Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops
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    25 January 2020, Volume 41 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Crop Culture and Nutrition, Genetic Breeding
    Assessment of Soil Fertility in the Mango Orchards of Panzhihua, Sichuan, China
    LIU Bin,WANG Songbiao,LI Xin,SU Muqing,MA Haiyang,WU Hongxia,ZHOU Yigang,MA Xiaowei
    2020, 41 (1):  1-6.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.001
    Abstract ( 1061 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (450KB) ( 504 )  

    The soil fertility of the mango orchard in Panzhihua, Sichuan, China was evaluated to provide a scientific basis for the management of the fruit in the area. The soil samples in the depth 0-40 cm in 43 mango orchards were collected to determine the soil pH, contents of organic soil matter, available nutrients and micronutrients and analyze the data of the soil nutrients. The results showed that the variable coefficient of 13 nutrient contents was 0.13-0.75 in the region, and the variation was moderate. Statistical analysis revealed the soil fertility in the 43 orchards was sufficient to meet the required accuracy of 20% relative error under 90% confidence level. Principal component analysis, membership function and the radar plot were used to assess the single factor fertility. It showed that pH, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available Fe and available Zn were the limiting factors for the soil fertility quality in the study area. The soil integrated fertility index in the study area was 0.25-0.93 with an average value of 0.55. But the difference of IFI among the orchards was significant.

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    Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Nutrient Exchange in Mulberry Plant in Rocky Desertification Areas
    WANG Yan,XING Dan,SONG Lala,HAN Shiyu,CHEN Tingsu
    2020, 41 (1):  7-14.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.002
    Abstract ( 582 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (666KB) ( 369 )  

    To determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the nutrient exchange in the plant soil system in rocky desertification areas, the effects of inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the nutrient content, stoichiometry of plant and soil were studied by simulating seasonal drought in rocky desertification areas. Two periods of normal water supply and natural drought were set up for Fm and Ri treatment. Mulberry was harvested after growth for 90 d, and the content of C, N, P and K in the plant and soil was measured. AMF could effectively enhance the growth of mulberry seedlings in the two periods. After the occurrence of drought stress, the growth promoting effect of Ri and its adaptability to mulberry was better than that of Fm. Drought stress reduced the content of C, N, P and K in mulberry seedlings. The mineral nutrition in the seedling was improved by AMF, especially for N and P. The C content in the root and stem of the seedling was significantly reduced. Under normal water supply conditions, the soil C content after Fm and Ri application decreased by 7.00% and 8.55% respectively. Under drought stress, the content of available N, P and K in the soil significantly increased after Fm and Ri application, but under normal water supply, the content of available N, P and K in soil decreased. AMF also inreased C/P and N/P ratio under drought stress. In summary, AMF could affect the absorption and distribution of C, N and P nutrient of mulberry tree and the coordination of plant soil system in C, N and P according to the changes of water supply and demand of nutrient resources.

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    Straw Returning and Optimized Nitrogen Application Improved Nitrogen Uptake, Soil C and N Transformation of Flue-cured Tobacco
    LIN Changhua,ZHANG Shirong,WANG Jun,DING Xiaodong
    2020, 41 (1):  15-23.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.003
    Abstract ( 654 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (998KB) ( 464 )  

    Focusing on the problem of tobacco leaf quality decline caused by excessive nitrogen application in sandy soil in South China, the effects of straw returning and optimized nitrogen fertilizer application on nitrogen uptake, the soil carbon, nitrogen conversion and soil enzyme activities in different stages of tobacco were studied in field. The experiment was set up by a randomized block design with two factors of rice straw returning and nitrogen fertilizer, namely N1, traditional nitrogen fertilization with 169.50 kg/hm 2; N2, optimized nitrogen fertilization with 105.00 kg/hm 2; C0, 0 kg/hm 2; C1, half returning with 4500 kg/hm 2; C2, full returning with 9000 kg/hm 2. The results showed that compared with N1, N uptake and accumulation of tobacco leaves and roots under N2 level was similar in the early stage, but decreased in the later stage when straws with two rates returned to field. Compared with budding stage, N content in roots in N2C1 and N2C2 treatments both decreased by 4.2 g/kg, and N content in leaves decreased by 3.8 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg at maturity stage, respectively. Compared with N1, soil inorganic N content in N2C1 and N2C2 treatments at maturity stage decreased by 30.4% and 20.0% respectively, and those at maturity stage had no difference between N2 and N. The soil NH4 +-N content in N2C1 treatment was higher and decreased during the whole growth period, while soil nitrate and inorganic N content were the lowest in the maturity stage, which indicated that the optimum application of medium straw treatment (N2C1) could maintain the content of inorganic N in soil at the early growth stage and reduce at the maturity stage. Compared with N1, the soil invertase activity in N2C1 and N2C2 treatments was 1.30 and 1.13 times as that in N1C1 and N1C2 treatments at the head stage, respectively, and that was 1.27 and 1.10 times at the rapid growing stage, respectively. Compared with N1, optimized N application under two straws returning reduced soil urease, phosphatase and catalase activities during the whole growth period. Under medium straw returning (C1), compared with N1, soil water-soluble carbon content in N2 at budding and maturity stage increased by 11.2% and 14.1%, respectively, and soil microbial biomass nitrogen content in N2 showed a decreasing trend compared with N1. In conclusion, optimized nitrogen application coupled with medium straw returning (C1N2) could improve soil water-soluble carbon content, maintain the rational supply of soil nitrogen, stabilize the absorption and accumulation of nitrogen in early growth stage of flue-cured tobacco, and reduce the luxury absorption of nitrogen in mature stage of tobacco, which was consistent with the regular pattern of N uptake of Flue-cured tobacco.

