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    Integrated Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Analyses Revealing Potential Color Changes During Different Developmental Stages of Dragon Fruit
    YANG Yunliang, SU Caihong, LI Hongyi, CAI Yue, LI Jianxun
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2022, 43 (2): 225-234.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.02.001
    Abstract359)   HTML4281)    PDF(pc) (4289KB)(450)       Save

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) development is subdivided into young (Y), transformation (C), and maturation (M) stages. In the present study, metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses were integrated to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the physicochemical and structural changes that occur during dragon fruit development. Particular attention was paid to the factors that regulate the fruit pericarp and pulp color changes. We identified a large number of differentially expressed genes and metabolites in each comparison group. Substantial biochemical and physiological alterations were observed across the various developmental stages of dragon fruit and 214 metabolites were identified. KEGG analysis showed that flavone and flavonol signalling pathways were significantly enriched in each comparison group. The internal and external fruit color dramatically differed between the Y and C stages. The expression of Cluster-12747.5686 was upregulated, whereas those of Cluster-1339.0 and Cluster-12747.15079 were downregulated in three cytochrome P450 genes between Y and C stages. Nine differentially expressed flavonoids, including the floral / fruit pigment precursor procyanidins B1, B2, and C1, were also downregulated. This integrative analytical approach helped to explain the relationships between genotype and phenotype and clarified the numerous molecular, physicochemical, and structural changes that occur during fruit development and their relationships.

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    Research Progress on Coconut Germplasm Resources, Cultivation and Utilization
    LU Lilan, LIU Rui, XIAO Yong, LI Jing, SHEN Xiaojun, LI Heshuai, FAN Haikuo
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (6): 1795-1803.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.06.040
    Abstract554)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1375KB)(428)       Save

    Coconut is the main woody oil crop in tropical regions, and it is also a food energy crop. It not only has a cool taste, unique flavor, and contains a lot of nutrients, but also has detoxification, beauty, and disinfection effects. With the development of the coconut industry, the demand for coconuts is increasing. Therefore, the large-scale production of coconuts is developing rapidly. Research on various aspects of coconuts is very important and also attracts attention. However, compared with other economic crops, coconut germplasm resources, cultivation, product processing and functions are relatively late, and the research foundation is relatively weak. However, In the past 20 years, important progress has been made in the research of coconut germplasm resources, cultivation, physiology and biochemistry, molecular biology, product processing, etc.. This would provide a theoretical foundation and technical support for coconut production and development. This article comprehensively analyzed the research progress of coconut planting resources collection, identification and evaluation, innovative utilization, farming and cultivation, cultivation physiology, etc., and introduced the research progress of coconut product processing and utilization, and put forward specific suggestions on further research and utilization, with a view to future provide reference for industry development.

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    Genetic Diversity of Phenotypic Traits of 30 Cymbidium ensifolium Germplasm Resources
    WANG Hongli, ZENG Yanhua, BU Chaoyang
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (6): 1557-1565.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.06.007
    Abstract188)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (1744KB)(406)       Save

    30 species of Cymbidium ensifolium from different resources were selected as the research materials. The phenotypic trait measuring, variation coefficients of each trait, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were conducted to reveal the genetic relationship of the germplasms to provide basis for the identification of varieties and cross breeding of C. ensifolium. The analysis of phenotypic traits showed that the variation range of each phenotypic trait was 9.28%-76.17%, and there was a large degree of variation among all phenotypic traits. The results of cluster analysis showed that the range of euclidean distance of the 30 experimental materials was 3.612-38.796. ‘Huicui Fenhe’ and ‘Emei Narcissus’ had the smallest euclidean distance of 3.612, indicating the closest genetic relationship, while ‘Sujunhe’ and ‘Fushan Qidie’ had the largest euclidean distance of 38.796, indicating the furthest genetic relationship. The hierarchical clustering method was used to draw the dendrogram of the phenotypic traits of the 30 test materials. At the Euclidean distance of 16, the 30 test varieties are divided into 4 clusters. The principal component analysis results showed that the largest contribution value included the scape height, flower length, and lip length which are all related to the quality of flowers. The comprehensive score of the flower traits showed that the comprehensive characteristics of ‘Hongjunhe’ from Foshan, Guangdong were the best and the ornamental value was the highest, and ‘Shuijing Huangmei’ from Foshan, Guangdong had the lowest comprehensive characteristics.

