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    25 August 2019, Volume 40 Issue 8 Previous Issue   
    Crop Culture and Nutrition, Genetic Breeding
    Evaluation of Soil Fertility of Rubber Plantation in Dehong Based on Principal Component and Cluster Analysis
    CHEN Yuqin,HU Yongliang,ZHANG Liping,YIN Hongxing,HUANG Jiawei,LI Shouling
    2019, 40 (8):  1461-1467.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.001
    Abstract ( 750 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF (816KB) ( 310 )  

    The soil fertility of rubber plantation by principal component and cluster analysis based on 78 soil samples of rubber plantation in Dehong was evaluated. The results showed that the pH value was 4.83, the content of soil organic matter, total potassium, total nitrogen and alkaline nitrogen was sufficient and moderate variability, the CV was between 16.53% to 46.90%. But the content of total phosphorus and available phosphorus was very low. Comprehensive assessment of soil fertility revealed that the integrated fertility index IFI was 17.24, ranged in 10.81-25.29. There were 83.34% soils belonged to moderate fertility. The soil fertility level was in the order downward Yingjiang Farm, Ruili Farm, Wanding Farm, Zhefang Farm. The soil fertility of rubber plantation is moderate and phosphate should be applied in Dehong.

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    Comparison of Cassava Yield and Soil Microbial Characteristics under Continuous Cropping and Rotation
    LIU Shanting,LUO Xinglu,WU Meiyan,TANG Zhiping,WANG Chaochao,ZHANG Jialing
    2019, 40 (8):  1468-1473.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.002
    Abstract ( 511 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (946KB) ( 270 )  

    The relationship between the continuous cropping obstacles of cassava and soil microorganisms was studied by a comprehensive analysis of the soil microbial abundance, diversity, and community composition, yield of cassava under continuous cropping and rotation using a cassava variety Xinxuan 048 as the material and using high-throughput sequencing technology in the experiment. The results showed that the bacterial abundance and diversity of cassava continuous soil were higher than that of the rotation. The number of OTUs of the bacteria for the continuous cropping was 23.05% higher than that of the rotation. The Chao1 index of the continuous cropping was 463.2 higher than that of the rotation and the Shannon index of the continuous croping was 0.41 higher than that of the rotation, while the abundance and diversity of the fungi of the continuous cropping were lower than that of the rotation. The number of OTUs of the fungi of the rotation was 19.57% higher than that of the continuous cropping, the Chao1 index of the fungi of the rotation was 217.5 higher than that of the continuous cropping, and the Shannon index of the rotation was 0.76 higher than that of the continuous crop. The soil bulk density of the continuous cropping was 0.24 g/cm 3 higher than of the rotation. The soil solid phase in the continuous cropping was 6.69% higher than that in rotation, and the liquid phases was 3.03%, while gas phases was 9.72% lower than that in rotation. The yield of rotation was 11.99 t/hm 2 higher than that of the continuous, reaching a significant level of 0.05. The changes of microbial community in the soil and the solid, liquid and gas phase of the soil were closely related to the continuous cropping obstacles of cassava. It is an effective way to overcome the continuous cropping obstacles of cassava to adopt cultivation management measures to adjust the composition of soil micro-organisms.

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    Biological Attributes of Main Longan Cultivars and Their Nutrient Requirement Characteristics
    YAO Lixian,ZHOU Changmin,HE Zhaohuan,LI Guoliang,YANG Baomei,BAI Cuihua
    2019, 40 (8):  1474-1481.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.003
    Abstract ( 624 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (1103KB) ( 289 )  

    Four longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) plants of the main cultivars including Shijia, Chuliang, Fuyan and Songfengben, with the age of 16-17 a and the yield of medium to high level, were harvested from the main production areas in South China, respectively. The biological attributes of the plants were examined, and the nutrient uptake and accumulation in various parts of the plants were investigated, with the aim to supply basis data for the nutrient management in longan. The mean weight of the aboveground biomass of the four plants was 264.3 kg, with 28.4% of fruit, 12.3% of leaf and 59.3% of trunk. When the fruit matured, the content of Ca was the highest in the leaf, trunk, root and peel, and that of K and N was the highest in the pulp and seed, respectively. 668.6 g of N, 102.0 g of P, 461.6 g of K, 1310.4 g of Ca, 80.7 g of Mg, 43.3 g of S, 63.8 g of Si, 20.1 g of Fe, 5.8 g of Mn, 349.9 mg of Cu, 1245.9 mg of Zn, 849.5 mg of B and 8.7 mg of Mo were taken up in the aboveground parts to produce 50 kg fruit. It indicated that Ca was the most demanded nutrient by longan. The nutrient removal by 50 kg fruit included N 167.8 g, P 23.1 g, K 156.4 g, Ca 57.0 g, Mg 12.6 g, S 8.4 g, Si 0.7 g, Fe 0.7 g, Mn 0.4 g, Cu 110.5 mg, Zn 155.6 mg, B 125.3 mg and Mo 1.6 mg. The nutrient removal by fruit harvest should be the minimum of nutrients applied to maintain the soil fertility and plant growth for next year. Based on the observations of foliar nutrient deficiency symptoms and fruit abnormity caused by nutrient imbalance, we suggest that Ca, Mg, Si and B nutrition in longan are worthy to be furthered investigated.

