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Welcome to Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops,

Table of Content

    25 May 2020, Volume 41 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Crop Culture and Nutrition, Genetic Breeding
    Variation among Sugarcane Varieties in Nutrient Uptake and Utilization under Mechanized Production
    WEI Dongping,WEI Jianfeng,LIANG Zhenhua,WEI Qiaoyun,HU Guijuan
    2020, 41 (5):  845-850.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.001
    Abstract ( 585 )   HTML ( 113 )   PDF (1073KB) ( 191 )  

    From the viewpoint of efficient production, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the dry matter accumulation, nutrient accumulation and utilization of four sugarcane varieties, including plant cane and first ratoon under mechanization. The stalk dry matter accumulation and total dry matter accumulation of ‘Guitang 42’ were the highest, which was more than that of the other varieties for 819.66-4273.69 kg/hm 2 and 1232.14-5863.38 kg/hm 2, respectively, but and that for ‘Guiliu 05136’ and ‘Guitang 29’ were lower. The total accumulation of N, P2O5 and K2O from different varieties was 133.79-196.82, 35.99-47.29 and 233.31-311.57 kg/hm 2, respectively, and that of ‘Guitang 42’ was higher than ‘Guiliu 05136’. N, P2O5 and K2O requirement per 1 t sugarcane stalk of different varieties were 1.57-2.03, 0.43-0.48 and 2.72-3.21 kg, respectively, and that of ‘Guiliu 05136’ was lower. The economic efficiency and physiological efficiency of N, P2O5 and K2O were the highest with ‘Guiliu 05136’. The dry matter accumulation, nutrient accumulation and nutrient efficiency of ratoon cane were higher than that of planting cane. In conclusion, the biological production of ‘Guitang 42’ is better, and the nutrient efficiency of ‘Guiliu 05136’ is high.

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    Using Screen Mesh to Control the Isolation Distance of Transgenic Maize Planted in Off-Season Reproduction Regions
    TAN Yanhua,XIE Xiang,ZHOU Xia,YI Xiaoping,HUO Shanshan,ZHANG Lili,CAO Yang,ZHAO Hui,GUO Anping
    2020, 41 (5):  851-858.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.002
    Abstract ( 477 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (1320KB) ( 182 )  

    Screen mesh has been used as a physical barrier isolation material to control the pollen flow in agricultural production for a long time, but there has been little reliable experimental data for the application. A physical isolation facility using screen mesh to isolate transgenic maize from non-transgenic maize was studied for two seasons 2015 and 2016. and at two different planting areas in Hainan Island. Screen mesh with 250 mesh and height of 2.5 m above the height of transgenic maize was good enough to prevent pollen flow at a critical distance of 20-30 m, when the threshold valve of genetic drift rate was set as 0.1%, which greatly shortened the isolation distance stipulated by the safety control of GM maize, and this was quite beneficial for Off-Season breeding due to the dwindling agricultural land. The study is also applicable to the gene flow risk control of traditional crops in Off-Season breeding areas during seed production process.

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    Yield, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrient Effects of Alginate Compound Fertilizer on Double-cropping Rice
    HUANG Jichuan,PENG Zhiping,TU Yuting,WU Xuena,LIANG Zhixiong,YANG Linxiang,LIN Zhijun
    2020, 41 (5):  859-867.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.003
    Abstract ( 486 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1180KB) ( 192 )  

    A field experiment of double-cropping rice in south China was investigated. Five treatments were designed as follows: 1) no fertilization (CK); 2) conventional compound fertilizer (CCF); 3) alginate compound fertilizer (ACF); 4) 80% conventional compound fertilizer (80% CCF); 5) 80% alginate compound fertilizer (80% ACF). The effects of reduction application of alginate compound fertilizer on yield, nutrient uptake by rice and residue in soil as well as soil bioactivity of double-cropping rice were studied. Alginate compound fertilizer could increase the rice effective panicle and grain yield. The effective panicle of ACF treatment increased significantly by 14.5% (late rice), grain yield increased significantly by 7.6% (early rice) and 5.1% (late rice) compared to CCF. There was no significant difference of grain yield between 80% ACF and CCF treatment. Alginate compound fertilizer could improve the partial factor productivity of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. Under reduced fertilization condition, the partial factor productivity of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer increased by 6.1-8.5 and 15.2-21.4 kg/kg, respectively, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake efficiency increased by 11.3-19.7 and 12.0-19.8 percentage points, respectively, and 80% ACF showed the highest value. Reduced fertilization significantly decreased the content of NO3 --N in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Alginate compound fertilizer could increase soil microbial biomass carbon (nitrogen) and soil sucrase, urease and acid phosphatase activities compared to the conventional compound fertilizer. Principal component analysis showed that the comprehensive score of soil fertility was 80% ACF>ACF>CCF>80% CCF>CK. This study showed that 80% ACF treatment could maintain rice yield compared with CCF under double-cropping rice in south China. However, the balance of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil was deficient after one year of double cropping rice planted. It is suggested that reducing fertilization measures should be formulated according to the soil fertility status and target yield in order to maintain the sustainability of soil fertility.