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    Differential Expression Analysis of Genes Related to Starch and Sucrose Metabolism Pathway in Different Developmental Stages of Dragon Fruit Pulp Based on Transcriptome
    YANG Yunliang, LI Jianxun, MA Genong
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (6): 1520-1530.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.06.003
    Abstract756)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (2393KB)(401)       Save

    In this study, Illumina Novaseq 6000 sequencing was used to sequence the samples from three stages of dragon fruit pulp (young fruit stage, color conversion stage and mature stage). The unigenes obtained was annotated in seven databases. A total of 3617 unigenes were successfully annotated in all databases. Five enzyme genes related to starch and sucrose metabolism pathway were further screened and verified by quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR). The results showed that 115 193 transcripts and 47 855 transcripts were obtained by transcriptome sequencing and unigene N50 was 2000. The results of GO functional enrichment analysis showed that 18 582 unigenes were divided into three categories: biological process, cell composition and molecular function in GO functional annotation. The results of KOG functional classification showed that 6203 unigenes were divided into 25 group, in KOG annotation, of which post-translational modification, protein turnover and chaperone contained the most unigenes. The results of KEGG metabolic pathway annotation showed that 6554 unigenes got functional annotation, and there were 119 metabolic pathways, among which carbohydrate metabolism accounted for the highest proportion. Five key enzyme genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism and synthesis pathway, such asUGP2, glgC, glgA, Cluster-12747.5831 and Cluster-12747.16617, were screened. The expression level of qPCR was consistent with that of transcriptome sequencing.

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    Miscellaneous Notes on Orchidaceae from Hainan (Ⅲ)
    HUANG Mingzhong, WANG Yi, WANG Qinglong, LI Shining, SHEN Zhen, YANG Guangsui
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (3): 703-706.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.03.013
    Abstract313)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (1662KB)(400)       Save

    Grosourdya vietnamica (Aver.) Kumar & S.W.Gale is reported as a new record of Ochidaceae from China, with a detailed revision of the morphological descriptions of back-wall callus. In addition, five species of Ochidaceae are newly recorded to Hainan Island. They are Calanthe longgangensis Y.S.Huang & Y.Liu, Cymbidium paucifolium Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen, Dendrolirium malipoense (Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen) H. Jiang, Epipogium kentingense T.P.Lin & Shu H.Wu and Gastrodia menghaiensis Z.H.Tsi & S.C.Chen, respectively. E. kentingense was previously considered as the endemic species to Taiwan Province. The findings would enrich the distribution information and future taxonomic revision data for the species.

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    Ploidy Determination of 29 Pitaya Germplasms Using Flow Cytometry
    HUANG Lifang, WU Zhijiang, LIANG Guidong, LU Guifeng, HUANG Fengzhu, LIU Chaoan, DENG Haiyan
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (4): 966-970.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.04.008
    Abstract225)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (1546KB)(383)       Save

    Pitaya which belongs to the cactus family includes two genus, Hylocereus and Seleniereus, the ploidy levels of different pitaya germplasms are still not clear. In order to clarify the ploidy of germplasm resources and the hybrids or mutants, the ploidy of 29 pitaya materials were identified by flow cytometry. 14 of 18 germplasm materials were diploid and others were tetraploid while no triploids were available. The 8 interploid hybrids and colchicine-induced mutants were identified as 3 triploids, 4 tetraploids and 1 diploid, which showed that polyploid materials could be obtained by intergeneric hybridization and chemical mutagenesis of pitaya. The results would provide an important reference basis for genetic evaluation and ploidy cross breeding of pitaya resources.