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    Breeding of New Purple Sweet Potato Variety ‘Puzishu 3’ and Identification of Its Characteristics
    CUI Jichao,YU Jinjiang,ZHONG Yi,ZHONG Yuyang,ZHENG Jianyang
    2019, 40 (8):  1482-1487.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.004
    Abstract ( 936 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (473KB) ( 292 )  

    A new purple sweet potato variety Puzishu 3 was bred from the hybrid offspring of Riqing 1 and Taiyin 2, with high stable yield and good eating quality. It was approved as a new national sweet potato variety in 2015. The morphological characteristics, quality characteristics, disease resistance, productivity and physiological characteristics of yield formation of the variety were studied. The results indicated that Puzishu 3 had a growth period more than 150 days. Based on regional tests in Fujian Province, the fresh root yield, dry matter yield and dry matter content increased by 7.51%, 14.35% over the control variety Ningzishu 1. The taste score of Puzishu 3 was 75.4 (70 for CK). Root quality appraisal showed that the contents of crude protein and soluble sugars in the root of Puzishu 3 were higher than that of CK, while reducing sugars was lower than that of CK. Puzishu 3 showed moderate resistance to sweet potato Fusarium wilt, middle susceptible to sweet potato Pseudomonas solanacearum Ⅰ and susceptible to sweet potato Pseudomonas solanacearum Ⅱ.

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    Genetic Analysis of Key Morphological Characters in Different Cross Combinations of Anthurium Cultivars
    CHEN Yanyan,HUANG Shaohua,LENG Qingyun,CHANG Shengxin,LIAN Zihao,YIN Junmei,NIU Junhai
    2019, 40 (8):  1488-1494.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.005
    Abstract ( 612 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (984KB) ( 253 )  

    The inheritance of fifteen important traits of Anthurium andraeanum Linden was investigated among the F1 progenies of three crosses between pot- and cut-cultivars, ‘Pink champion’ X ‘Acropolis’, ‘Purple Princess’ X ‘Cheers’, ‘Sierra’ X ‘Tropical’, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the mid-parent value of average plant height, spathe length, spathe width, left ear distance, right ear distance, spadix length, spadix diameter, pedicel length, pedicel diameter, petiole length, petiole diameter, leaf length, leaf width in F1 generation was 139.35%, 99.65%, 107.05%, 85.84%, 97.55%, 103.31%, 104.15%, 106.28%, 107.63%, 116.36%, 110.36%, 142.46%, 109.76%, 117.90% and 128.10%, respectively, and a large number of transgressive individuals appeared. The hybrids showed obvious inheritance tendency of cut anthurium cultivars. The heterosis was obvious, even the levels were slightly different among crosses. The 15 quantitative characters were clustered into 4 classes: 1) spathe, 2) spadix, 3)pedicel and petiole, and 4) leaf. The correlation analysis showed that the traits in same class were correlated very significantly, while the traits among different groups was weak or irrelevant. In all, the morphological characters of F1 progenies were separated extensively and showed an abundant genetic diversity, which would facilitate directive breeding in anthurium with high efficiency.

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    Clone Architecture and Biomass Characteristics of Cynodon dactylon Population in Different Habitats
    MA Yanna,ZANG Guochang,ZHAO Jing,DENG Yabo,ZHENG Yiqi
    2019, 40 (8):  1495-1500.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.006
    Abstract ( 475 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (431KB) ( 238 )  

    The characteristics of the clonal architecture and biomass of Cynodon dactylon population in different habitats were studied based on the erect stem density, erect stem height, stolon length, spacer length, branching intensity, branching angle, erect stem biomass, stolon biomass, underground root biomass, aboveground biomass, total biomass and root-shoot ratio of C. dactylon population among three different habitats in Tanghe Country, Henan. Higher erect stem density, lower erect stem height, longer stolon length, shorter spacer length, bigger branching intensity and smaller branching angle were observed in the habitat of sufficient light, while the characteristics of the above mentioned showed an opposite trend in the habitat of insufficient light. The clonal architecture of C. dactylon population tended to be “phalanx” in sample plot A and C, but “gurilla” in sample plot B. The erect stem biomass, stolon biomass, underground root biomass, aboveground biomass, total biomass and root-shoot ratio of C. dactylon were all at low level with habitats of insufficient light or trampled. The above indicators were relatively high in the habitats of better growing conditions. There was significant ecological plasticity in the clonal architecture and biomass of C. dactylon population in different habitations.

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    Phytophysiology and Biochemistry
    Germination and Physiological Response of Areca catechu L. to Temperature Differentials on the 2-way Grant’s Thermogradient Plate
    HUANG Liyun,LI Dongxia,CHEN Jun,LIU Liyun,ZHOU Huanqi
    2019, 40 (8):  1501-1506.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.007
    Abstract ( 485 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (788KB) ( 271 )  

    The effect of germination rate, growth conditions, physiological response of Arecanut was studied using the 2-way grant’s thermogradient plate which allows 49 temperature combinations (regimes) (20 ℃ to 48 ℃) of single temperature and alternating temperature combination over a time continuum. Under the best temperature combination 29/25 ℃, the seed germination rate was 100% and the growth potential was the best. When temperature was 20/20 ℃, the germination rate was 80%, and the growth was general. The 48/48 ℃ treatment did not have any effect. According to the germination rate, growth conditions and physiological response (SOD, POD, GR), the most suitable temperature range was 25/20-34/25 ℃. In addition, the optimum reaction accumulated temperature was 560-744 ℃·h, and the total germination temperature should not exceed 24 864 ℃·h. The experiment also supported that the alternate temperature treatment was better than the normal temperature treatment for the seed germination rate and growth of Arecanut.