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    Applied Research on Selection Index Method Based on the Economic Weight in Sugarcane Breeding Program Ⅰ. Establishment of Economic Weight Model for Target Traits
    YANG Kun,ZHAO Jun,QIN Wei,FAN Yuanhong,CHEN Xuekuan,WU Caiwen,ZHAO Liping,YAO Li,LIU Jiayong,ZHAO Peifang,ZAN Fenggang
    2020, 41 (1):  24-34.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.004
    Abstract ( 600 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (550KB) ( 331 )  

    Maximizing economic benefits could be realized by selection and application of nice sugarcane varieties in the whole sugar industry. Efficient screening and evaluation of sugarcane varieties on the perspective of market economy is of great significance for the sustainable development of sugar production. This study was conducted to establish the economic weight models of multiple traits and evaluate relative importance of these traits so that to provide a base for improving breeding evaluation efficiency and application of nice sugarcane varieties in sugarcane industry. The cost accounting for all aspects of the whole sugar industry was estimated, based on the survey data of three milling seasons from eighteen sugar mills and the feedback data from some experiential farmers who had engaged in sugarcane production for many years in Yunnan Province. The models of economic weight for different economic traits of sugarcane were established and their relative importance were analyzed according to their relative values of economic weight respectively. The main results were as follows: (1) the models of economic weight for eleven target traits were established, including three direct target traits (cane yield, sucrose content and fiber content), and eight indirect target traits (stalk diameter, millable stalks per hectare, stalk height, pithiness, trashiness, hairiness, side shoot and protruded bud). (2) The total cost per ton of sugar was 4643.99 yuan assuming production system parameters described above (plant crop yield=63 t/hm 2, sugar content=12.5%, fiber=12.0%, and total production=170.73 t/hm 2, including one plant crop and two ratoon crops) as a baseline. The production cost for sugarcane grower and sugar mill accounted for 68.15% and 31.85% of the total cost respectively. When the purchase price of sugarcane per ton of cane was 440 yuan, the profit of the farmer per ton of cane was 44.38 yuan. However, when the price of sugar per ton in the market exceeded 5000 yuan, the profit of the sugar mill per ton of sugar was more than 356.01 yuan. (3) Currently based on the manual harvest, the absolute economic weight value of 11 target traits of sugarcane were: cane yield (TCH, t/hm 2) 37.95 yuan, sugar content (CCS, %) 328.44 yuan, fiber (Fr, %) 22.28 yuan, stalk diameter (SD, cm) 320 yuan, millable stalk number (SN, stalks/m 2) -80 yuan, stalk height (SH, cm) 0, pithiness (Pi, rating) -760 yuan, trashiness (Ti, rating) -320 yuan, hairiness (Hi, rating) -160 yuan, side shoot (SS, rating) -159.82 yuan, and protruded bud (PB, rating) -63.26 yuan. (4) Combining the genetic gains, the relative economic weight values of these traits were obtained. The relative economic weight value of CCS, TCH, SD, SH, PB, Fi, Ti, SS, SN, Hi, Pi was 400.99, 130.51, 36.93, 0, -5.22, -8.25, -21.15, -24.30, -28.61, -30.72, and -200.04 yuan, respectively. The establishment of the economic weight model for the target traits would provide a reference and basis for the sugarcane breeding and analyzing the production cost and marginal benefit in the whole sugar industry.

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    Breeding of New Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) Cultivar, Yuetang 06-233
    WEN Mingfu,PAN Fangyin,QI Yongwen,WU Jiayun,AO Junhua,YANG Junxian,GUAN Jinyan,PENG Lichong,LIANG Qiru,LUO Qingwen
    2020, 41 (1):  35-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.005
    Abstract ( 747 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (967KB) ( 450 )  

    The objective of the paper was to introduce the breeding process of a new sugarcane cultivar, Yuetang 06-233, and its agronomic characters, stem yield, sucrose content, and disease and abiotic stress resistance. Yuetang 06-233, with early-maturing type, high stem yield, high sucrose content and good adversity resistance was successfully bred using Yuetang 94-128 and Yuetang 93-159 as female and male parents, after 8 generations selection based on agronomic, sugar, and yield traits. It exhibited high sugar yield and maximum stem yield at 18 145.79 kg/hm 2 and 119 932.56 kg/hm 2 in the national regional and production test, respectively, and it was highly resistant to Smut. Meanwhile, the chromosome number and karyotype of Yuetang 06-233 was studied by shedding cell wall and dialysis methods. The results showed that the chromosomes of the cultivar mainly was metacentric or submetacentric. The chromosome number of Yuetang 06-233 was 88, the karyotype formula was K(2n)=88=82m+6sm.

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    Comprehensive Evaluation of 70 Ornamental Characters of Phalaenopsis
    SONG Yilan,ZHANG Yingjie,SUN Jixia,ZHANG Jingwei,GUO Wenjiao,WANG Lei,LIU Xueqing
    2020, 41 (1):  43-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.006
    Abstract ( 614 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (753KB) ( 561 )  

    The leaf length, leaf width, peduncle length, pedicel thick, length, width, number per plant flowers, flower, flower color, double rate, branch number, and peduncle length measure quality traits of 70 butterfly orchid resources in the flowering period were investigated. Based on R type cluster analysis and Q type cluster analysis, the species were comprehensively evaluated with coefficient of variation analysis, analytic hierarchy process and variance analysis methods. The results showed that the most significant difference between the species was the number of bifurcation, and the largest variability was the number of bifurcation. The similarity of flower length, flower width, color, leaf width, number of flowers per plant, peduncle width, leaf length and peduncle length was high. The similarity of the other traits was far from each other, indicating that the phenotypic traits of phalaenopsis evolved independently. Through the above research, the comprehensive evaluation of the 70 species was conducted comprehensively and objectively, contributing to the breeding of new varieties.