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    Transcriptome Analysis of Young Spikes in Rice under Salt Stress
    WU Fugui, LIU Huifang, NIE Jiajun, WEI Yunfei, MA Qilin
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (5): 1274-1281.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.05.011
    Abstract271)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (4927KB)(383)       Save

    Salt stress is one of the important environmental factors affecting crop growth and development. Identifying new salt tolerance genes and revealing their possible mechanisms and applying them to the creation of new germplasm and the selection of new varieties is one of the important ways to improve the salt tolerance of rice. In this study, 58M and 58L strains with different salt tolerance independently selected by the laboratory were used as experimental materials. The young panicles of rice were collected after treatment with 0.6% NaCl for 0, 6 and 24 h, and the transcriptome sequencing study was conducted. The results showed that with 0 h young ears as the control, the 58M strain detected 1483 genes up-regulated and 1085 genes down-regulated after 6 h salt stress; 937 genes were up-regulated and 459 were down-regulated after 24 h salt stress. In the 58L strain, 931 genes were up-regulated and 2 614 were down-regulated after 6 h salt stress; 930 were up-regulated and 1 299 were down-regulated after 24h salt stress. Through the Venn diagram analysis, it was found that 178 genes were up-regulated in 58M strains and down-regulated in 58L after 6h salt stress; 30 genes were up-regulated in 58M and down-regulated in 58L after 24 h salt stress. These 208 target genes were subjected to GO function enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis. GO analysis found that these differential genes accounted for 40.43%, 31.56% and 28.01% respectively, in the three main categories of biological process, cellular component and molecular function; KEGG Pathway analysis results showed that the pathways of these differential genes were significantly enriched include diterpene biosynthesis, amino acid sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, phenylpropane biosynthesis, biotin metabolism, metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, α-linolenic acid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids etc. In addition, a total of five important transcription factors were discovered through the mining of target genes. This study would provide a reference for studying the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in young panicles through transcriptome analysis of rice young panicles.

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    Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on the Growth, Photosynthesis and Physiological Characteristics of Calendula officinalis Seedlings under Salt Stress
    FAN Haixia, ZHAO Sa, LI Jing, XIN Guoqi
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (5): 1326-1334.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.05.018
    Abstract234)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (1611KB)(382)       Save

    To explore the effect of melatonine (MT) on the physiological mechanism of Calendula officinalis seedlings under salt stress, a pot-sand culture method was used to study different concentrations of exogenous melatonin (0, 50, 100, 200 μmol/L MT) effects on the growth, photosynthesis and physiological characteristics of C. officinalis seedlings under different levels of salt stress (0, 100, 200 mmol/L NaCl). The results showed that 100 and 200 mmol/L NaCl stress severely restricted the growth of C. officinalis seedlings, reduced chlorophyll content, photochemical fluorescence efficiency and photosynthesis intensity. The content of MDA and H2O2 increased, which intensified the degree of lipid peroxidation, induced POD enzyme activity and proline content increased. Treatment with exogenous melatonin could effectively alleviate the damage of salt stress to marigold seedlings. The plant height, stem circumference, shoot and root dry weight under 100 μmol/L MT treatment increased by 17.35%, 17.64%, 32.14% and 19.83%, respectively compared with the control. Chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm increased by 71.96% and 4.13%, respectively. The photosynthesis parameters Pn, Gs and Tr increased by 88.74%, 97.21% and 58.88%, respectively, while Ci decreased by 18.07%. The content of MDA and H2O2 reduced by 33.77% and 64.29%, POD, CAT enzyme activity, soluble protein, and proline content increased by 118.02%, 67.29%, 55.47% and 56.30%. Under salt stress conditions, MT treatment could effectively increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduce the level of lipid peroxidation, promote the accumulation of soluble protein and proline, improve photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics, and ultimately promote the growth of C. officinalis seedlings.