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    Effects of Potassium and Magnesium Deficiency on Leaf Physiological Characteristics and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Anther Culture Seedling of Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis)
    XUE Xinxin,WU Xiaoping,LUO Xuehua,WANG Wenbin,WANG Dapeng,ZHANG Yongfa,ZHAO Chunmei
    2019, 40 (8):  1507-1514.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.008
    Abstract ( 704 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1699KB) ( 310 )  

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to clarify the response mechanism of potassium and magnesium deficiency affecting on some physiological characteristics and chloroplast ultrastrucure of rubber trees. The anther culture seedling of Hevea brasiliensis 7-33-97 was selected as the research material, and four treatments of -K-Mg, -K, -Mg, CK (control) were designed. The plant height, stem diameter, chlorophyll content, nutrients concentration, soluble sugar components and chloroplast ultrastrucure of rubber seedling were analyzed, respectively. Compared with CK, the plant height and stem diameter significantly decreased by 12.2% and 15.7% respectively, and the premature senescence and dying off of seedling leaves appeared under the condition of -K-Mg. The chlorophyll content of the leaf under -K-Mg, -K and -Mg significantly decreased (P<0.05). The concentrations of potassium and magnesium in different organs decreased significantly under potassium and magnesium deficiency. Potassium supply decreased significantly magnesium concentrations in different organs, while no significant effects in potassium concentration by the magnesium supply. Treatments of -K-Mg, -K and -Mg significantly increased the contents of glucose, sucrose and fructose in seedling leaves compared with CK. There was significant effect of interaction between K and Mg on the content of fructose. The treatments of -K-Mg, -K and -Mg significantly decreased chloroplast length by 26.9%, 38.1% and 19.6%, and significantly increased the number of plastoglobulus by 211.8%, 767.7% and 138.2%, respectively. Meanwhile, the treatment of -Mg significantly increased the number of starch granules. In summary, the deficiency of potassium and magnesium significantly inhibited the development of plant growth and chloroplast. Potassium had an antagonism effect on the absorption of magnesium under normal magnesium level. Therefore, the rational application of potassium and magnesium and the interaction should be emphasized in production, which could improve the plantation condition of rubber trees.

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    Effects of Different Light Intensities on Photosynthesis and Flowering of Pepper Cutting Seedlings
    LIU Langtao,ZU Chao,YU Huan,YANG Jianfeng,WU Huasong,WANG Can,LI Zhigang,ZHENG Weiquan
    2019, 40 (8):  1515-1521.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.009
    Abstract ( 470 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (696KB) ( 279 )  

    With the development of crop facility cultivation technology, shading and supplementary light cultivation become important means to improve crop yield and quality. The effect of light intensity on the physiology and biochemistry of pepper cutting seedlings was studied under different light intensity environment. The photosynthetic rate of pepper plants was relatively low, the biomass of plant assimilation was less, the flower bud extraction was less, the leaves were thick and the single leaf area was larger under the light intensity of 135 μmol/(m 2·s). The photosynthetic rate of pepper maintained a high level under the light intensity of 270 μmol/(m 2·s). The soluble sugar, sucrose, starch and other sugars in the leaves of pepper cuttings, gibberellin were higher, the number of leaves was higher, the net increase biomass was the largest, and the number of flowers was higher in the pepper cuttings under the light intensity of 405 μmol/(m 2·s). The growth and development of the pepper cuttings were slightly inhibited under 540 μmol/(m 2·s). Correlation analysis showed that soluble sugar, fructose and GA3 were significantly correlated with pepper flower quantity. The results showed that the content of carbohydrate and gibberellin in pepper cuttings was relatively high under the light intensity of 405 μmol/(m 2·s), which was the most favorable for pepper flower formation. So this study could provide theoretical references for the improvement of pepper controlled light cultivation technology in China.

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    Effects of Trunk Injection Sucrose on Sugar Metabolism and Abscission of Fruitlet in ‘Shatangju’ under Summer Shoot Growth Condition
    HUANG Yongjing,WU Wen,ZENG Jiwu,CHEN Jiezhong,ZHANG Ruimin,ZHU Congyi
    2019, 40 (8):  1522-1528.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.010
    Abstract ( 564 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (613KB) ( 290 )  

    In order to reveal the roles of carbon nutrition on the fruitlet set under summer shoot growth condition of citrus, the experiment of trunk injection sucrose was carried out in 7-year old ‘Shatangju’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) trees, and the effects of sugar accumulation, sucrose-related enzyme activities and abscission of the fruitlet were studied during the new shoot period. The results showed that, summer shoot obviously increased abscission of fruitlet, and the injecting of sucrose promoted the growth of fruitlet and decreased abscission. At the 85 th day after full blossom(15 th day of summer shoot growth), the accumulative abscission rate (AAR) in trunk injection sucrose was 73.35%, which was 10.05% lower than that in the control. Trunk-injected sucrose obviously increased the contents of sucrose and starch in the fruitlet, accompanied with the inhibition of the activities of acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI), but no significant difference was observed for the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS). It suggested that the increased accumulation of sucrose by the inhibited activities of sucrose degradation enzymes (AI and NI) during injecting sucrose contributed to the fruitlet set in ‘Shatangju’ mandarin. The injection of sucrose inhibited the fruitlet abscission during shoot growth, but the exogenous sugar couldn’t fully offset the impact of summer shoot on the fruitlet abscission. Sugar metabolism was not the only factor involved in the fruitlet abscission process caused by summer shoot growth.