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    Identification of Pollen Vitality and Factors Influencing Storage Quality of Zantedeschia spp.
    LI Ziwei,GUO Yanbing,ZHANG Qi,WU Hongzhi
    2020, 41 (1):  49-56.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.007
    Abstract ( 815 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (927KB) ( 751 )  

    The pollen of different varieties of Zantedeschia spp. was selected as the experimental material to determine the optimal method to detect pollen viability and factors which influence pollen storage quality. The effects of TTC, Lugol’s solution, methylene blue and acetic acid magenta to detect pollen vitality were compared. The influence of pollen drying time (mean water content), storage temperature, pre-cooling method and thawing method on pollen storage was explored. The results showed that the TTC method could dye the pollen of Zantedeschia into deep red, light red, and pink. However, the Lugol’s solution method and ammonium acetate method could not dye the pollen, and methylene blue could dye all pollen blue. So only TTC method was suitable to identify Zantedeschia pollen vitality. The most suitable culture medium for pollen germination was consisted of 80 g/L sucrose, 0.2 g/L boric acid, 0.3 g/L calcium nitrate, and the best detection time for pollen vitality was 24 h cultured in the medium. The treatment of drying pollen for 27 h, then putting into the refrigerator directly, combined with water bath at 37 ℃ for 2 min could work with low temperature to maintain the vitality of the pollen well. Temperature had great impact on the vitality of Zantedeschia pollen stored. Among the experimental temperature, -80 ℃ was the best one and still maintained more than 40% viability after storage for 61 days, then -20 ℃ was second, room temperature was the third, and 4 ℃ was the worst. Taken together, TTC staining and cultured in vitro media were the suitable methods for identifying the vitality of Zantedeschia pollen. Low temperature -80 ℃ could prolong the storage time of Zantedeschia pollen significantly. The results would provide a scientific basis for preserving Zantedeschia pollen.

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    Comparative Study on Determination Methods of Pollen Viability in Paeonia decomposita
    WANG Shiquan
    2020, 41 (1):  57-62.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.008
    Abstract ( 711 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (808KB) ( 769 )  

    In this paper, the pollen viability of Paeonia decomposita was studied using in vitro germination, Alexander staining, TTC staining and I2-KI staining methods. The results showed that the pollen had viability on the first day after flowering, and the highest viability was on the fourth day. As the flowering time lapsed, the pollen viability gradually decreased. The change tendency of pollen viability in 1-7 d after flowering determinated by four methods were basically the same. The results of Alexander staining and in vitro germination were extremely significantly different (P<0.01), while the differences between TTC staining, I2-KI staining and in vitro germination were not significant. The determination results of I2-KI were closer to that of the in vitro germination method. Taking into account factors such as experimental conditions, experimental periods, experimental processes and drug preservation methods, I2-KI staining method was suitable for the rapid and accurate determination of the pollen viability before artificial pollination of P. decomposita in the field. This would provide a theoretical basis for exploring the endangered causes, protecting germplasm resources, introducing domestication and cross breeding of P. decomposita.

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    Phytophysiology and Biochemistry
    Integrative Assessments on Physiological Response and Cold Tolerance of Different Sugarcane Varieties to Low Temperature
    QUAN Yiji,FAN Xian,LI Rudan,YANG Shaolin,DENG Jun
    2020, 41 (1):  63-68.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.009
    Abstract ( 595 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (946KB) ( 373 )  

    Three sugarcane hybrid varieties (ROC22, Co281, KQ01-1390) and three original breeding varieties (28NG16, 57NG155, 96NG16) were used to assess the ability of cold tolerance through investigating the effects of low temperature on mature sugarcane appearance, relative permeability of leave plasma, contents of osmotic adjustment substances and activities of antioxidant enzymes in sugarcane stems. Treated at -3 ℃ for three days at nigh, symptoms such as withered and curly leaves, broken and black growth point, black and soft lateral bud appeared. Moreover, water boiling symptom in inner stem tissues was observed after ripping sugarcane stem. The relative electrical conductivity of the leaves increased, the contents of malonaldehyde (MAD) and proline (Pro), and the activities of catalase (CAT) increased, but the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) decreased in sugarcane stems under cold stress. Membership function method was used to assess the ability of cold tolerance, the results showed the order of cold tolerance was KQ01-1390>Co281>ROC22>28NG16>57NG155>96NG16, indicating that the original breeding were more sensitive to low temperature and showed weaker ability of cold tolerance than the hybrid varieties.

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    Investigation and Analysis on Leaf Morphological Characters of Macadamia Germplasm Resources
    YANG Weihai,ZENG Lizhen,ZENG Hui,WAN Jifeng,CHEN Ni,ZOU Minghong,LU Chaozhong,ZHANG Hanzhou,LUO Lianfang,ZHU Wenhua
    2020, 41 (1):  69-76.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.010
    Abstract ( 580 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (822KB) ( 422 )  

    In order to identify and utilize the germplasm resources of macadamia, fourteen morphological characters of leaf were investigated from 25 germplasm resonrces of macadamia in Zhanjiang region, and the genetic variation and correlation of some traits was studied. The results showed that the tested germplasm resources of macadamia had rich variation in leaf morphological characters (phyllotaxis, young leaf colour, leaf shape, leaf tip shape, leaf base shape, leaf margin shape, quantitive of leaf margin sting, foliar state, leaflet etiolation, leaf area, leaf length, leaf width, leaf index and petiole length). The wide variation was among the five quantitative characters of leaf with variation coefficient of 13.47%-25.19%, and the variation range in leaf area was the widest, while that in leaf length was the narrowest. All the quantitative traits data were skewed normal distribution, the skewness ranged from -0.20 to 1.33. The correlation analysis showed that leaf area and leaf index were all extremely significantly correlated with leaf length and leaf width, but no significant correlation was occurred between petiole length and leaf area, leaf index, leaf length and leaf width. Therefore, the phenotypic genetic diversity of leaf was abundant in macadamia germplasm resources, and there were close relationships among some quantitative traits. Additionally, leaf anatomical characteristics of macadamia were preliminary observed using paraffin sectioned.