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    Optimization of Fermentation Process of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Vinegar and Analysis of Aroma Components
    HE Yuning, HUANG He, YAN Shaobo, ZHONG Saiyi, LIU Hai, QIN Xiaoming
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (5): 1462-1471.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.05.036
    Abstract316)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (4490KB)(377)       Save

    To enhance the added value of jackfruit and enrich the varieties of fruit vinegar in the market, the fermentation process of jackfruit vinegar was optimized, and the aroma components in the finished products were analyzed. The effects of inoculation volume, fermentation temperature, ethanol concentration, and pH on the acetic acid production in jackfruit vinegar were firstly studied through single factor tests, and the optimal fermentation process was obtained by the response surface methodology with four factors and three levels. The results showed that the optimum fermentation parameters were determined as acetic acid bacteria inoculation volume of 11%, fermentation temperature of 32 ℃, ethanol concentration 5%, and initial pH 3.3. Under the conditions, the acetic acid content in the vinegar reached (44.20±0.41)g/L. The aroma components of jackfruit vinegar were determined by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 67 aroma substances were identified from the jackfruit vinegar. The major aroma compounds were acetic acid (26.15%), isoamyl acetate (12.78%), isoamylol (11.01%), ethyl 2-phenylacetate (10.99%), phenylethyl alcohol (4.72%), decanoic acid (3.61%), benzaldehyde (3.34%), phenethyl acetate (3.12%), octanoic acid (3.08%), 3-methylbutanoic acid (1.31%), ethyl laurate (1.07%). Through the optimization of the fermentation process of jackfruit vinegar and the analysis of aroma components, a new type of fruit vinegar which conforms to the relevant national and industrial standards was prepared, and the aroma components in fruit vinegar were preliminarily identified.

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    Evaluation of Heat Tolerance and Screening the Index for the Assessment of Heat Tolerance in Cultivars of Hydrangea
    LING Rui, DAI Zhongwu, DAI Xiaoyu, WU Chunmei, ZHAI Junwen, ZHENG Zexin, WU Shasha
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (8): 2209-2218.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.08.012
    Abstract631)   HTML6978)    PDF(pc) (1981KB)(371)       Save

    High temperature is one of the main limiting factors for the introduction and landscape application of Hydrangea in summer. In order to construct the heat resistance evaluation system of Hydrangea cultivars and select heat resistant cultivars, eight Hydrangea cultivars were used to observe the high temperature semi-lethal temperature (HLT50) and the heat injury indexes (HII) under high temperature stress, and 14 physiological and biochemical indexes were measured after six days of high temperature stress at 44 ℃/33 ℃, after which heat resistance was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis method. The original 14 indexes were transformed into four independent comprehensive indexes by the principal component analysis, and the comprehensive evaluation value (D value) of each variety was obtained by the subordinate function method. According to D value, the eight Hydrangea cultivars were divided into three groups. The moderate heat resistance cultivars included ‘Essar’ ‘Elbtal’ ‘Komachi’ and ‘Shakespeare’. The heat sensitive cultivars included ‘Tricolor’ and ‘Inspiration’. The heat resistance cultivars included ‘Stockings’ and ‘Corsage’. On the basis of D value, the stepwise regression method was used to set up the variable heat resistance evaluation model with the content of proline (Pro), chlorophyll (Chla+Chlb), carotenoid (Car), chlorophyll a/b value (Chla/Chlb), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, relative water content (RWC) and soluble sugar (SS) contents as indicators. In addition, HLT50 and HII of high temperature could also be used as a reliable method to identify the heat resistance of Hydrangea cultivars. This study would provide a theoretical basis for the application and popularization of Hydrangea cultivars in southern urban and rural gardens as well as the breeding of heat-resistant hydrangea cultivars.