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    Photosynthetic and Physiological Characteristic of Mytilaria laosensis Seedlings under Different Nitrogen Application
    YU Bin,YAN Caixia,YANG Jinchang,YIN Guangtian,LI Rongsheng,ZOU Wentao
    2019, 40 (8):  1529-1536.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.011
    Abstract ( 413 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (704KB) ( 249 )  

    A pot experiment with different nitrogen application, namely conventional, phase additional and modified exponential with five levels (50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/seedling) of fertilization in a greenhouse was carried out to explore the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the growth and to provide references for the management of seedlings nutrition for Mytilaria laosensis. The growth responses were analyzed through the investigation of the photosynthetic and physiological indices of the seedlings selected from each subplot after the experiment. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing nitrogen application in all fertilization treatments. The reasonable treatment to improve photosynthetic gas exchange was 200C>100ME>100A. Intercellular CO2 concentration decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content and Chla/b ratio increased to varied extent, but malonaldehyde content and superoxide dismutase activity decreased significantly for seedlings treated with fertilization. Free proline content reduced when low dose of nitrogen was applied. Nitrogen applicaton of 200 mg/seedling was the best treatment to improve the photosynthetic gas exchange condition, to enhance the photosynthesis and to decrease the malonaldehyde content of M. laosensis seedlings.

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    Biotechnology and Tissue Culture
    Optimization of Extraction Conditions and Methods for Sugarcane Protoplast RNA
    LI Suli,LIU Fangjun,LI Zhigang,LAI Peiheng,LONG Ansi
    2019, 40 (8):  1537-1545.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.012
    Abstract ( 716 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (1324KB) ( 505 )  

    In order to obtain high-yield and high-purity sugarcane protoplast RNA, this study investigated the osmotic pressure and protoplast viability on sugarcane protoplasts using the sugarcane protoplasts of ROC22 and GT28, and compared the Trizol method, improved Trizol method, improved CTAB method and kit method. The protoplast osmotic pressure was positively correlated with RNase activity, and the protoplast activity was significantly negatively correlated with RNase activity. Higher RNase activity resulted in a worse RNA extraction effect. Using 0.5 mol/L mannitol as an osmotic pressure regulator, the most active sugarcane protoplasts could be obtained. When the protoplast vigor was 70% and 90%, the RNA integrity was good and the purity was high, which met the requirements of subsequent molecular experiments. The RNA yield was the highest when the protoplast activity was 90%. Therefore, when extracting sugarcane protoplast RNA, the activity of protoplast should be at least above 70%. Using the improved Trizol method, a large number of high-quality RNA could be prepared for subsequent molecular experiments. Using this condition and method, it was ensured that a large amount of high quality sugarcane protoplast RNA was obtained. The results of the study provided methods and technical support for the molecular biology research in the somatic cell fusion breeding of sugarcane.

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    Cytological Analysis on Fertility of Triploid Salvia miltiorrhiza
    ZHANG Nixuan,ZHANG Luyao,CAO Yannan,ZHENG Guiheng,LONG Hong
    2019, 40 (8):  1546-1550.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.013
    Abstract ( 519 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (6185KB) ( 366 )  

    Triploid Salvia, with characters of sterility, was obtained through hybridization of diploid and tetraploid. In order to investigate the cytological mechanisms of its sterility, we observed the chromosome change and cell structure during the development of pollen mother cells. Results showed the triploid plants grew well. Numerous meiotic abnormalities, including lagging chromosomes, asymmetrical separation and chromosome bridges were found during the meiosis process. Micronuclei and triads were observed except tetrads. Moreover, the shape of the pollen was abnormal, and the pollen germination rate was very low. This indicated that the chromosomal and cytological abnormalities in the meiotic process due to chromosome number imbalance may lead to sterility in triploid Salvia. The data could provide experimental supports of fertility of triploid Salvia, and be useful in the breeding of the traditional Chinese medical herb.

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    An Open in vitro Culture System for Rapid Propagation of Cut Flower Chrysanthemum cv Iwanohakusen
    ZHU Mengzhu,YANG Huiting,HU Jihong,TAN Yanli,HONG Rongqin,LIN Qingliang,PAN Dongming,KANG Jianban,SHE Wenqin,CHEN Guixin
    2019, 40 (8):  1551-1558.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.014
    Abstract ( 628 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (3048KB) ( 266 )  

    An open in vitro culture system was established for the rapid propagation of cut flower Chrysanthemum ‘Iwanohakusen’, in which the best explant surface sterilization agent and the best microorganism growth inhibiting agents were screened out. The best explant surface sterilization was obtained by gently shaking the explants in 0.1% (V/V) of sodium hypochlorite for 15 min. The best result for inhibiting the growth of microorganisms in the primary culture stage was achieved by adding 50 mg/L of mancozeb, 0.1% (V/V) of sodium hypochlorite and 5 mg/L of potassium sorbate, into the medium, and under the condition the contamination rate was as low as 36.7%. There was no significant differences in the induction and the growth rates of the adventitious buds between the traditional tissue culture system and the open culture system. The best combination of the microorganism growth inhibiting agents was 40 mg/L of mancozeb, 0.1% (V/V) sodium hypochlorite and 5 mg/L of potassium sorbate at the stages of subculture and the rooting in the open system, and a high bud multiplication efficiency of 5.93% and a rooting rate of 80.0% were achieved at the condition, without any significant difference in bud growth compared to the conventional tissue culture system.

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    Establishment of a Tissue Culture System for Wild Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua in Sanming
    LYU Yumeng,XU Xiaoping,ZHANG Shuting,GUO Zhipeng,WANG Jinfeng,LIN Yuling,WANG Tianchi,LAI Zhongxiong
    2019, 40 (8):  1559-1564.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.015
    Abstract ( 494 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (503KB) ( 273 )  

    An aseptic tissue culture procedure was established for wild Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua in Samming by optimizing the disinfection and the adventitious bud induction procedures, in which the tubers from wild-growing plants were used as the explants. The best sterilization procedure for the explants was as follows: brushed soils off the tubers in clear water with a soft toothbrush; cleaned within diluted detergent for 16 hours; soaked in 3% carbendazim for 2 days (shaked intermittently) and washed in water to remove the residual carbendazim from the surface; dried on filter paper for 5 h; dipped first in 75% alcohol for 30 s and then in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 15 min, which resulted in a contamination rate of only 20.2%. Comparatively, the explants from March to April were significantly better than those from November to December in both the growth and the induction of adventitious buds. The optimal medium for the adventitious bud induction of the wild P. cyrtonema Hua explants was: MS+6-BA 4.0 mg/L +NAA 0.2 mg/L, and the budding rate on the medium was as high as 88.0%.