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    Effects of Nitric Oxide on Growth and Physiology of Eucalyptus under Aluminum Stress
    LUO Wenji,LUO Bijing,JIANG Xia,HOU Wenjuan,WANG Linghui
    2020, 41 (1):  77-82.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.011
    Abstract ( 404 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (518KB) ( 303 )  

    Acid aluminum inhibiting plant growth is a global concern. Previous studies on acid and aluminum stress were mainly focused on gramineae and leguminous plants, less on economic timber species. In order to investigate the effects of exogenous application of nitric oxide on the growth and physiology of E. grandis × E. urophylla Guanglin No. 9 under aluminum stress, three concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were applied in the absence of aluminium (0 mmol/L) and aluminium stress (5 mmol/L). The results showed that: (1) the biomass of the roots, stems and leaves of E. grandis × E. urophylla treated with 5 mmol/L Al significantly decreased by 11.57%, 12.04% and 37.37%, respectively, and the accumulation of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoids in the leaves was also inhibited. (2) Under Al stress, the cell membrane permeability of the leaves increased significantly, the product of membrane lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) increased by 43.12%, and the content of soluble sugar and protein decreased by 9.43% and 42.27%, corresspondingly. (3) The content of photosynthetic pigments increased by 41.23% under Al stress by adding NO (10 μmol/L). The content of MDA reduced by 27.66% and the content of soluble sugar and protein increased to regulate the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain the stability of cell membrane structure, thus the biomass significantly increased by 10.19%. (4) NO concentration increased by 10.19%. Over-high NO (500 μmol/L) was toxic to E. grandis, and the biomass decreased by 15.17%. This indicated that NO had dual characteristics. The results showed that: (1) 5 mmol/L Al significantly inhibited the root and above-ground biomass, and inhibited the accumulation of Chl a, Chl a+b and Car. (2) Al stress significantly increased cell membrane permeability and MDA (the product of plasmalemma peroxidation), decreased soluble sugar and soluble protein content in Eucalyptus leaves. (3) Addition of exogenous nitric oxide (10 μmol/L) could alleviate the effect of aluminum stress on photosynthetic pigments, significantly reduce MDA content, and increase the content of soluble sugar and soluble protein in order to regulate the metabolism of reactive oxygen species and maintain the stability of cell membrane structure, thus significantly increasing the biomass of E. grandis × E. urophylla Guanglin No. 9. (4) When nitric oxide concentration was higher than 500μM SNP, it was toxic to E. grandis × E. urophylla Guanglin No. 9. It showed that NO had dual nature. In conclusion, aluminum stress inhibited the growth and physiological characteristics of osmoregulation substances and antioxidant enzymes on E. grandis × E. urophylla Guanglin No. 9, and the toxic effect of aluminum on Eucalyptus could be alleviated by appropriate addition of nitric oxide.

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    Effects of Water-retaining Agent and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics of Bambusa tuldoides cv. Swolleninternode
    ZHANG Li,ZHOU Chengcheng,XU Wenda,JIANG Denghui,RONG Jundong,YE Longtai,HE Tianyou,ZHENG Yushan
    2020, 41 (1):  83-88.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.012
    Abstract ( 565 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (524KB) ( 340 )  

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen fertilizer (150, 300 and 450 g/cluster) and water-retaining agent (180 g/cluster) combined with nitrogen fertilizer (150, 300 and 450 g/cluster) on chlorophyll, photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of three-year-old Bambusa tuldoides cv. Swolleninternode were studied, and the comprehensive evaluation of different treatments was carried out by principal component analysis. The results showed that chlorophyll content increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer, and the content of water-retaining agent mixed with nitrogen fertilizer was lower than that of nitrogen fertilizer alone. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), water use efficiency (WUE) of the leaf increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer, and the value of photosynthetic parameters was higher under the application of water retaining agent than that under the application of nitrogen fertilizer alone. The initial fluorescence (Fo) of all fertilization treatments was higher than that of CK. With the increase of nitrogen fertilizer, the maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv), potential activity (Fv/Fo), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical yield (PS II), photosynthetic electron transfer rate (ETR), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) also increased gradually, while under the same amount of nitrogen fertilizer, the values increased with the increase of water retaining agent. The principal component analysis scores of CK, A, B, C, D, E and F was -12.57, -8.15, -3.89, 3.15, 0.12, 10.02 and 11.32, respectively. Therefore, the application of nitrogen fertilizer promoted the growth of B. tuldoides cv. Swolleninternode, and the effect of adding water-retaining agent was better than that of applying nitrogen fertilizer alone. The comprehensive score F was the highest, meaning the combination of water-retaining agent (180 g/cluster) and nitrogen fertilizer (450 g/cluster) was the best.