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    Genomic Characteristics and Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast of Cordyline fruticosa
    LI Weiying, XIN Jing, ZHAO Wenzhi, DONG Zhanghong, MA Luyao, XIA Maotian, GAO Jie, XIN Peiyao
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2022, 43 (4): 653-665.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.04.001
    Abstract1407)   HTML83)    PDF(pc) (1754KB)(362)       Save

    Cordyline fruticosa is an common horticultural plant, widely distributed in tropical Asia, Oceania and South America. In order to clarify the characteristics of the chloroplast genome of C. fruticosa and understand its phylogenetic status, the chloroplast genome was sequenced by Illumina sequencing technology, and the relevant data of middle linear plot, ENC-plot, PR2-plot and SSR loci were mined and analyzed. The total length of the complete chloroplast genome was 154 488 bp, and the GC content was 38%. The length of large single copy area was 85 279 bp and the GC content was 36.1%. The small single copy area was 20 325 bp, and the GC content was 32.6%. And bidirectional repetition zones were 24 442 bp, respectively, and the GC content was 43.4%. 131 genes were annotated, including 111 unigenes genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 4 rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the chloroplast genomes of 19 plant species in C. fruticosa and Agavaceae family. C. fruticosa was most closely related to C. indivisa. The content of GC3 in the chloroplast genome of C. fruticosa was 29.47%, GC1 and GC2 were 46.45%, 39.14%, respectively. The base content of GC3 was lower than that of GC1 and GC2, indicating that codon ends preferred to end with A and U. The ENC values ranged from 35.48 to 59.44, indicating that the codon bias was weak. ENC-plot analysis showed that there were 20 ENC frequency ratios between-0.05 to 0.05, indicating that codon preference was mainly affected by natural selection pressure. PR2-plot analysis revealed T>A, G>C, indicating that the chloroplast genome of C. fruticosa was affected by many factors. Codon preference is mainly influenced by selection. Using RSCU and ENC values as references, 17 codons were determined as optimal codons in the chloroplast genome of C. fruticosa. Among the 91 SSR loci detected, there were 3 pentanucleotides and 55 single nucleotides. 76.92% of the SSR loci took A, T (A / T, AT / AT and AAAT / ATTT) as repeat units. It showed that the A and T repeat units were the main SSR sites in the chloroplast genome of C. fruticosa. The results of this study could provide a theoretical basis for the taxonomy and phyletic evolution of C. fruticosa and Cordyline.

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    Two New Recorded Species of Biflagellospora japonica and Junewangia obliqua from Chinese Mainland
    XIAO Zhongjiu, LI Xiaoxia, LIU Xiucen, WANG Na, LI Yuqin
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (3): 685-688.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.03.009
    Abstract193)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (1280KB)(361)       Save

    Two new recorded species of Biflagellospora japonica Matsush. and Junewangia obliqua (M. B. Ellis) W. A. Baker & Morgan-Jones from Chinese Mainland were identified by characterizing morphology and micorscopy coupling with consulting relevant data and literature. The treatment of falled dead twigs was collected from the subtropical forests in Lengshuihe Nature Reserve and Maolan National Nature Reserve in Guizhou. The examined specimens are deposited in the Mycological Herbarium of Zunyi Normal College (HMZNC).

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    Alleviation Effect of Foliar Application with Seaweed Extract on Sugarcane under Drought Stress
    CHEN Diwen, ZHOU Wenling, AO Junhua, HUANG Zhenrui, BAO Shixiang, ZOU Xiaoxiao, SHEN Hong
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (5): 1348-1354.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.05.021
    Abstract184)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (1258KB)(357)       Save

    The effect of foliar application with seaweed extract (SE) on the physiological parameters of sugarcane leaves and plant morphological indexes under drought stress were studied to improve the drought resistance of sugarcane. Two sugarcane varieties ‘YT159’ and ‘ROC22’ were used as the test materials. Pot culture was used to foliar application of seaweed extract in different dosages “SE1” and “SE2” under conventional irrigation conditions “C” and drought stress conditions “D”, respectively. Plant morphological indexes including plant height, stem diameter, fresh weight, and leaf physiological parameters including water parameters and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured. The results showed that the physiological parameters in sugarcane leaves and morphological indexes treated with seaweed extract (C+SE1, C+SE2) were not significantly different from those in the C treatment. Under drought stress (D+SE1, D+SE2), the seaweed extract application significantly reduced the leaf dehydration rate, electrical conductivity, proline content, relative water content and fresh plant weight. Besides, drought resistance coefficient was significantly improved, and ‘YT159’ performed better than ‘ROC22’. Therefore, the foliar application with seaweed extract under drought stress could significantly improve the physiological parameters of sugarcane leaves and plant morphological indicators, and increase the fresh plant weight, so as to alleviate the damage of drought stress to sugarcane and improve the drought resistance ability of sugarcane.