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    The Classification Status of Wuzhishan Wild Tea Based on Morphological Features and psbA-trnH Chloroplast Encoding Gene Sequence
    SU Fan,YANG Xiaobo,LI Donghai
    2019, 40 (8):  1565-1570.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.016
    Abstract ( 539 )   HTML ( 231 )   PDF (1473KB) ( 604 )  

    The wild tea in Hainan Island was regarded Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA) or C. sinensis var. pubilimba (CSB). The concentrated distribution area of the tea is Shuimanxiang, Wuzhishan. In order to further clarify the classification status of the tea, the wild tea plants of eight communities were studied. The morphological characteristics of the tea were closer to CSA than CSB. But there were also obvious differences, since the leaves of the tea was larger than that of CSA and CSB, the side veins of the tea was slightly more than that of CSA and CSB, and the petals of the tea, CSB and CSA was 5, 5-6 and 6-7, correspondingly. The sequence of the psbA-trnH chloroplast coding gene showed that the 30 samples of the eight communities of the tea was an independent group, which is parallel to CSA and CSB. So, the wild tea could also be identified as another variety of C. sinensis. It was named as Camellia sinensis (Linnaeus) Kuntze var. shuiman F. Su and X. B. Yang, short for Shuiman Tea.

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    Crop Pests, Diseases and Their Control, Environmental Protection
    Toxicity of Insecticides Against Larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda Population, A New Invasive Pest
    JIN Tao,LIN Yuying,MA Guangchang,MA Zilong,XIANG Kaiping,YI Kexian,PENG Zhengqiang
    2019, 40 (8):  1571-1576.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.017
    Abstract ( 414 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (486KB) ( 497 )  

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, first invaded Yunnan, China, in January 2019, is a notorious agricultural pest insects. It was first founded on maize in Haikou city in April, and poses a serious threat to the production of fresh eating maize. It is urgent to screen out high toxicity insecticides for controlling this pest. By leaf dipping method, the toxicities of 15 insecticides to larvae of S. frugiperda were tested under laboratory conditions. The results showed that at the relative lower concentration of emamectin benzoate (5 mg/L, 24 h) and spinosad (5 mg/L, 24 h), and relative higher concentration of chlorantraniliprole (50 mg/L, 72 h) and phoxim (100 mg/L, 72 h) have 100% contact toxicity to larvae of S. frugiperda. Their 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at 24 h is 0.28, 0.31, 9.77 and 11.7 mg/L, respectively. Other insecticides such as methomy, pyriproxyfen, fipronil, acetamiprid, abamectin, beta-cypermethrin and lufenuron, at concentration of 100 mg/L with 72 h, have 100%, 96.67%, 88.33%, 86.11%, 81.67%, 80.83%, and 80.09% contact toxicity to larvae of S. frugiperda. It recommended to use emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorantraniliprole, and phoxim as the main ingredients, as well as combined with other above mentioned insecticides, for controlling of larvae of S. frugiperda.

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    Identification of Viruses Infecting Passiflora edulis in Guizhou Province by Small RNA Sequencing
    YAN Jiawen,YUAN Qifeng,XIE Pu,WANG Lijuan,MA Yuhua,WANG Zhengyuan
    2019, 40 (8):  1577-1584.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.018
    Abstract ( 497 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1424KB) ( 268 )  

    Virus disease is one of the main diseases of Passiflora edulis, and the identification of virus species can provide a theoretical basis for the disease prevention. In this study, six suspected virus-infected leaf samples were mixed and analyzed by small RNA deep sequencing. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV) were detected from the mixed sample. Viruses identified by small RNA sequencing were validated by virus coat protein gene (CP) specific RT-PCR from the above six samples. CMV and TeMV was detected from all six samples, respectively. The open reading frame of CP gene of CMV and TeMV obtained by RT-PCR was 657 bp and 816 bp, correspondingly. The nucleotide sequence identity of CMV-GZ (accession number: MH623077), TeMV-GZ1 (accession number: MH623078) and TeMV-GZ2 (accession number: MH623079) was 82.3%-95.9%, 87.8%-99.3% and 87.8%-98.3%, respectively, with the reported CMV and TeMV isolates. CMV and TeMV in P. edulis was first reported Guizhou. The combined infection of the two viruses may be a potential threat to P. edulis.

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    Control Effect Evaluation of Different Concentrations of 40% Cyantraniliprole and Thiamethoxam SC for Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann
    MA Yongcui,MA Zhonglian,MA Yongping,MA Lie,PU Songquan,MA Yongqiong,LI Pingsong
    2019, 40 (8):  1585-1589.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.019
    Abstract ( 593 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (494KB) ( 462 )  

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of different concentrations of 40% cyantraniliprole and thiamethoxam SC on the field control and apple quality for Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann. 40% cyantraniliprole and thiamethoxam SC in 500, 750, 1000 times were applied in the soil for controlling apple aphids from falling flowers to young fruit formation, water treatment as the control in the apple orchards of Zhaoyang in 2018. The three concentrations of cyantraniliprole and thiamethoxam solution reduced the number of apple aphids and increased the rate of insect pest decrease, and had a better control effect on apple aphid. Among them, 40% cyantraniliprole and thiamethoxam SC in 750 times had the best control effect on aphids, followed by 500 times and 1000 times. Quality analysis showed that 40% cyantraniliprole and thiamethoxam SC could increase the content of soluble solids and soluble protein in apples, while the content of soluble sugar, titratable acidity and vitamin C decreased significantly. In order to reduce the application of pesticides and ensure the quality of apples, our results suggest that in 750 times and 1000 times of 40% cyantraniliprole and thiamethoxam SC can be widely used to control the apple aphid.