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    Effects of Improved Liquid Fertilizer on Soil Mineral Elements and Bioavailability in Open-air Field Acid Soil
    DENG Aini,JIU Yuanda,WU Bin,LIU Ziji,ZHAO Min
    2020, 41 (5):  868-873.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.004
    Abstract ( 462 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1350KB) ( 256 )  

    The effects of the application of compound fertilizer and compound fertilizer-improved liquid fertilizer on the changes of soil pH, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium and magnesium, available copper, manganese, zinc, iron, plumbum, cadmium, chromium, nickel in the cherry-tomato acid soilwere studied. The application of improved liquid fertilizer could increase the treated plot soil pH, cation exchange capacity and exchangeable calcium significantly compared with the control, and decrease the soil available copper significantly, but had little effects on soil exchangeable magnesium and available manganese, zinc, iron. The improved liquid fertilizer would not produce damage of plant element deficiency or excessive during the fertilization process. It could be used in the Open-air field acid soil instead of some conventional fertilizers.

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    Effect of Different Mulching Methods on Fruit Puffing of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Kinokuni During Delayed Cultivation
    ZHENG Xiaohua,WU Di,LI Chunxia,ZHANG Bei,LI Jiangbo,XIONG Bin,WANG Ping
    2020, 41 (5):  874-880.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.005
    Abstract ( 477 )   HTML ( 29 )   PDF (1225KB) ( 237 )  

    Nanfeng tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Kinokuni) during delayed cultivation in greenhouse was used to investigate the effects of different mulching treatments by combining cover materials and water-retaining agents on the puffing degree of fruit, fruit quality and soil temperature and humidity. In November, mulching treatments increased the content of TSS, TA and vitamin C in fruit, while the combined treatment of reflective film and water-retaining agent significantly improved the content of TSS and TA, 2.30% and 0.27% higher than the control respectively. The puffing degree of the fruits was negatively correlated with Total?Soluble?Solid (TSS), titratable acid (TA) and vitamin C content. In December, the fruits by mulching straw and CK treatments showed lower content of TSS, TA and more puffing. The puffing degree by mulching straw and CK treatments reached 1.67 grade and 1.07 grade respectively, and that for the other treatments was mild, only 0.73 grade. The puffing degree was closely related to fruit weight, TA and vitamin C content. In the following January, the puffing degree was positively correlated with soil humidity with a correlation coefficient 0.879, while TA content was significantly negatively correlated with soil humidity with a correlation coefficient -0.911. The humidity of soil in the combined treatment of reflective film and water-retaining agent was always at the highest level. The TA content decreased rapidly during this period, and the puffing degree showed an accelerated trend. Therefore, it was concluded that higher soil moisture led to more puffing degree, less TSS, TA and vitamin C. It could reduce soil humidity, improve fruit TSS, TA and vitamin C content, delay the occurrence of puffing degree by mulching treatment. Among them, the effect of garden cloth treatment was the best, with the effect of reflective film, carpet and garden cloth+ water-retaining agent followed.

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    Phytophysiology and Biochemistry
    Morphological Development of Primary Laticifers in Shoots of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg
    TAN Deguan,Anuwat KUMPEANGKEAW,HAN Bingying,FU Lili,SUN Xuepiao,ZHANG Jiaming
    2020, 41 (5):  881-887.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.006
    Abstract ( 530 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3017KB) ( 183 )  

    The primary laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg present mainly in young trunks, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits. However, its morphological development is unknown. Two methods, parafin section and modified alkali-treated stripping were used to study the development of the primary laticifers in this study, and the latter was found superior to the former by continuous observation of the whole developmental process. The morphological development of the primary laticifers of different stages was systematically investigated using the modified alkali-treated stripping method. The results showed that the laticifers isolated from different positions of the bronze-stage shoots were morphologically distinct. The laticifers close to the apical meristem were longtube-like linear structures without end-walls and branches, and protrusive growth was not obvious. The lacifers at 7 cm away from the apical meristem had obvious intrusive growth and bead-like structures, which resulting in increase in the diameter of laticifers. The laticifers at 14 cm away from the apical meristem were significantly enlarged in diameter, and contained more bead-like structures, and the bead-like structures between the neighboring laticifers were connected to form laticifer bridges, which resulting in the formation of a laticifer network. The laticifers isolated from different positions of the stable-stage shoots were morphologically similar, and the density of the protrusions or bead-like structures and the laticifer bridges was significantly higher than that in bronze-stage shoots, and complex laticifer networks were formed in the barks at all positions. The primary laticifers were proved to be multinuclear as well. The results of this study indicate that the primary laticifers in the rubber tree shoots are non-articulated and anastomosing, and belong to a novel type of laticifers. This study would play an important role in the fundamental research of the plant laticifer development.

