In order to study the changes of soil physical and hydrothermal characteristics in mountainous rubber plantations under different management modes, seven treatments were set up in the field, including spraying herbicide (S), artificial weeding (A), green manure mulching(G), covering film (F), trench interception (T), comprehensive measures (M) and conventional control (CK). The soil physical properties, in-situ soil water and heat characteristics were measured regularly. The soil water content (SWC), in situ soil moisture content (SMC), soil bulk density (SBD), soil porosity (SP), soil density (SD), soil pH and other parameters under G, F and M treatment were all superior to that of T, S, A and CK. Soil temperature (ST) under F and M treatment was higher than that of other treatments, while ST was the lowest under G treatment. In situ soil conductivity (SC) of each treatment showed different trends. SC of M, F and G changed from low in dry season to high in rainy season, but there was no significant difference between the two seasons, and the SC of S, A, T and CK in dry season was significantly higher than that in rainy season. In a word, adopting multiple mulching modes can effectively inhibit soil evaporation, improve soil water holding capacity, help to improve soil structure, and have a good soil moisture conservation effect. Therefore, mulching treatment can be used as the main mode of soil optimal management in mountain rubber plantation.