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    Biotechnology and Tissue Culture
    Cloning and Sequence Expression Analysis of MaARF2 Gene in Banana
    HUANG Dongmei,XU Yi,WU Bin,MA Funing,CHEN Di,LI Jingyang,LIN Fei,SONG Shun
    2020, 41 (1):  89-96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.013
    Abstract ( 771 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (4660KB) ( 448 )  

    An auxin response factor gene from banana designated as MaARF2 was amplified by RT-PCR, and its sequence and expression were analyzed. Sequence analysis indicated that the length of the MaARF2 ORF was 2655 bp, encoding 884 amino acids, the protein molecular weight was 97 917.38 Da, and the theoretical isoelectric point pI was 6.26. The amino acid sequence encoded by this gene was rich in serine and proline, and the hydrophilic amino acid was more than the hydrophobic amino acid and evenly distributed in the whole peptide chain. Through the Motif Search tools three domains including B3, Auxin_resp, and AUX_IAA family conformed to the structural features of ARF were found. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the protein encoded by MaARF2 was highly consistent with the protein encoded by ARF in other plants. qRT-PCR results showed that MaARF2 was expressed in banana roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, among which the expression level in leaves was the highest and the expression level in fruits was the lowest. The expression of MaARF2 was up-regulated after low temperature, salt and drought stress, indicating that MaARF2 may be involved in the regulation of responses to these stresses in bananas. MaARF2 was firstly cloned in this study, which would lay a foundation for further research on the biological function of this gene.

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    Bioinformatics Analysis of PEPC Gene Family in Pineapple
    MA Haiyang,ZHAO Qiufang,CHEN Shu,SHI Weiqi,XIAN Aimin
    2020, 41 (1):  97-103.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.014
    Abstract ( 923 )   HTML ( 358 )   PDF (959KB) ( 822 )  

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) plays an important role in assimilating atmospheric CO2 during C4 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, and participates in various nonphotosynthetic processes, including fruit ripening, stomatal opening, supporting carbon-nitrogen interactions, seed formation and germination, and regulation of plant tolerance to stresses. Pineapple is a typical CAM plant. In order to understand the function of PEPC gene in pineapple CAM photosynthesis pathway, three PEPC genes were identified in pineapple and nominated as AcPEPC1/AcPEPC3/AcPEPC4 according to the gene description. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AcPEPC1 and AcPEPC3 protein belonged to the plant type PEPC (PTPCs) subfamily, which had high sequence homology. Gene structure, conserved domain and conserved motif of AcPEPC1 and AcPEPC3 had high similarity. AcPEPC4 belonged to the bacterial type of PEPC (BTPCs) subfamily which had low sequence homology with AcPEPC1/AcPEPC3. Different tissues expression assay showed that the expression of AcPEPC1 was high in leaves, and AcPEPC3 and AcPEPC4 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits.

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    Sequence Analysis of SNP Loci Associated with Seed Shattering at sh4 and qSH1 Genes of Weedy Rice in Leizhou, Guangdong Province
    XIA Qiyu,CAO Yang,KONG Hua,LI Meiying,ZHANG Lili,HE Pingping,ZHANG Yuliang,GUO Anping
    2020, 41 (1):  104-109.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.015
    Abstract ( 1038 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (882KB) ( 659 )  

    sh4 and qSH1 are the main seed shattering genes in rice. The purpose of this study is to determine the genotypes of sh4 and qSH1 of weedy rice in Leizhou and provides molecular basis for the study of seed shattering mechanism of weedy rice in Leizhou. In this study, 100 individual plants and 10 cultivated rice seeds were collected from 10 weedy rice population in Leizhou, and their hull color, pericarp color, awn and seed shattering rate were observed. The SNP loci of sh4 and qSH1 were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The results showed that the SNP locus at sh4 in 57 weedy rice were wild seed shattering genotype (G), 15 weedy rice were heterozygous G/T and 28 weedy rice were mutant hard seed shattering genotype (T). Among them, 72 weedy rice of G genotype and G/T genotype had high seed shattering rate (95%-100%), 19 of 28 weedy rice of T genotype were moderate seed shattering rate (30%-75%), 5 weedy rice had high seed- shattering rate (>95%) and 4 weedy rice had low seed shattering rate (<30%). The SNP locus at qSH1 in 100 weedy rice and 10 cultivated rice were G. Combining with the seed shattering phenotype and genotype, it is inferred that sh4 is one of the main genes regulating the seed shattering of weedy rice in Leizhou.

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    Vitrification of Regenerated Shoots of Tagetes erecta L. in Pigment Marigold
    WU Lifang,TIAN Xuelian,WEI Xiaomei,LU Xiaochun,QIAN Shaofang,GUI Baolin
    2020, 41 (1):  110-115.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.016
    Abstract ( 471 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (450KB) ( 315 )  

    The stem with axillary buds from Tagetes erecta L. was used as the explants, and the effects of sucrose, AgNO3, agar, plant gel, activated carbon and different sealing materials on shoot proliferation and vitrification were studied in this paper. The results showed that 30 g/L sucrose was suitable for the growth of the plantlet. The vitrification rate decreased with sucrose concentration increased (10-60 g/L). The vitrification rate was only 9.13% with sucrose concentration at 60 g/L. AgNO3 had the effect of inhibiting the growth of glass seedlings. 5.0 g/L AgNO3 had a vitrification rate as low as 9.81%. The quantity of activated carbon (AC) was most obvious to vitrification, 5.0 g/L AC was most serious for vitrification, and the vitrification rate was as high as 38.18%. Agar and plant gels showed a same trend for bud proliferation and vitrification. Low concentration was conducive for shoot proliferation and high concentration could effectively prevent the occurrence of vitrification. Vitrification rate was the lowest, only 8.31% for 10 g/L agar. The shoot proliferation coefficient was as high as 3.35 for 2.0 g/L plant gel, and the vitrification rate was as low as 6.67% for 5.0 g/L plant gel. When cotton plug plus double kraft paper plus cotton thread was used as the sealing materials, the shoot proliferation coefficient was as high as 3.24 and the vitrification rate was as low as 8.46%.

