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    Correlation of Microspore Development Period and Flower Morphological Characteristics of Chinese Flowering Cabbage
    PANG Qiangqiang,LI Deming,ZHOU Man,ZHU Baibi,ZHAO Shuniu,CAI Xinglai
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (1): 54-60.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.008
    Abstract841)   HTML64)    PDF(pc) (639KB)(1560)       Save

    The cytological characteristics of microspores in Chinese flowering cabbage at different developmental periods were studied to reveal the relationship between microspore development and buds morphology, which would provide evidences for the culturing of anthers and microspores. The results showed that the microspore developed in tetrad, early- or mid-uninucleate, late-uninucleate and binucleate stages obviously. The microspore development showed correlativity with the morphological characteristics of buds and anthers. The buds 3.05-3.39 mm in height, the calyx 3.25-3.46 mm in length, the petal 2.10-2.33 mm in length, the ratio of flap to calyx 0.63-0.71, the anther 2.57-2.89 mm in length, and the ratio of flap 0.77-0.85 were discovered to contain microspores at the late uninucleate. These were suitable for the identification of optimal sampling period of flower buds in different materials. At the late uninucleate stage, it was necessary that the anthers should be covered by the sepal, the anthers slightly longer than petals, and the flower bud was full, the petals and anthers showed pale yellow. Therefore, we can judge the development stage of Chinese flowering cabbage microspore by morphological characteristics of flower organs so as to define the standard of bud selection in correspondence with the optimal stage of anthers culture.

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    Advances in Utilization of Spent Mushroom Substrates Plant Growing Medium
    LIU Jingkun,WU Songzhan,CHENG Hanting,LI Guangyi,LI Ye,WANG Jinchuang,LI Qinfen
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (1): 191-198.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.028
    Abstract858)   HTML71)    PDF(pc) (380KB)(1092)       Save

    The article reviewed the researches on the characteristics and utilization of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in recent years in detail. Basic physical and chemical properties of spent mushroom substrate were introduced, and compared with the traditional substrate materials, the advantages and disadvantages of its application in cultivation were also analyzed. Research progress on the application of spent mushroom substrate in the cultivation of horticultural crops, Chinese herbs and mushroom were present, at the same time, the role and mechanism of spent mushroom substrate in improving soil were also mentioned. Finally, the problems still existed in the utilization of fungal residue matrix were mentioned and suggestions were given in order to provide a reliable and in-depth theoretical basis for the efficient utilization of mushroom residue.

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    MAJOR SOIL TYPES 0F HAINAN ISLAND
    Liang Jixing
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    1988, 9 (1): 53-72.  
    Abstract1264)      PDF(pc) (1638KB)(921)       Save
    The major soil types of Hainan Island may be divided into the following seven orders and twenty great groups.(1) The order of ferrallitic soil contains the great groups of 1aterite (latosol) ,1ateritic soil, 1ateritic red soil and yellow soil,(2) The order of semi-eluvial soil contains the great groups of dfy red soil and limestone red soil (terrarossa).(3) The order of initially developed soil contains the great groups of purple soil (purplish soil), b1ack limestone soil (rendzina or rendizine) ,volcanic ash soil, new alluvial soil, coastal sandy soil, young soil, lithosol (litho-soil) and skeleton soil,(4) The order of semi-bydromorphic soil contains the great igroups of Chao soil and mountain scrubby-meadow soil.(5) The order of hydromorphic soil contains the great groups of bog soil and peat soil.(6) The order of alkali-saline soil only . contains the great group of solonchak.(7) The order of anthropic soil (man-made soil) only contains. the great group of paddy soil (rice paddy soil).The geographical distribution, the profile morphology, and the physical and chemical properties of these major soil types are exp1ained briefly.
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    Analysis of Leaf Anatomical Structure of Wuyi Mingcong Tea Germplasm Resources
    WANG Feiquan,LI Jiyan,FENG Hua,LUO Shengcai,LIN Meijing,LI Shaohua,ZHNAG Jianming,ZHANG Bo,CHEN Rongbing
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (12): 2375-2389.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.12.010
    Abstract700)   HTML56)    PDF(pc) (681KB)(757)       Save