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    Identification and Biological Characteristics of Acacia confuse Root Rot Pathogen of Amauroderma
    WU Ruhui,LI Zengping,CHENG Lele,ZHANG Yu
    2019, 40 (8):  1590-1597.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.020
    Abstract ( 498 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (7663KB) ( 150 )  

    Based on the pathogenicity determination, identification of morphological characteristics and SSU sequence analysis, the pathogen causing Amauroderma root rot of Acacia confusa was identified as Amauroderma rugosum (Bl.et Nees) Torrend. Biological characteristics tests showed that the optimum growth conditions were 32 ℃, pH 5, continuous illumination, D-fructose as the carbon source, and yeast extract as the nitrogen source.

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    Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Fungi from Hainan Patchouli and Screening of Antagonistic Strains
    YI Tianfeng,WU Yougen,YU Jing,ZHANG Junfeng,YANG Dongmei
    2019, 40 (8):  1598-1605.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.021
    Abstract ( 658 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (2847KB) ( 254 )  

    In this study, 61 endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, stems, leaves and flowers of Hainan patchouli, and identified as 15 genera by ITS sequence analysis and morphological analysis. The dominant genus was the Colletotrichum and Meyerozyma. The inhibitory effect of Fusarium PfuJ20, PfuG16 and PfuG5 on Pestalotiopsis microspora was most obvious when Pestalotiopsis microspora, Fusarium oxysporum and Neoscytalidium dimidiatum were used as the indicator bacteria, and the activity of phytopathogenic fungi was determined by the plate sputum method. The activity of anti-phytopathogenic bacteria was determined by the filter paper diffusion method. Fusarium had strong inhibitory effects on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Bacillus subtilis and Alternaria had the strongest growth inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that Hainan patchouli endophytic fungi had certain biodiversity and some endophytic fungal strains had more obvious antibacterial activity.

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    The Effect of 2% Clothianidin and Cyfluthrin Granule Against Phyllotreta striolata
    ZHANG Jing,CHEN Libiao,YAN Chao,YE Huochun,HAN Bingjun,FENG Gang
    2019, 40 (8):  1606-1610.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.022
    Abstract ( 700 )   HTML ( 235 )   PDF (404KB) ( 644 )  

    Phyllotreta striolata is one of the main pests of cruciferous vegetables at present. Due to its biological characteristics, the commonly used method of foliar spray is inefficiency and causes problems of excessive pesticide residue. In order to explore the control methods and effective agents for controlling P. striolata, the effects of 2% thiamethoxam and cypermethrin granules on the field control efficiency and yield of P. striolata were evaluated by soil treatment with mustard as the experimental vegetable. 2% thiamethoxam-cypermethrin granules had a strong control effect on P. striolata. At the dosage of 2 kg/667 m 2, the control effect was 76.67%, 72.00% and 70.64% at 14, 21 and 28 d, respectively. At the same time, the agent also had a certain effect on promoting the growth of mustard. The total yield at the dose of 2 kg/667 m 2 was 58.80% higher than that of the untreated fields. The residue analysis of mustard postharvest showed that the residue of thiamethoxam and cypermethrin in mustard and soil was less than 0.5 mg/kg, which met the corresponding terms of National standard for food safety-maximum residue limits for pesticides in foods (GB 2763-2016). Therefore, it is safe and effective to apply 2% thiamethoxam - cypermethrin granules to control P. striolata on mustard. In addition, the soil application method used in this study was a one-time application, which greatly reduced the dosage and labor cost compared with foliar spraying.

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    Agricultural Product Processing, Preservation, Storage, Analysis and Detection
    Isocoumarin Derivatives from Mangrove-derived Fungus Xylaria sp. HNWSW-2 and the Biological Activities
    QUAN Yunfan,WANG Pei,WANG Hao,YUAN Jingzhe,DAI Haofu,MEI Wenli
    2019, 40 (8):  1611-1617.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.023
    Abstract ( 624 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (779KB) ( 308 )  

    In order to study the secondary metabolites of the mangrove-derived fungus Xylaria sp. HNWSW-2 and the biological activities, seven isocoumarin derivatives were isolated by various column chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures were identified as (S)-(+)-8-O-methylmellein (1), (3S,4S)-(+)-4-hydroxy-8-O-methylmellein (2), (3S,4R)-(+)-4-hydroxy-8-O-methylmellein (3), (3S,4S)-(+)-4-hydroxymellein (4), (3S,4R)-(+)-4-hydroxymellein (5), (3R,4R)-(-)-4-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6) and (3R,4S)-(+)-4-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (7) based on a combined analysis of spectral data and physicochemical properties. In addition, all compounds were tested for the nematicidal activity against Panagrellus redivivus and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity by liquid immersion method and Ellman colorimetric method, respectively. Among them, compound 1 exhibited nematicidal activity against P. redivivus. Compounds 1-3, 6 and 7 showed AChE inhibitory activity. The potential nematicidal activity of compound 1 would provide scientific evidences for its development of nematicide.