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    Optimization of Chromosome Mounting Technique and Karyotype Analysisi of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay of Sharp Leaves
    GUAN Jinyan,LUO Qingwen,TAN Jiana,HUANG Haiying,WEN Mingfu,LUO Jianpiao
    2020, 41 (5):  888-892.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.007
    Abstract ( 473 )   HTML ( 125 )   PDF (2245KB) ( 173 )  

    In order tooptimize the chromosome mounting technique and explore the chromosome karyotype of C. kanehirae Hay, and to provide important cytological evidences for the study of the evolution, evolutionary characteristics and genetic regularity of camphor plants, the effects of differentpretreatment methods and enzymatic hydrolysis time on the production of C. kanehirae were discussed by the enzymatic dissociation wall low permeability method. The observation showed that pretreated in 0.002 mol/L 8-hydroxyl for 2 h, dissociated in 4% cellulase and 5% pectinase for 5 h could achieve the optimal experimental results. The karyotype analysis showed that the chromosome number was 24, with a karyotype formula 2n=2x=24=22m+2sm. The results demonstrated that the asymmetry index was 55.81%, the karyotype was 2B type, suggesting that C. kanehirae Hay maybe a relatively primitive species.

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    Variations Analysis of Latex Yield and Physiological Traits in Hevea brasiliensis Wickham Germplasm Resources
    YANG Tian,ZHAO Qi,LI Xiaoqin,ZHANG Fengliang,MAO Changli,HU Yonghua,WU Yu
    2020, 41 (5):  893-900.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.008
    Abstract ( 528 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1122KB) ( 310 )  

    128 clones of Wakeham germplasm rubber trees, which were tapped, were used as the research object in this study. The average annual latex yield of each tapping from clonal ramet, dry rubber content in latex and sucrose content, inorganic phosphorus content, mercaptan content, total solids content in latex were determined, and the correlation analysis of population variation was analyzed combined with the data of rubber tree diometer at breast height (DBH) at the end of 2017. The sucrose content was in the range of 3.14-35.50 mmol/L, with the largest coefficient of variation for 53.2%. Average annual latex yield of each tapping from clonal ramet was in the range of 24.2-475.0 mL, with a variation coefficient 51.5%. Sucrose content and dry rubber content, average annual latex yield of each tapping from clonal ramet was significantly negative correlated (P<0.05). All clones could be divided into three types by K-means cluster analysis. The first class was accounted for 10%, with the highest average annual latex yield of each tapping from clonal ramet (351.0 mL) and the highest average DBH circumference (59.5 cm). The fourth tapping latex yield was the highest (196.2 mL) with the lowest sucrose content (7.83 mmol/L) and no significant difference of other physiological indexes.

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    Salt Tolerance Analysis of F2 Generation Population of Switchgrass Based on Salt Tolerance Trait Index STTI
    LIU Yiming,KONG Danyu,LIU Xiaohui,ZHANG Xunzhong,ZHAO Bingyu,LIU Guodao
    2020, 41 (5):  901-911.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.009
    Abstract ( 424 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1991KB) ( 140 )  

    Cross-breeding is one of important ways to breed new varieties of plants, and it is essential to analyze the performance of hybrid F2 generation. In this study, 53 F2 generation plants of Panicum virgatum were used as the research material. The parents Alamo, Dacotah and F1 generation DA90 and DA120 were used as the reference. Salt tolerance performance was evaluated with sand culture method under 250 mmol/L NaCl stress conditions. The electrolyte leakage rate (EL), relative water content (RWC), dry weight (DW), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) were measured after 24 days of salt treatment. Principal component analysis and membership function analysis of salt tolerance trait index (STTI) showed that there were significant differences in salt tolerance between different F2 plants. Parent Alamo was relatively salt tolerant, Dacotah was sensitive to salt, DA90 and DA120 had moderate salt tolerance, and the F2 generation had significant segregation in salt tolerance. Six F2 plants were better in salt tolerance than Alamo. Seven F2 plants were worse in salt tolerance than Dacotah. Three principal components with a cumulative contribution rate of 87.47% were selected by the principal component analysis. The 57 test plants were divided into five categories by cluster analysis. Membership function indicated that F2 generations 39, 45, 27, 48, 35, 53 and 7 had higher salt tolerance, which would build up a good basis for the construction of the genetic map of the salt tolerance-related traits, the QTL mapping and the salt-tolerant breeding of switchgrass.

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    Effects of Simulated Salinization on Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics of Muskmelon Seedlings
    ZHANG Beibei,FAN Jiaru,WANG Jingrong,HAN Xiaoyun,YUAN Huimin,Gefu WANG-PRUSKI,ZHANG Zhizhong
    2020, 41 (5):  912-920.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.010
    Abstract ( 467 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (6480KB) ( 185 )  

    Using muskmelon cultivar ‘Xinyinhui’ as the material, the effects of salinization on the germination of muskmelon seeds were observed after treated by NaCl and NaHCO3 alone and combined. At the same time, some physiological and biochemical indexes related to saline-alkali stress were measured. The results showed that the simulated salinization of NaCl, NaHCO3, NaCl and NaHCO3 could inhibit seed germination. The inhibition increased with the increase of stress concentration and the extension of stress time. Only low concentration (50 mmol/L) of NaCl showed a certain promoting effect. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) first increased, then decreased, and then turned to an upward trend during the germination of muskmelon seeds treated with NaCl and NaHCO3. Peroxidase (POD) activity increased first and then decreased. Proline (Pro) content continued to rise, while soluble sugar content continued to decline. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was always significantly higher than that of the control group treated with distilled water. Starch content decreased with the extension of treatment time. The activity of α-amylase and β-amylase decreased first and then increased. Generally speaking, simulated salinization significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of muskmelon, and protective enzymes and starch metabolism significantly participated in the response to salt-alkali stress. The results would help to reveal the response mechanism of muskmelon seeds to salinization stress during germination, and provide theoretical and practical references for facility seedling raising and plant cultivation in saline-alkali environment.

