used as an important index to evaluate the nutritional value of woolen bean.

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    Determination of Boscalid and Fludioxonil in Tomato and Soil by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography
    FENG Yujie,PAN Fei,XIE Shenghua,LIANG Yanpo,FENG Qing,TIAN Hai
    2019, 40 (3):  596-600.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.26
    Abstract ( 603 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (437KB) ( 415 )  

    The study aims to establish an analytical method for simultaneous determination the residues of boscalid and fludioxonil in tomato and soil by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The tomato and soil samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and cleaned up with PSA, then analyzed by gradient elution using acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. The residues were determined by wavelength ultraviolet detector and quantified by an external standard method. The residues showed good linear relationship in the range of 0.05-1 μg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999, the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.01 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. And the recoveries for boscalid and fludioxonil in 3 samples at spiked levels of 0.1-1 mg/kg were between 82.8%-102.8% and 86.5%-115.3% with RSD of 4.1%-8.7% and 4.9%-9.1%. This method is simple, reliable with a good reproducibility, which is applicable for analysis of boscalid and fludioxonil residues in tomato and soil.

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    Primary Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of 3-carene Against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    LIU Xue,HE Yinglan,HU Yueying,CHEN Weijun,CHEN Haiming,ZHONG Qiuping,CHEN Wenxue
    2019, 40 (3):  601-608.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.027
    Abstract ( 839 )   HTML ( 34 )   PDF (2642KB) ( 633 )  

    In order to develop natural food preservatives, the primary antibacterial activity and mechanism of 3-carene against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied. The antibacterial activity of 3-carene was evaluated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) by broth dilution method. The effect of 3-carene was investigated by bacterial growth curve, scanning electron microscopy, electric conductivity, membrane potential and respiratory chain dehydrogenase. The results showed that: the MIC and MBC of 3-carene against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 20 mL/L and 40 mL/L, respectively. 3-carene could inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, damage the normal cell morphology, improve the permeability of cell membrane, which cause the leakage of proteins and electrolytes. Moreover, 3-carene reduced the membrane potential, interfered with normal metabolic activity, as well as inhibited the activity of respiratory chain dehydrogenase in cells. Studies have shown that 3-carene inhibited the normal growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, leading to bacterial cell death by the destruction of cell membrane.

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    Ecology and Review
    Difference in Response of Soil Bacteria to Soil Moisture and Temperature in the Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropics of Southern China
    YANG Jie,CHEN Wen,HOU Haijun,CHEN Chunlan,QIN Hongling,LYU Dianqing
    2019, 40 (3):  609-615.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.028
    Abstract ( 537 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1593KB) ( 394 )  

    Water management in paddy fields in the red soil hilly region results in the simultaneous change of soil moisture and soil temperature, and then induces the variation of the community structure of soil microbes. However the action mechanisms of soil moisture and temperature are not fully clear by now. The long-term paddy fields at the Taoyuan Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was taken as the research object, and the selected dryland fields was taken as the control. Soil samples were collected in different water management periods of paddy fields. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to disclose the characteristics of bacterial community structure and abundance in different periods, and the influencing factors were further analyzed. The results showed that bacterial community structure in paddy field was affected by soil moisture variation in different periods. The bacterial community structure in flooding period was quite different, and the bacterial abundance and diversity index were lower compared to other periods. The bacterial community structure and diversity were affected by soil moisture and soil temperature, however the former made greater contribution. In contrast, the soil moisture and bacterial community structure showed no significant difference among different periods in the dryland field. Though the bacterial abundance and diversity index showed a little change, which was not related to soil temperature. Therefore, soil bacteria variation in the hilly red soil region of subtropics was more sensitive to soil moisture than soil temperature.

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    Aggregation Pheromones for Platypus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae)
    LEI Gaoke,FU Yueguan,WU Weijian
    2019, 40 (3):  616-622.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.029
    Abstract ( 899 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (1234KB) ( 634 )  

    Platypus is an important group that harms forest ecosystems and can cause large-scale forest death when it is serious. Aggregation pheromones can be used to monitor population density, conduct large-scale trapping and disrupt mating behavior. This paper summarizes the research status of aggregation pheromone of Platypus from the aspects of aggregation behavior, production, chemical composition and application of aggregation pheromone.

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