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    Preparation and Flavor Quality Characteristics of Freeze-dried Coffee Powder
    HU Rongsuo,DUAN Qizhan,DONG Wenjiang,CHEN Zhihua,JIANG Kuaile,SHAN Yunhui,ZONG Ying,LONG Yuzhou
    2019, 40 (8):  1618-1625.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.024
    Abstract ( 547 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (2597KB) ( 313 )  

    The preparation of freeze-dried coffee powder can improve the commercial value and economic benefits of coffee industry. The optimal ideal parameters of the freeze-dried coffee powder were obtained: the heating plate temperature 76.19 ℃, the material loading thickness 1.58 cm, drying chamber pressure 76.84 Pa, the real drying rate 0.23 h -1, and the theory drying rate 0.22 h -1. The influencing order of the three factors on the drying rate was heating plate temperature>material loading thickness>drying chamber pressure. The quality analysis showed that the water content of the freeze-dried coffee powder reached 3.82%, and there were no significant differences in color, smell and taste (P<0.05). This study would provide technical support for the industrial production of freeze-dried coffee powder.

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    2-(2-phenylethyl) Chromone Derivatives of an Agarwood from Abroad
    TIAN Hao,DONG Wenhua,WANG Hao,LI Wei,YANG Li,DAI Haofu,MEI Wenli
    2019, 40 (8):  1626-1632.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.025
    Abstract ( 648 )   HTML ( 29 )   PDF (585KB) ( 424 )  

    In order understand the 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone derivatives of an agarwood from abroad, six compounds of the agarwood were separated by various chromatographic techniques. The compounds were identified as 6-hydroxy-8-chloro-2-[2-(4°-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl] chromone (1), 6-hydroxy-2-[2-(3°-methoxy-4°-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] chromone (2), 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-[2-(4°-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl] chromone (3), and agarotetrol (4), 5α,6β,7β,8α- tetrahydroxy-2-[2-(4°-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone (5) and 6-hydroxy-2-[2-(3°-methoxy-4°- hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] chromone (6) by spectral data analysis. Compound 1 was a new 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone derivative. The cytotoxic test of compounds 2-6 showed that compound 6 exhibited significant activity against K562 and BEL-7402 with IC50 values 2.87 and 4.75 μg/mL, respectively, while compounds 2, 3, 5 exhibited moderate inhibition against five human tumor cells lines with IC50 values ranging from 9.91 to 45.38 μg/mL.

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    Antioxidant Capacity of Different Varieties of Citrus Peels
    CHEN Yuan,ZHANG Di,PAN Heli,SUN Jianhua,PAN Dongming,YU Wenquan
    2019, 40 (8):  1633-1637.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.026
    Abstract ( 509 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (514KB) ( 343 )  

    In this paper, five kinds of peel extracts of five varieties (wide-skin orange, sweet orange, pomelo, lemon and kumquat) were used as the raw materials to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of each variety. The anti-oxidation ability of Citrus peel extracts was determined by the DPPH method and ABTS method respectively. The antioxidant capacity of IC50 was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Citrus, and the antioxidant capacity of Citrus peel of various varieties was comprehensively analyzed. The Citrus peel had strong antioxidant activity and there were some differences between the varieties. The antioxidant capacities of the peels were different, and the comprehensive antioxidant capacities were from high to low: Ota citrus, Jindan, Beijing lemon, Newhall navel orange, Pingshan pomelo. Among the five citrus varieties, the broad-skin orange had the strongest antioxidant capacity, followed by the kumquat, the lemon and sweet orange, and the pomelo had the weakest antioxidant capacity.

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    Evaluation of Wax Gourd Wine Based on Principal Components and Cluster Analysis
    XIN Ming,LI Changbao,SUN Jian,ZHOU Zhugui,TANG Yayuan,LI Li,HE Xuemei,LI Jiemin,LIU Guoming
    2019, 40 (8):  1638-1644.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.027
    Abstract ( 511 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (612KB) ( 269 )  

    Sixteen indexes of wax gourd wines made from 11 yeasts, including physicochemicals, nutrients and antioxidation capabilities were determined in the study. The qualities of the wax gourd wines were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). The results of PCA showed that the first five components represented 89.188% of the total variability on the base of the total variance explained and screen plot of principal component analysis. The hydroxyl radicals (·OH) scavenging capacity, superoxide radicals contents scavenging capacities, turbidity value, clarity, tonality values, soluble sugars, soluble reducing sugars, alcohol degrees, and contents of total soluble solids (SSC) were the main parameters for evaluating the quality of wax gourd wines. On the basis of composite score ranking, yeasts numbered BV818 and F45 were proposed. Wax gourd wines made from the 11 yeasts were classified into three main groups by CA through measured parameters, which was consistent with PCA results. This research is useful to select appropriate yeasts and processing wax gourd wines.

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    Analysis of Quality Features and the Characteristic Volatile Compound of Macadamia Leaf Tea
    HAN Shuquan,LUO Lina,FAN Jianxin,LIU Rong,HUANG Hai,ZHANG Yan,KANG Zhuanmiao,HE Fengping
    2019, 40 (8):  1645-1652.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.028
    Abstract ( 505 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (571KB) ( 319 )  

    In order to understand the quality and aroma components, the macadamia leaf tea was developed with one bud and three leaves using the method of roasted technology in spring. The tea quality and chemical constituents were detected by the sensory evaluation method and chemical detection respectively. The aroma components of the macadamia leaf tea were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) technique and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After brewing, the ideotype was uniform and neat, the aroma was heavy and mellow with special aroma, the soup was deep yellow, bright, and tasty. According to the chemical analysis, the biochemical compounds of the macadamia leaf tea contained (5.00±0.09)% total ash, (39.00±0.27)% water extract, (5.90±0.14)% tea polyphonie and (2.80±0.01)% amino acid. In particular it had no caffeine in the tea which could cause nervous excitement. A total of 38 common volatile components were identified including 13 aldehydes, 6 alcohols, 6 ketones, 5 pyrazines, 3 phenols, 2 fatty acids, 1 hydrocarbons, 1 pyrrole and 1 furan. The content of phenols, alcohols, aldehydes and pyrazines was 36.86%, 20.98%, 18.35%, 14.46%, respectively. The main chemical components of the tea were 2°,4,4°-trimethoxychalcone (20.25%), 2, 4-di-tert-butylphenol (11.88%), cis-2-penten-1-ol (10.52%), 1-penten-3-ol (6.71%), nonanal (6.64%). The analysis of characteristic aroma components indicated that alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, pyrazines would be responsible for the aroma quality of the tea. The effects of phenols with no special smell contribution to aroma quality of the tea were also worth future research.