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    Biotechnology and Tissue Culture
    Genetic Variation of Auricularia heimuer Strains in Guangxi
    WU Shengjin,CHEN Xuefeng,WANG Canqin,SU Qichen,WEI Shiyan,WU Xiaojian,LANG Ning,LAN Taoju
    2020, 41 (5):  921-928.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.011
    Abstract ( 442 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1800KB) ( 153 )  

    In order to understand the genetic diversity and to provide a basis for the rational utilization of A. heimuer resource in Guangxi, the characters of mycelium and fruit body of ten wild strains from Baise and nine cultivars strains of A. heimuer were determined, and the genetic variation among of the strains was analyzed by the ISSR technique. The 19 strains exhibited high diversity in the characters of mycelium and fruit body. There were evident differences between the wild strains and the cultivar strains. The former mostly produced pigment early during mycelium culture, and the fruit body was light colored, semitranslucent, soft, tender, low chewiness in the textur, while the latter produced pigment at late stage of mycelium culture or no pigment, and the fruit body was dark colored, opaque, and springy, higher chewiness in the texture. ISSR analysis showed that the similarity coefficient was ranged from 0.51 to 0.90 among the 19 strains which could be divided into five groups at the similarity coefficient of 0.69. The strains in group I and group III were all wild strains, which had a similarity coefficient 0.69-0.74 and 0.69-0.77, respectively, the strains in group II and group IV were all cultivar strains which had a similarity coefficient 0.80-0.86 and 0.85-0.90, respectively, and the strain in the group V was only the wild strain BY81. All results suggested that A. heimuer strains in Guangxi possessed high genetic diversity. There were higher genetic variations among the wild strains from Baise than that among cultivar strains. There was also high genetic variation between the wild strains and cultivar strains, which should belong to different ecological groups. A. heimuer in Baise was a precious resource waiting to be exploited.

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    Genetic Diversity Analysis of Cymbidium Germplasms Based on SRAP Markers
    YUAN Yuan,CAO Bin,ZHANG Yongqi,CHEN Qingxi,CHEN Nanchuan
    2020, 41 (5):  929-938.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.012
    Abstract ( 468 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (4564KB) ( 271 )  

    SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism) was applied for the determination of the diversity of 154 samples of Cymbidium germplasm. 16 SRAP primer pairs were screened from 168 SRAP primers and applied to all the materials, resulting in 874 amplified DNA bands. For the amplified DNA bands, 857 were polymorphic, with a ratio of 98.1%. The average number of bands of each SRAP primer for each Cymbidium germplasm was 5.74. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the genetic diversity and genetic relationship of the Cymbidium germplasms could be revealed by Me6-Em3 primer pair and could be classified into eight groups with a similarity coefficient 0.818 and the genetic similarity of the germplasms ranged from 0.772 to 1.000. It was found for the first time that the primer pairs Me8-Em4, Me11-Em2 and Me12-Em11 could be used together to identify C. Ensifolium reliably. Results in the present study could provide references for the utilization of Cymbidium germplasm and the identification of Cymbidium hybrid cultivars.

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    Ca2+/CaM Signaling Involved in Salicylic Acid-Induced Glycine Betaine Accumulation in Jatropha curcas L. under Osmotic Stress
    YANG Shuanglong,YANG Ting,GONG Ming
    2020, 41 (5):  939-946.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.013
    Abstract ( 411 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (9361KB) ( 82 )  

    Hydroponic experiments were carried out to study the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on the content of glycine betaine (GB), the activity of the key enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) of GB biosynthesis, and the expression of GB metabolism-related genes in the leaves of Jatropha curcas seedlings under PEG 6000 stress. Meanwhile, the effects of Ca 2+ and calmodulin (CaM) antagonists on SA-induced GB accumulation were investigated too. SA treatment significantly enhanced the content of GB, increased the activity of BADH, and improved the expression level of JcCMO and JcBADH in the leaves of J. curcas seedlings under osmotic stress. Interestingly, compared to the seedlings exposed to PEG treatment alone, SA treatment significantly increased the activity of CaM under osmotic stress. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) treatment could promote SA-induced GB accumulation. It also induced an increase of BADH activity, and up-regulated JcBADH expression. The results indicate that exogenous SA treatment can enhance the biosynthesis of GB, and Ca 2+/CaM signaling might be involved in the regulation of SA-induced GB accumulation.