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    Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Temperature on the Rate of Double Peduncle, Flowering Period and Flower Characteristics of Phalaenopsis
    LI Ao, ZHANG Yingjie, SUN Jixia, ZHANG Jingwei, GONG Zihui, PAN Xiangjun, GUO Wenjiao, LIU Xueqing
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (3): 732-738.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.03.018
    Abstract314)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (1718KB)(348)       Save

    Phalaenopsis cultivars 'Fullers Sunset' and 'Shuang Xia' were used as the test materials to study the effects of different plant growth regulators and temperature treatment on the double stem rate, flowering period and flower traits. 6-BA had a better effect on increasing the rate of double stems of Phalaenopsis than GA3 and GA3+6-BA. When the concentration of 6-BA was 200 mg/L, the double stem rate of both species reached the highest. GA3 could make the two varieties bloom in advance, higher concentration within a certain concentration range would lead to earlier flowering time, but the application of GA3 would lead to shortened flowering period and flower deformity. Both breeds had the highest rate of double stems when treated at the day / night (18 ℃/18 ℃), and within a certain temperature range, lower the temperature would result in earlier germination of double stems. The flowering period was the longest at the (18℃/18 ℃) treatment, and the flower number was the largest and the flower diameter was the largest at the day / night (25℃/18 ℃) treatment.

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    Research Progress on Fertigation Technology of Pineapple
    YAN Chengming, AN Dongsheng, LIU Yang, DOU Mei’an
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (6): 1777-1787.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.06.038
    Abstract459)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (1437KB)(337)       Save

    Seasonal drought is an important reason to limite the yield, quality & water and fertilizer use efficiency of pineapple. Developing fertigation technology of water promotes fertilizer, fertilizer promotes production, water and fertilizer combine efficiently is an important way to cope with seasonal drought and promote the yield, quality & water and fertilizer use efficiency of pineapple. In this paper, the necessity of the development of pineapple fertigation in China was briefly expounded from four aspects, including the temporal-spatial characteristics of seasonal drought in south China, the effects of drought stress on the growth and development of pineapple, the current situation of pineapple water and fertilizer management in China, and the effects of fertigation technology on the growth and development of Pineapple. The advances in fertigation technology of pineapple was summarized mainly from three aspects: modern irrigation and fertilization methods, water consumption regularities and nutrient absorption regularities. Finally, combined with the research progress put forward the existing problems of pineapple fertigation technology in China, and the possible research focus and development direction in the future were discussed. The purpose of this paper is to provide references for the research and application of pineapple fertigation technology.

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    Comparing the Fruit Characteristics and Quality of Four Fusarium Wilt-Resistant Varieties of Banana
    HE Qinqin, HUANG Xinmin, LAI Lixian, ZHONG Sheng, CHEN Guangquan, FENG Shenghai, HAN Hanbing
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (3): 782-788.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.03.025
    Abstract395)   HTML20)    PDF(pc) (1354KB)(336)       Save