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    Contrasts of Different Sugar Permeability Technologies on the Preserved Quality and Cellular Structure of ‘Longtan’ Pearl Plum
    LI Mingjuan,YOU Xiangrong,ZHANG Yayuan,WEI Ping,WANG Ying,ZHOU Kui,FAN Zhiyi,DENG Fengying
    2019, 40 (8):  1653-1659.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.029
    Abstract ( 473 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1631KB) ( 262 )  

    With ‘Longtan’ pearl plum as the raw materials, the fruit were immersed in sugar solution assisted by atmospheric, vacuum, microwave and ultrasonic technology to produce the preserved fruit. The sensory quality, physical-chemical-nutritional qualities and texture characteristics were studied. Meanwhile, the histiocyte of ‘Longtan’ pearl plum was examined using microscope. The results showed that the color was the best, browning degree was the lowest (1.95), and Vc content was the highest (58.33 μg/g) in the vacuum-assisted preserved fruit, the total sugar content was low, but the form and taste was poor. The color was the worst, browning degree was the highest (3.18), and Vc content was the lowest (41.34 μg/g) in the microwave-assisted preserved fruit , while these indexes showed significant difference from those of the atmospheric sugar permeability (P<0.05). The hardness, chewiness, elasticity and gumminess were the lowest, which was 508.33 g, 10.57 mJ, 3.44 mm and 256.33 g respectively. The sensory score, total sugar content, hardness, chewiness, elasticity and gumminess were the highest for the ultrasonic-assisted preserved fruit, which was 82.13 points, 49.22%, 868.33 g, 16.00 mJ, 3.68 mm and 452.33 g, respectively, while these indexes showed significantly higher than those of the atmospheric sugar permeability (P<0.05). Rehydration ratio was the lowest (106.48%-128.66%). Ultrasonic infiltration technology obviously reduced ‘Longtan’ pearl plum fruit cellular structure damage during sugar permeability. Therefore, ultrasonic sugar infiltration technology had the best protection effect on the preserved fruit qualities and cell structure of ‘Longtan’ pearl plum.

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    Ecology and Review
    Plant Resources Around Major Historic Buildings and Invasive Plants on Gulangyu Island
    LIU Yumei,CAI Songrong,SONG Zhiyu,CHI Minjie
    2019, 40 (8):  1660-1664.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.030
    Abstract ( 492 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (610KB) ( 391 )  

    Gulangyu Island in Fujian was inscribed on the world heritage list in 2017. In order to protect the 117 major historic buildings and the plant resources around them, a field investigation, specimens gathering and identification were carried out to survey and analyze the plant resource on the fences, building walls and yards. The results showed that a total of 292 species belonging to 97 families were found around the buildings. Most of the rich resources were garden plants. Among them, the frequently distributing families were Moraceae, Pteridaceae, Compositae, Oxalidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Urticaceae, Solanaceae, Gramineae and Sapindaceae. The most frequently distributing species was Ficus microcarpa L.f. which located around 90 buildings (76.92%). There were also Pteris vittata L., Oxalis corniculata L., Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A. Gentry, Pilea notata C. H. Wright et al. located around more than 50% buildings. The quantity of plant species around Huangrongyuan Hall was the most abundant (39 families 59 species), followed by that around Zhujia Garden (35 families 48 species). A total of 42 species invasive plants were found on Gulangyu Island, belonging to 25 families. The Compositae family was the most abundant (16.67%). There were 29 species native to America and 31 species (73.81%) introduced intentionally. The 5 dominant invasive plants were Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A. Gentry, Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, Paederia foetida L., Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Sieb. et Zucc.) Planch and Ipomoea cairica Hand.-Mazz. The invasive plants and F. microcarpa were widely distributed on the fences, building walls, even the whole island.

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    Advances in Research on Disease Suppressive Soils Related to Fusarium oxysporum Wilt
    QIAO Fan,CHEN Hanqing,LI Heng,CHANG Wenjun,ZENG Huicai
    2019, 40 (8):  1665-1670.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.031
    Abstract ( 431 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (427KB) ( 386 )  

    Fusarium oxysporum wilt is a worldwide important soil-borne vascular disease that restricts crop production. It harms many kinds of crops and causes serious losses. There is no effective control method in crop production. Disease suppressive soil is a kind of soil which can inhibit soil-borne crop diseases. It has the characteristics of stable structure of beneficial microbial population and a lasting control effect on soil-borne diseases. Therefore, experts in China and abroad have carried out many fruitful studies on disease suppressive soil. In this paper, the research progress on the formation factors and mechanism of F. oxysporum wilt related disease suppressive soil was reviewed, and the key research directions and application prospects of F. oxysporum wilt related disease suppressive soil in the future were analyzed and prospected. It would provide a new reference for the further study of the microbial population structure, beneficial microbial species composition, the construction method of disease suppressive soil and the development of compound microbial fertilizer for F. oxysporum wilt related disease suppressive soil.

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