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    Phylogeny and Expression Profile of Fatty Acyl-ACP Thioesterase (FAT) Gene Family in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)
    LI Fupeng,DENG Yunmei,WU Baoduo,QIN Xiaowei,YAN Lin,LAI Jianxiong
    2020, 41 (5):  947-954.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.014
    Abstract ( 519 )   HTML ( 40 )   PDF (1681KB) ( 182 )  

    Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (FAT) is the key enzyme regulating the synthesis of plant lipid. In order to better understand the characteristics of FAT gene family in Theobroma cacao, six novel FAT genes were identified from economically important cacao trees, designated as TcFATA, TcFATB1, TcFATB2, TcFATB3, TcFATB4, TcFATB5, respectively. Sequences analyses revealed that CDS of TcFATs was 1128-1263 bp, containing 6-7 exons. The molecular weight of the six predicted protein was 42.72-46.47 kDa, and pI of the proteins was 6.57-9.10. FAT family could be divided into FATA (one TcFATA) and FATB (five TcFATBs) subfamily. The expression patterns of the genes were investigated via real-time PCR in various developmental phases. The transcription level of TcFATA and TcFATB1 was continuously decreased along with pod development. Furthermore, the expression level of TcFATA and TcFATB1 was positively associated with the ratio of oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) respectively. The results indicate that TcFATA and TcFATB1 are significantly related with the regulation of fatty acid component.

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    Screening of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR of Rubber Saplings under Aluminum Stress
    MA Xiaowei,AN Feng,LIU Zifan,XIE Guishui
    2020, 41 (5):  955-963.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.015
    Abstract ( 541 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2245KB) ( 172 )  

    Aluminum toxicity is a major factor inhibiting crop growth on tropical acidic soils. However, the study on the effects of aluminum toxicity on rubber tree growth and latex production is limited, the mechanism of rubber trees tolerate to aluminum has not been reported. To screen the reference genes stably expressed in rubber trees while aluminum stress and elucidate the molecular mechanism of rubber tree aluminum tolerance by real-time quantitative PCR assay, ten candidate internal reference genes, i.e. Actin, Actin7, 18S rRNA, 40S rRNA, YLS8, UBC2, UBC4, GAPDH, FP and ADF were selected in this study. The expression stability was analyzed with geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct and RefFinder. The expression stability of the ten candidate internal reference genes were different. The top three stable reference genes were UBC4, 40S rRNA and FP. Meanwhile, the expression of two aluminum-induced malate transporter genes (HbALMT-1 and HbALMT-2) in rubber trees were verified with UBC4, 40S rRNA, FP, the combination of top three stable genes (UBC4+40S rRNA+FP) and the unstable gene GAPDH. The expression profiles of the two target genes were consistent when normalized by three reference genes and the combinations. The unstable reference gene (GAPDH) failed to standardize the expression data. In conclusion, UBC4, 40S rRNA and FP genes and the combinations were selected as the most stable reference genes, which could be normalized the expression of the relative genes under aluminum stress.

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    Cloning and Expression of Low Temperature Stress of DlICE1 in Dimocarpus longan Lour.
    HUO Wen,LI Jiami,XU Xiaoping,LAI Ruilian,CHEN Xiaohui,LIN Yuling,CHEN Yukun,LAI Zhongxiong
    2020, 41 (5):  964-970.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.016
    Abstract ( 465 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1542KB) ( 164 )  

    In this experiment, the embryogenic callus of longan were used as the materials, the cDNA sequence of DlICE1 was cloned from longan embryogenic callus by the method of RACE-PCR and RT-PCR, then it was analyzed by bioinformatical methods and expression analysis under low temperature stress. The full-length sequence of DlICE1 was 2327 bp, which contained an 1614 bp open reading frame encoded 537 amino acids. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that DlICE1 belonged to the unstable acidic protein, which didn’t has a typical signal peptide and wasn’t a secreted protein; subcellular localization indicated that it is located in the nucleus, which was closest to the homologous protein of sweet orange. The qRT-PCR results indicated that the longan DlICE1 could effectively respond to low temperature stress and induce increased expression at low temperature. In summary, the study suggests that the longan DlICE1 gene may be involved in the cold resistance in longan embryogenic callus.

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    Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in Low Phosphorus Stress of Stylosanthes Guianensis
    WEN Yifu,HAN Rongrong,SHAN Guilian,SHI Liangtao,LUO Fucheng,ZHAO Xiaoxue,ZENG Liqiong
    2020, 41 (5):  971-977.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.017
    Abstract ( 436 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2291KB) ( 153 )  

    The cDNA-SRAP molecular marker technique was used to isolate the differentially expressed genes of the stems and leaves of Stylosanthes under low phosphorus stress, and bioinformatics analysis was carried out to study the molecular mechanism and reaction mechanism of Stylosanthes growing under low phosphorus condition. A total of 195 differential fragments were amplified from 8 pairs of primer combinations. Among them, there were 56 inhibitory expression fragments, 92 inducible expression fragments, 36 upregulated expression fragments and 11 down-regulated expression fragments, and the sizes ranged from 50 to 1000 bp. After the second amplification, the specific bands were recovered and sequenced. Through blast alignment, the homologous sequences of 14 different fragments were compared, and the 8 differentially expressed nucleotide sequences had high homology with known functional genes (JCVI-FLLj-1K4 unknown mRNA, NBS-LRR type disease resistance protein, ATP synthase, aldosterone reductase, chloroplast RF2), five sequences were highly homologous to the putative or predicted genes (UPF0051 protein, protease promoter, SCEI binding enzyme, indole-3-pyruvate monooxygenase). This study has laid a foundation for screening differential genes in response to low phosphorus stress.