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    Crop Pests, Diseases and Their Control, Environmental Protection
    Virus Infection Situation of Fifty-two Sugarcane Varieties in Guangxi
    SHEN Linbo,WU Nannan,FENG Xiaoyan,XIONG Guoru,ZHAO Tingting,WANG Wenzhi,WANG Jungang,ZHANG Shuzhen
    2020, 41 (1):  116-126.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.017
    Abstract ( 606 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (2905KB) ( 387 )  

    To understand the virus infection situation of the integrated demonstration and regional test sugarcane varieties in the national sugar system in Guangxi, leaf samples with or without symptoms of sugarcane mosaic disease, sugarcane yellow leaf disease and sugarcane bacilliform disease were collected from 52 sugarcane varieties in 7 sugarcane areas in Guangxi, including Beihai, Nanning, Chongzuo, Baise, Laibin, Liucheng, Guilin. Five kinds of viruses were detected by RT-PCR and PCR with specific primers, including Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV). The average detection rate of SCYLV, SCSMV, SrMV, SCMV, SCBV was 25%, 7.97%, 7.69%, 7.42% and 68.41%, respectively. Mixed infection of different viruses was widespread in the seven sugarcane areas, the mixed infection rate in Beihai was even higher than the single virus infection rate. The total infection rate of 52 sugarcane varieties affected by the five viruses was 79.67% in Guangxi. There are serious potential threats to the safety of sugarcane production. It is recommended to plant virus-free seedlings to control the occurrence of sugarcane virus diseases.

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    Degradation of Spirodiclofen and Spirotetramat Residue in Kumquat with Film Mulching
    WANG Yunru,DENG Youzhan,LI Qiankun,WU Jingna,YANG Xiujuan,WU Feng,LU Zhongyan,QIN Yuyan
    2020, 41 (1):  127-134.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.018
    Abstract ( 588 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (792KB) ( 313 )  

    In order to evaluate the application safety of spirodiclofen and spirotetramat in kumquat with film mulching, the method for determination of the residue and dynamic change characteristics of spirodiclofen and spirotetramat residue in kumquat covered with plastic-film mulching was studied. A method for the simultaneous determination of spirodiclofen, spirotetramat and the four metabolites in kumquat was developed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that the average spiked recovery was in the range of 86.9% to 101.2% and the relative standard deviation was 2.3%-6.8% when the fortified levels were ranged from 0.002 to 2.50 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LODs) of spirodiclofen, spirotetramat and the four metabolites was in the range of 0.1 to 5.0 μg/kg, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) was in range of 0.5 to 1.0 μg/kg. The degradation dynamics of spirodiclofen and spirotetramat based on first-order reaction dynamic equations in kumquat covered with plastic-film mulching, the half-life of spirodiclofen and spirotetramat was 14.1 d and 23.1 d respectively. The results of the final residue experiment showed that spraying twice of spirodiclofen and spirotetramat in the dose of the highest recommended value, the residue of spirodiclofen and spirotetramat at 15 d after the last spray in kumquat covered with plastic-film mulching was all lower than China’s maximum residue limit of 0.5 mg/kg.

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    Effects of Meloidogyne incognita on Growth of Grafting Wax Gourd for Different Rootstocks
    HAN Yingguang,LONG Haibo,LIAO Daolong,YUN Tianhai,HU Yanping
    2020, 41 (1):  135-140.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.019
    Abstract ( 575 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (759KB) ( 376 )  

    In order to clarify the influence of Meloidogyne incognita on the growth and development of grafted seedlings of wax gourd with different pumpkin rootstocks, the study was aimed to screen rootstock varieties resistant to M. incognita for the wax gourd and promote the industry sustainable development. The resistance level and plant biomass of the grafted wax gourd seedlings with different rootstocks during the whole growth period were studied by artificial inoculation of M. incognita. The results showed that the disease index, root-knot index, egg index, reproduction coefficient of the test materials increased with the progress of the growth period and the resistance level of the test materials changed. The grafted seedling of ‘Haizhen No. 2’ had resistance to M. incognita during the whole growth period. The grafted seedlings of ‘Yinlonghuangzi’ and ‘Haizhen No. 1’ showed high susceptibility. the self-root seedlings of ‘Qingyuan black skin wax gourd’ showed susceptibility to M. incognita . The fresh weights of the shoot and fruit of the grafted seedling of ‘Haizhen No. 2’ showed no significant differences to the uninoculated self-root seedling of ‘Qingyuan black skin wax gourd’ in the middle-late growth period, but significantly higher than that of the grafted seedlings of ‘Yinlonghuangzi’ and ‘Haizhen No. 1’ and self-root seedlings of ‘Qingyuan black skin wax gourd’. It was confirmed that M. incognita could significantly inhibit the growth and yield of the grafted seedlings with susceptible rootstocks, but had no significant effect on those of the grafted seedlings with disease-resistant rootstocks.