    Banana Fusarium wilt is the main disease threatening the development of the banana industry worldwide. Breeding resistant varieties is an effective measure to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, the fruit characteristics, fruit quality, and sensory qualities of four Fusarium wilt-resistant varieties of banana were analyzed, using Brazil banana as the control. ‘Zhongjiao 9’ had a significantly higher ear weight, combs kept number, and fruit diameter, and its yield per plant was 21.9% higher than that of Brazil banana. The ear weight, combs kept number, and fruit number of both ‘Nantianhong’ and ‘Nantianhuang’ were significantly lower than those of Brazil banana, while these same characteristics in ‘Zhongjiao 4’ were not significantly different from those of Brazil banana. The water content of ‘Nantianhong’ was significantly higher than that of Brazil banana, while tha of the other three varieties was not significantly different from that of Brazil banana. The edible rate of ‘Zhongjiao 4’ was significantly higher than that of Brazil banana, but there was no significant difference between the edible rate of the other three varieties and that of Brazil banana. Both fruit hardness and vitamin C content of ‘Zhongjiao 9’ were significantly lower than corresponding values of Brazil banana, while the soluble solid content was significantly higher than that of Brazil banana. The tannin content of ‘Zhongjiao 9’ and ‘Nantianhong’ was significantly lower than that of Brazil banana, while the tannin content of ‘Nantianhuang’ was significantly higher than that of Brazil banana. Sensory evaluation of flesh color, smell, sweetness, and taste of ‘Nantianhong’ and ‘Zhongjiao 9’ revealed values that were all significantly higher than the corresponding values of Brazil banana, while the other two varieties showed no significant difference from Brazil banana in terms of these parameters. From the results of a comprehensive analysis using the membership function method, the comprehensive performance of the four Fusarium wilt-resistant banana varieties could be divided into three grades: ‘Nantianhong’ and ‘Zhongjiao 9’ constitute the first grade, ‘Zhongjiao 4’ constitute the second grade, and ‘Nantianhuang’ constitute the third grade. In conclusion, ‘Zhongjiao 9’ has a high yield per plant and excellent comprehensive characteristics, which can be further demonstrated and popularized in a large area.

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    Genome Size Estimation and Ploidy Identification of Jasminum sambac by Flow Cytometry
    LI Chunniu, LI Xianmin, HUANG Zhanwen, LU Jiashi, LI Qin, HUANG Changyan, BU Zhaoyang
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (5): 1231-1236.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.05.005
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    Using Zea mays ‘B73’ as the internal reference, the genome size of 66 Jasminum sambac germplasm (16 collected germplasms and 50 seedings) were estimated by the flow cytometry, and the ploidy was calculated using diploid as the control. Using Zea mays ‘B73’ as the internal parameter could effectively estimate the genome size of J. sambac, the peaks of the samples under test could be separated completely, and no overlapping peaks and peaks could be clearly concentrated. 56 germplasms were diploid with genome size between 0.54 Gb and 0.63 Gb, Seven germplasms were triploid with genome size between 0.79 Gb and 0.96 Gb, Three germplasms were tetraploid with genome size range from 1.04 Gb to 1.12 Gb. Three tetraploid and two triploid were found in the seedings, which showing that seed selection is an effective way of germplasm innovation for J. sambac. All the tetraploid and triploid blossomed were simple flower. The results of the study wouldl provide important reference basis for the ploidy breeding and seed selection of J. sambac.

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    Cloning of JsMYB108 and JsMYB305 and Analysis of Their Activation on TPSGene in Jasminum sambac
    ZHANG Yue, YUAN Yuan, HE Xian, WANG Yuting, LYU Meiling, WU Binghua, CHEN Qingxi
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (6): 1539-1548.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.06.005
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    Two MYB genes which were of high homology with fragrance regulating transcription factors in other species and predominant expressed in flower at night and were screened and cloned from the jasmine flower & leaf transcriptomes (Genebank GHOY00000000), and the expression pattern during flower opening were detected. Results showed that the coding sequence was 864 bp and 588 bp in length, respectively, and encoded 287 and 195 amino acid residues respectively. They were of homology to Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB108 and AtMYB24, and had the highest similarity to MYB108-like protein and MYB305-like protein in Olea Europaeavar. sylvestris, and was namedJsMYB108 and JsMYB305, respectively. The expression level of JsMYB108 andJsMYB305 was significantly higher at night than at day, which was consistent with the four JsTPS’sexpression characteristics. To investigate whether JsMYB108 and JsMYB305 were involved in the regulation of terpene synthesis, they were constructed into the plant expression vector pK7FWG2.0 (35 S promoter with GFP reporter) and transformed to jasmine callus to detect the effect on the expressions of fourJsTPS genes. The results showed that GFP fluorescence and transcripts of JsMYB108 and JsMYB305could be detected in the transformed callus. Furthermore, JsMYB108 could significantly enhance the expression of JsTPS2, while JsMYB305 could significantly increase the expression level of four JsTPSgenes, suggesting that JsMYB108 and JsMYB305 might be involved in the regulation of terpene synthesis. The results of the study would lay a foundation for further studies on the regulation of jasmine fragrance.