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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Mitochondrial Gene of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CaNAD9 in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
    YANG Tingyu,SHAO Guifang,ZHANG Shui,WANG Jiao,ZHANG Jingrou,ZHAO Kai,DENG Minghua
    2020, 41 (5):  978-984.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.018
    Abstract ( 500 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2456KB) ( 145 )  

    In order to further study the relationship between the cytoplasmic male sterility and energy metabolism in pepper, the cytoplasmic male sterile line 9704A and homologous maintainer line 9704B were used as the experimental materials to clone the mitochondrial genome CaNAD9 gene and compare its primary structure. The difference between the two materials was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR to analyze the expression pattern of the gene in different tissues of the maintainer line 9704B and the expression differences of the buds of the cytoplasmic male sterile line 9704A and the homologous maintainer line 9704B. The CDS length of the CaNAD9 consisted of 573 bp, which encoding 190 amino acids. RNA editing of the CaNAD9 transcript did not happened in both 9704A and 9704B. The expression of CaNAD9 in pepper was different in different tissues with the highest expression in seeds and the lowest in fetuses. There were some differences in different developmental stages of the flower buds, and the difference in the expression of the cytoplasmic male sterile lines and the homologous maintainers in the meiotic stage of pollen mother cells was the most significant. This difference may cause abnormalities in the energy metabolism of the male sterile line, leading to male sterility in the pepper.

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    Rhizome Proliferation and Bud differentiation of Cymbiduim sinense ‘Wuzicui’ × C. sinense ‘Honghua’ Hybrid
    XIE Juan,LI Long,XING Yue,WENG Qingshi,FAN Wanlin,PENG Donghui
    2020, 41 (5):  985-993.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.019
    Abstract ( 435 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2199KB) ( 174 )  

    Cymbiduim sinense is also called Bao Sui Lan (Heralding New Year Orchid), which belongs to Cymbiduim (Orchidaceae). It is loved by Chinese people for its robust plant type and flowering period during the Spring Festival. In view of the low proliferation rate and the difficulty of bud differentiation of the rhizome of C. sinense. In this study, the hybrid rhizomes of C. sinense were used as materials, through the combination of auxin, mitogen and organic additives in different concentrations, in order to find a suitable medium formula for the proliferation and differentiation of the rhizomes of hybrid C. sinense. The results showed that the most suitable medium for rhizomes proliferation was MS+ 8 mg/L 6-BA+0.1 mg/L NAA+0.8 mg/L TDZ+1.5 g/L AC+35.0 g/L Su+6.0 g/L Ag, with a proliferation coefficient 5.35 and the growth rate 3.44. The most suitable medium for leaf bud differentiation was MS+10.0 mg/L 6-BA+ 0.7 mg/L NAA+0.2 mg/L TDZ+1.5 g/L AC+ 35.0 g/L Su+6.0 g/L Ag, with a leaf bud differentiation rate 52.5%. The most suitable medium for leaf bud differentiation was MS+8.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.1 mg/L NAA+7.0 g/L peptone+100.0 mg/L CW+1.0 g/L AC, with a leaf bud differentiation rate 173.30%. This study explored the effects of hormones and additives on the proliferation and differentiation of the rhizomes, which could achieve large-scale reproduction of the tissue culture seedlings.

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    Crop Pests, Diseases and Their Control, Environmental Protection
    Investigation and Analysis on the Occurrence and Current Control Status of Mango Diseases and Insect Pests in Guangxi
    HAN Dongyin,XING Chuming,LI Lei,CHEN Yongsen,ZHANG Fangping,CHEN Junyu,NIU Liming,FU Yueguan
    2020, 41 (5):  994-1000.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.020
    Abstract ( 494 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1359KB) ( 202 )  

    To clarify the current control status and existing problems of mango diseases and insect pests control in Guangxi and provide some basic data for the green prevention and control, a series of data were collected and analyzed by the network voting, questionnaire investigation and field survey. Family farms are dominated in Guangxi, accountted for 70.83%. The mango varieties mainly include ‘Tainong’, ‘GUI 7’, ‘Jinhuang’, ‘Renong 1’, ‘Guifei’, ‘GUI 10’ and ‘Jin xing’. 71.58% of mango orchards have two or more varieties. Generally, the occurrence of mango diseases is more serious than those of insect pests in Guangxi. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Xanthomonas campestris are the most serious diseases. Chemical control is the most favorite method against the mango diseases and insect pests. 98.95% of farmers adopt the practice of mixing two or more kinds of pesticides when application, 55.32% of farmers choose 2 to 3 kinds of pesticides to mix. The pesticide selection is different. 44.34% farmers rely on their own experience or neighbors, 36.79% rely on the recommendation of pesticide stores, and 18.87% rely on the guidance by agricultural technicians. The input cost of pesticides ranges from 200 to 1000 yuan/667 m 2, but there is no positive correlation between the input cost and mango yield.