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    Investigation on Predatory Mites in Rubber Trees and Evaluation of Dominant Species of Predatory Mites in Hainan
    HAO Huihua,LI Guoyin,CUI Zhifu,SUN Junmei,ZHAN Daoyi,ZHANG Fangping,PENG Zhengqiang
    2020, 41 (1):  141-147.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.020
    Abstract ( 694 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (411KB) ( 560 )  

    In order to find out the species of predatory mites and the dominant species of predatory mites in rubber trees in Hainan. We investigated the species by a five-point sampling method from 2015 to 2016, and evaluated the dominant species through dominance and frequency. The results showed that there were three families of predatory mites which were Phytoseiidae, Ascidae and Bdellidae, and Phytoseiidae as the most abundant species, constituting 85.05% of the total samples, followed by Ascidae, 14.71%, and Bdellidae the least abundant species, 0.24%. A comprehensive analysis of 13 species of predatory mites belonging to 4 genera in the family of Phytoseiidae was conducted through dominance and frequency. The results showed that the dominant species of the predatory mites in rubber trees in southern Hainan included Chanteius contiguus, Euseius vulgaris and Amblyseius hainanensis, with C. contiguus as the dominant species in rubber trees in southern Hainan, while Euseius ovalis as the dominant species in rubber trees in northern Hainan. The species and quantity of the dominant species in rubber trees in southern and northern Hainan differed greatly. This study would provide a theoretical basis for the further utilization of predatory mites in the biological control of Eotetranychus sexmaculatus and Eutetranychus orientalis in rubber trees.

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    Pest Survey and Safety Assessment on Five Islands of Yongle Archipelago
    CHEN Qing,LIANG Xiao,WU Chunling,CHEN Qian
    2020, 41 (1):  148-156.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.021
    Abstract ( 709 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (431KB) ( 362 )  

    The occurrence and damage of plant pests on the islands of Yongle Archipelago have not been reported so far. In order to effectively monitor the invasion, colonization, diffusion and outbreak of exotic pests in Yongle Archipelago, a systematic survey and safety assessment of pests in the five islands of Yongle Archipelago were conducted. The results showed that 83 pests (mites) were found on 97 species of wild halophytes, green sand-fixing plants and salt-tolerant vegetables in the five islands, of which 26 pests (mites) were found on 38 plants in Jinqing Island, 20 pests (mites) were found on 30 plants in Ganquan Island, 14 pests (mites) were found on 16 plants in Yinyu Island, 12 pests (mites) were found on 5 plants on Yagong Island and 12 pests were found on 10 plants of Antelope Reef. The above results are the first reports of plant pests (mites) on the five islands of Yongle Archipelago. In present survey, Phenacoccus solenopsis, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Liriomyza sativae, Utetheisa lotrix, Arge geei, Gynaikothrips ficorum and Tetranychus cinnabarinus were first found to seriously infested 32 species of plants on the five islands. In addition, according to the safety assessment results of the national quarantine destructive pests, Michelia fusanensis and M. neopineapple, the risk assessment indices R of the two pests was 2.21 and 2.23, respectively. They were highly dangerous pests in Yongle Islands and should be strictly controlled. This study is of important theoretical and practical significance for the sustainable prevention and control of plant pests, the ecological environment as well as the crop safety on Yongle Archipelago.

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    Agricultural Product Processing, Preservation, Storage, Analysis and Detection
    Effect of Different Fertilization Treatments on Volatile Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Moringa oleifera
    LI Guoming,LI Shouling,ZHANG Liping,WANG Yanbing,WANG Xiaoyuan
    2020, 41 (1):  157-166.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.022
    Abstract ( 654 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (740KB) ( 394 )  

    The effect of different fertilization treatments on the volatile chemical constituent and content from the leaves of Moringa oleifera were studied in this paper. Compound fertilizer, urea, potassium chloride and mixed calcium-magnesium phosphate were used, the volatile chemical constituent from the leaves were extracted by an ultrasound cleaning instrument, the volatile chemical constituent and mass fraction were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). There were 69, 70, 71 and 76 volatile chemical constituents identified respectively in the urea group, mixed calcium-magnesium phosphate group, potassium chloride group and compound fertilizer group, and the mass fraction was 77.56%, 80.09%, 86.62% and 83.13% correspondingly, while there were only 62 volatile chemical constituents with a mass fraction of 75.98 % identified in the blank control group. The contents of alcohols and alkanes were increased, and the contents of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and alkenes were decreased in the urea treatment group; the contents of alcohols and alkanes were increased, and the contents of carboxylic acids, ketones and alkenes were decreased in the calcium-magnesium phosphate group; the contents of alcohols and alkanes were increased, and the contents of carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alkenes were decreased in the compound fertilizer group; the contents of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, alkenes and ketones were decreased in the potassium chloride group. The four fertilization treatment groups had no significant effect on the contents of quinones, cyclolefins, acyls and phenols. Fertilization treatment could influence the volatile chemical constituents and contents from the leaves of M. Oleifera. The effects of different fertilizer treatments were also different. The optimum fertilizer ratio for increasing the volatile chemical compositions and contents from the leaves of M. oleifera need further study.

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    Effect of Bagging Treatment on Fruit Quality of Pitaya in High Temperature and High Humidity Areas
    DENG Haiyan,HUANG Lifang,LIANG Guidong,HE Quanguang,WU Zhijiang
    2020, 41 (1):  167-174.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.023
    Abstract ( 657 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1611KB) ( 373 )  

    The diurnal variation of temperature and humidity in five different types of fruit bags and their effects on fruit quality, fruit diseases and water loss after harvest of pitaya fruit were analyzed to select suitable fruit bags for pitaya fruit in high temperature and wetland areas. The red-skin and red-flesh type ‘Guihonglong 2’ pitaya fruit was used as the material in the experiment. The temperature in the bag increased faster after bagging, and the temperature in the bag during the day was significantly higher than that in the control group. The bagging made the peel thinner, edible rate increased, and scales turn red. The effect of kraft paper bags was the best. Bagging significantly increased the content of pigments in the pericarp and pulp, significantly increased the content of soluble solids, increased the content of glucose and fructose in different degrees, and also increased the content of malic acid and citric acid. Bagging generally reduced the degree of water loss after harvest. White paper bags and non-woven bags were helpful to reducing the incidence of postharvest diseases. Except black nylon net bags, other bagging increased the incidence of sooty moulds in fruits. In conclusion, black nylon mesh bags or white paper bags and non-woven bags could be used in high temperature and high humidity areas around Nanning, Guangxi, which could prevent bird pecking and insect damage, or white paper bags and non-woven bags could be used to prolong shelf life. However, it is necessary to clean the mildew after harvest.