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    Antioxidant and Bacteriostasis Activity of Flavanoid from Mallotus oblongifolius by Different Extraction Methods
    DUAN Zhouwei, LI Peng, HE Ai, WANG Shiping, XIE Hui
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (3): 847-853.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.03.033
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    The aim was to select the suitable method for extracting the polyphenols from Mallotus oblongifolius. The polyphenols were extracted by hot water extraction, organic solvent extraction and cellulase-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activity of the extract density was evaluated by scavenging DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide anion radical and reducing force methods. The antibacterial activity of the polyphenol extracts was determined by filter paper diffusion method and double dilution methods. The yield of polyphenols by the hot water extraction method, organic solvent extraction method and cellulase-assisted extraction method was (10.31±0.42)%, (9.79±0.38)%, and (10.88± 0.52)%, respectively, and the content was (44.72±2.26)%, (39.54±1.78)%, and (47.07±2.52)%. The polyphenol extracts extracted by the three methods had strong antioxidant properties. The cellulose-assisted extraction of the polyphenols from M. oblongifolius (CFC) had the strongest ability to scavenge DPPH radical, and its half inhibitory concentration (IC50) was (0.0034±0.0002) mg/mL. The hot water-extracted polyphenols from M. oblongifolius (WFC) had the strongest ability to scavenge ABTS radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical, and the IC50 values was (0.066±0.004), (0.069±0.004), (0.127±0.009) mg/mL. The polyphenol extracts extracted by the three methods had a good inhibitory effect on four bacteria. Among them, WFC had a good inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aerugino, the inhibitory zone diameter was (12.34±1.01), (12.16±0.95), (2.12±0.15), (6.12±0.36)mm, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 3.13, 3.13, 12.50, 6.25 mg/mL. Comprehensive consideration, the hot water extraction method is more suitable for the extraction of polyphenols from M. oblongifolius.

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    Comparison of Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity from Different Mulberry Leaves
    MA Feiyue, GENG Ju, QIAO Jian, SHUAI Xixiang, ZHANG Ming, DU Liqing
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2021, 42 (3): 888-896.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.03.039
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    In order to compare the contents of total phenol in different mulberry leaves and the different application, single-factor experiments and a four-variable, three-level orthogonal array design were performed to study on the extraction of total phenols from 40 mulberry leaves. The optimal conditions were: temperature 65 ℃, time 30 min, solid/liquid ratio 1∶45 (g/mL), and ethanol concentration 60%. The effect of extraction condition were temperature > time > solid/ liquid ratio > ethanol concentration. Under the optimal conditions, the highest content of total phenol in ‘Tiaosang 5’ mulberry leaves was (26.35 ± 0.29) mg/g. The least content of total phenol in ‘Diansang’ mulberry leaves was (20.44 ± 0.15) mg/g. Furthermore, the most antioxidant activity of the extracts from ‘Tiaosang 5’ mulberry leaves and lowest one from ‘Diansang’ mulberry leaves was (77.64 ± 0.34) mg/L and (210.30 ± 0.19) mg/L (IC50), respectively, according to the DPPH radical-scavenging assay. According to the FRAP, TEAC of ‘Tiaosang 5’ mulberry leaves and ‘Diansang’ mulberry leaves was (2.58 ± 0.11) mmol/g and (0.73 ± 0.04) mmol/g, respectively. The total phenol content was positively correlated with the capacity of DPPH radical scavenging. Choosing varieties with high total phenol content in mulberry leaves could improve the economic values of mulberry.

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