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    Functional Response of Neoseiulus barkeri to Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of Mango
    ZHOU Yang,CHEN Junyu,CAI Ducheng,FU Yueguan
    2020, 41 (5):  1001-1006.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.021
    Abstract ( 466 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 158 )  

    In order to determine the damage control potential of Neoseiulus barkeri on Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of mango, the predation ability of N. barkeri on S. dorsalis Hood of mango was observed under the conditions of temperature of (27±1)℃ and RH (75±5)% in the room. The predation efficiency of different insect states of N. barkeri on S. dorsalis Hood was comprehensively assessed by the instantaneous attack rate (a), handing time (Th), predationcapacity (a/Th) and other parameters. N. barkeri could feed on the adults, nymphs of the first and second age of S. dorsalis Hood, and had a certain predating ability. With the increase of prey density, the daily feeding amount of predatory mites increased gradually. Among them, the female adult mite and deutonymph mite had the largest predationcapacity to the nymph of the first age of S. dorsalis Hood (10.35 and 12.82 per day, respectively), while the male adult mite had the largest predationcapacity to the nymph of the second age of S. dorsalis Hood (12.48 per day). The female and male adult mites of Apterygium barbati showed the strongest instantaneous attack rate to the 2-year nymph of the S. dorsalis Hood (1.0227 and 1.1208, respectively), while the deutonymph mite showed the maximum instantaneous attack rate to the female adults of S. dorsalis Hood (1.5774).

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    Identification and Biological Characteristics of Dalbergia odorifera Leaf Blight
    CHEN Yao,LI Hangyu,ZHOU Deming
    2020, 41 (5):  1007-1012.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.022
    Abstract ( 476 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2438KB) ( 189 )  

    In recent years, the harmfulness of Dalbergia odorifera leaf blight has become more and more serious. In order to provide a basis for the control and comprehensive treatment of this disease, the pathogenic fungus causing the disease was isolated and identified and the biological characteristics were studied. In this study, the pathogenic fungus was isolated from the pathogen of D. odorifera leaf blight, and the morphological observation of the pathogenic fungi was carried out. And the rDNA-ITS sequence was obtained by sequencing. The pathogenic fungus was identified as Phomopsis asparagi. Through experiments on the growth medium, temperature, pH value and illumination of the pathogens, the mycelial growth of the fungus in PFA medium was the fastest. The mycelium could grow at 10-30 ℃, and the optimum temperature for mycelium growth was 25-30 ℃. The optimum pH for the mycelium growth was 6. Light had no significant effect on the growth of the pathogen.

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    Agricultural Product Processing, Preservation, Storage, Analysis and Detection
    Response Surface Optimization of Enzymatic Extraction of Active Substances from Tamarind Pulp Based on Entropy Weight Method
    LIU Xiaoping,LIU Lu,ZOU Yuke,LU Xuanchi,CHEN Anjun
    2020, 41 (5):  1013-1021.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.023
    Abstract ( 443 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (6578KB) ( 151 )  

    The study was aimed to optimize the extraction process of tamarind pulp. The polysaccharide extraction rate, raw material utilization rate, total phenolics extraction rate and flavonoids extraction rate were used as the response value, and the entropy weight method was used to optimize the cellulase extraction process. The antioxidant activity of the extract during the extraction process was studied. The results showed that the tamarind extract had strong OH? scavenging ability, and both were more than 190 mg/100 mL. The OH? scavenging ability and ABTS free radical scavenging ability were sensitive to the changes of extraction conditions. Considering the actual situation, the optimal extraction process was 51 min, the ratio of material to liquid 1:10.9, and the amount of cellulase 1.5‰. Under this condition, the extraction rate of tamarind pulp polysaccharide was 12.66%, the yield was 88.24%, the total phenolics extraction rate was 4.79‰ and the total flavonoid, extraction rate was 4.38‰, which was close to the theoretical prediction. The model could well predict the extraction process of tamarind pulp, which could be used in health beverage processing.

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    Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Total Flavonoids from Macadamia Green Peel
    ZHANG Ming,DU Liqing,MA Feiyue,SHUAI Xixiang,TU Xinghao
    2020, 41 (5):  1022-1029.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.024
    Abstract ( 474 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1485KB) ( 161 )  

    The study focused on the optimization of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of total flavonoids from macadamia green peel. An orthogonal test with four factors and three level was carried out and the optimized conditions were: ultrasonic extraction time 45 min, ethanol content 40%, extraction temperature 50 ℃, solid-liquid ratio 1:60 (g/mL). The total flavonoids yield was up to (1638.43±44.26) mg/100g under the optimized conditions. The ABTS radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity was about 2.48, 1.90 times of Trolox. The results indicated that the total flavonoids from macadamia green peel had strong antioxidant capacity.

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    Comparative Study on Characterization and Physical and Chemical Properties of Mallotus peltatus Powder with Different Particle Sizes
    SHI Dongjie,FANG Yiming,ZHU Hongying,ZHAO Jing,CHU Zhong
    2020, 41 (5):  1030-1040.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.025
    Abstract ( 448 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (26282KB) ( 88 )  

    The characterization and physicochemical properties of crude powder (D50 120.45 mm), fine powder (D50 65.86 mm), ultrafine powder I, ultrafine powder II, and ultrafine powder III were compared by colorimetric determination, particle size measurement, electron microscopy analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The powder processing characteristics, fluidity of the powder, and the changes of the content of polysaccharides and saponins were studied. With the decrease of powder particle size, the solubility, wettability and fluidity of the powder increased, and the swelling degree and water holding capacity decreased. The content of tea polysaccharides and saponins in the ultrafine powder was also significantly higher than that of powder. The length of ultrafine pulverization, the content of tea polysaccharide gradually increased, and the saponin content was different. The characteristics of different particle size the powders of M. peltatus were different. Ultrafine powder has higher dissolution rate, tea polysaccharide, saponin content, so it is more easily absorbed by the human body. With high bioavailability and easy processing, ultrafine powder of M. peltatus has a better development prospect.