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    Screening of Complex Preservative and Its Preservation Effect on Litchi Fruits at Room Temperature
    LIU Pei,HAN Dongmei,MO Aiyan,WU Huitao,LUO Tao,GUO Xiaomeng,WU Zhenxian
    2020, 41 (1):  175-183.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.024
    Abstract ( 654 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1979KB) ( 424 )  

    In order to screen out the compound preservative formula for litchi fruits storage, the effects of different concentrations of brassinolide (BL) and kojic acid (KA) on the preservation of ‘Jingganghongnuo’ litchi fruits were studied by an orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimum formula of preservative was 40 μmol/L brassinolide, 35 mmol/L kojic acid and soaking 3 min at 25 ℃. The selected preservative formula could inhibit the browning and decay of litchi fruits, reduce the relative conductivity, pH value and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the pericarp, delay the decrease of total soluble solids (TSS) and vitamin C (VC) content in the pulp, maintain higher L * value, a* value, C * value and anthocyanin content in the pericarp, and inhibit the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and laccase (Lac).

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    Effect of Benzoic Acid and Gibberellin on Preservation of Cut Chinese Narcissus Flowers
    YAO Xinting,ZHANG Lu,LI Tingting,LI Lin,LI Siyun,ZHANG Zhizhong,WU Jinghua
    2020, 41 (1):  184-191.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.025
    Abstract ( 670 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (840KB) ( 643 )  

    In this study, different concentrations of benzoic acid and gibberellin (GA) were added to the basic vase cuttings (1% sucrose) of Chinese narcissus cut flowers. The suitable preservatives were screened by observing the vase life of cut flowers. The fresh weight changes, malondialdehyde, proline and soluble protein contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were also determined. The physiological and biochemical basis of the effect of preservatives was analyzed. The results showed that 1% sucrose solution with 200 mg/L benzoic acid could prolong the vase life of the cut flowers for 1.6 days, the content of malondialdehyde increased during the vase period, the activity of SOD and CAT, and the content of soluble protein in the vase process were higher than those in the control group during the same period. The vase life of the cut flowers was prolonged by adding 200 mg/L gibberellin in 1% sucrose solution for 2.5 days. SOD and POD activities and soluble protein content in vase were higher than those in the control group at the same time, but proline content decreased by 40% on the 15th day. In general, the effect of adding 200 mg/L gibberellin to 1% sucrose solution on preservation of Chinese narcissus cut flowers is the best.

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    Ecology and Review
    Weed Composition and Community Characteristics in Tropical Crop Plantation in Honghe River Watershed of Yunnan Province
    DU Hao,ZHI Jiazeng,LI Zongkai,ZHOU Jinsong,YANG Shaoqiong,SUN Yinhu,WANG Chao,CHEN Weiqiang
    2020, 41 (1):  192-201.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.026
    Abstract ( 638 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (575KB) ( 530 )  

    The weeds in four crops were analyzed with ecological indexes, such as relative dominance, species richness index, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, Pielou index, community similarity index and the cluster analysis method. The results showed that there were 116 species of weeds belonging to 37 families in the farmland in the area, of which Gramineae and Compositae accounted for 21.55% and 19.83% respectively. Bidens pilosa and Eleusine indica were the dominant malignant weeds and should be controlled with an emphasis. Weed diversity for rubber plantation was the highest, followed by for banana plantation, jackfruit plantation and avocado plantation. The seasonal variation of diversity index of summer and autumn was higher than that of winter and spring. The similarity of weed community in jackfruit and avocado was the highest, followed by in banana and jackfruit, banana and avocado, rubber and other three crops were lower similarity.

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    Advances in Protection and Utilization of Tamarindus indica L. Germplasm Resources
    QU Wenlin,MA Kaihua,SONG Zibo,DUAN Yuetang,LEI Xiao,JIN Jie,ZHAO Qiongling,HE Lu,SHA Yucang
    2020, 41 (1):  202-209.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.01.027
    Abstract ( 547 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (536KB) ( 535 )  

    Tamarindus indica L. is a widely used tropical resource plant, its fruit is rich in nutrition and the trunk can be used for many uses. T. indica has a very high prospect in the development of food industry. Compared with other economic fruit trees, the research on the protection and utilization of T. indica germplasm resources is relatively lagging, which seriously restricts the innovation and genetic improvement of T. indica. In this paper, the origin and distribution, the collection and conservation of germplasm resources, the biological characteristics of reproduction, and the conventional breeding of fine varieties were introduced. Then, through the review of the morphology, the influence of ecological factors on the morphological variation and the genetic diversity of the population, the progress of the genetic diversity of T. indica was comprehensively analyzed. And the application of molecular marker technology in the study of genetic diversity of T. indica was summarized. Finally, the problems, standards and norms in the research of germplasm resources of T. indica were discussed, and specific suggestions for further protection and utilization were put forward, in order to provide reference for the future research on the protection and genetic improvement of germplasm resources of T. indica.

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