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    Formation of Callus Suberin Tissue of Postharvest Sweet Potato Roots with Abscisic Acid
    LYU Xiaolong,DENG Yunhong,WANG Caixia,SUN Jie,LI Cheng,CHEN Lin,SHANG Xiaoqing,PENG Chunlin
    2020, 41 (5):  1041-1047.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.026
    Abstract ( 460 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1372KB) ( 198 )  

    In this study, ‘Beijing No.1’ sweet potato was used as the experimental material. After artificially simulating mechanical damage, the sweet potato was treated with different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200 mg/L) of abscisic acid (ABA). The purpose of this research was to study the callus effect of ABA treatment on postharvest sweet potato roots. ABA treatment could effectively promote the formation of callus in sweet potato wounds, and the best effect was obtained with 100 mg/L ABA for 3 days. ABA treatment could effectively increase the activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in sweet potato callus, increase total phenol and flavonoid content, and reduce sweet potato weight loss. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the content of lignin, total phenol as well as flavonoids of ABA treated sweet potato (P<0.01). The activity of PAL enzyme was significantly correlated with the activity of POD and PPO after ABA treatment (P<0.01). In summary, postharvest ABA treatment can achieve the purpose of promoting the callus formation of sweet potato roots by inducing phenylpropanoid metabolism, improving callus defense enzyme activity and synthesis of secondary metabolites in damaged parts.

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    Ecology
    Characteristics and Succession Trend of Soil Seed Bank in the Next Forest Community Treated with Different Cutting Vines
    TONG Siyuan,CHEN Guode,ZHONG Shengyun,FU Rong,FU Shengbo,LIN Chengbo,YU Xuebiao
    2020, 41 (5):  1048-1056.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.027
    Abstract ( 365 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1417KB) ( 132 )  

    In this paper, the low-altitude secondary forest community with serious damage to vines in Wuzhishan City were used as the research object. The combination of field vegetation survey and indoor seed germination test was used to analyze the soil seed bank characteristics and species diversity of secondary forest communities under different vines. Its similarity with the understory vegetation was studied. Artificial vine removal could increase the seed germination quantity and speed of the soil seed bank in the study area, and also prolong the seed germination days. A total of 74 plants were found in the soil seed bank under different vines treatments, belonging to 67 genera in 35 families, among which the proportions of Asteraceae, Rubiaceae and Gramineae were higher, while the Eupatorium odoratum were dominant species in the soil seed bank under different vines treatment. The composition of life type was dominated by herbaceous plants. Artificial vine removal could increase the number of species of trees and shrubs in the soil seed bank. The seed density and species number of soil seed bank under different vines with the deepening of the depth of the soil layer, the seed density in the soil of 2-5 and 5-10 cm soils in the study area increased significantly. There was no significant difference in the species diversity index of soil seed bank under different vines treatments, and the similarity coefficient (0.173-0.302) between soil seed bank and understory vegetation was generally lower. However, with the extension of the age of cutting vines, the similarity of soil seed bank and understory vegetation species composition increased, and the community treated by vine for 3 years was significantly larger than the untreated community. In summary, artificial vine removal can improve the recovery potential of vegetation and improve the natural regeneration ability of the soil seed bank in the study area, and help to promote the positive recovery succession of the secondary forest community in the area.

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    Soil Physical and Hydrothermal Characteristics of Mountain Rubber Plantation under Different Management Modes
    YUAN Huifang,HUANG Jing,TIAN Yaohua
    2020, 41 (5):  1057-1063.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.028
    Abstract ( 421 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1294KB) ( 154 )  

    In order to study the changes of soil physical and hydrothermal characteristics in mountainous rubber plantations under different management modes, seven treatments were set up in the field, including spraying herbicide (S), artificial weeding (A), green manure mulching(G), covering film (F), trench interception (T), comprehensive measures (M) and conventional control (CK). The soil physical properties, in-situ soil water and heat characteristics were measured regularly. The soil water content (SWC), in situ soil moisture content (SMC), soil bulk density (SBD), soil porosity (SP), soil density (SD), soil pH and other parameters under G, F and M treatment were all superior to that of T, S, A and CK. Soil temperature (ST) under F and M treatment was higher than that of other treatments, while ST was the lowest under G treatment. In situ soil conductivity (SC) of each treatment showed different trends. SC of M, F and G changed from low in dry season to high in rainy season, but there was no significant difference between the two seasons, and the SC of S, A, T and CK in dry season was significantly higher than that in rainy season. In a word, adopting multiple mulching modes can effectively inhibit soil evaporation, improve soil water holding capacity, help to improve soil structure, and have a good soil moisture conservation effect. Therefore, mulching treatment can be used as the main mode of soil optimal management in mountain rubber plantation.

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