    In order to identify and evaluate the leaf anatomical characteristics of tea germplasm resources in Wuyi Mountain tea region, the leaves of 70 Wuyi Mingcong tea germplasms were used as the materials for the comparative analysis of the anatomical structures and characteristics. There was abundant genetic variability in the 17 anatomical structure traits of the leaves of the 70 Wuyi Mingcong, with an average genetic diversity index of 1.85 and an average coefficient of variation of 17.64%. Strong stress resistance was found for all the germplasms. The mean value of the average membership function of drought resistance, disease and insect resistance and the average score of the cold resistance was 0.40, 0.39 and 1.28, respectively. Most of them were suited for making Oolong tea or green tea, while a few were suited for making black tea or both black and green tea. The average productivity index was 2648.85, indicating a higher potential productivity. The cluster analysis based on the anatomical structure traits of leaves showed that the 70 Wuyi Mingcong were divided into three groups. In addition to the thickness of upper and lower epidermis cuticle, the thickness ratio of upper epidermis to sponge tissue and the crystal number of calcium oxalate, other anatomical structure traits showed significantly or extremely significant difference among the three groups. The principal component analysis showed that the characteristic value of the former four principal components were bigger than one and represented 84.26% of the information of 17 anatomical structure traits of leaves. The composite scores of each Wuyi Mingcong were calculated based on the principal component and their corresponding characteristic value. The top ten Wuyi Mingcong had excellent comprehensive characters, which could be used in the development and innovative utilization of Oolong tea products, the selection and breeding of excellent tea varieties. The results were expected to provide references for the identification and utilization of local excellent tea germplasm resources and the breeding of new varieties in Wuyi Mountain.

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    Influence of Dissolved Organic Matter on Determination of Iron in Solution and its Mechanism
    WU Dongming,LI Yi,CHEN Yaohua,DENG Xiao,WU Chunyuan
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (7): 1441-1448.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.028
    Abstract1045)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (1439KB)(709)       Save

    Quantitative detection is a crucial technique for investigating the geochemical processes of ferric ion (Fe). However, due to the ubiquity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in environmental medium, the combination of Fe with DOM may affect the determination of Fe in solution. Therefore, the effect of DOM between atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and colorimetry for Fe determination was tested. Precision of AAS was as good as colorimetry, both of them were less than 5%. However, AAS was more accurate with a recovery rate of 86.4%-97.8% and its detection limit was as low as 0.012 mg/L. DOM had a significant effect on colorimetry. The presence of DOM increased testing time and relative standard deviation of 11.5 h, 1.2%-22.2%, respectively. Moreover, the accuracy was also decreased by 28.3%-44.4%. As the concentration of DOM increasing, the accuracy was decreased in the tendency of exponential function, and the trend of the veracity fitted well with unary quadratic model. Moreover, the effect of DOM was greater with the decreasing concentration of iron. On the contrary, the presence of DOM had no significant influence on AAS. The results of EEMs and FTIR indicated that existed hydrogen bonding or π-π interaction occurred between DOM and Fe/phen that affected the interaction of Fe and colorimetry in a drive to influence the testing results.

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    Comparison of Volatile Components and Aroma Characterization in Sichuan Black Tea and Qimen Black Tea
    ZHANG Xiang,WANG Congming,NIE Congning,LI Shunyu,XU Yifan,XIE Anran,DU Xiao
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2020, 41 (7): 1440-1449.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.07.022
    Abstract241)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (1545KB)(685)       Save

    In order to determine the differences of the aroma characterization and components in Sichuan Black Tea (CH) and Qimen Black Tea (QH), the black tea in the two regions were sampled as the research objects. The aroma characterization and volatile components of three typical tea samples were analyzed by sensory the analysis method and static headspace-solid phase microextraction / gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-SPME/GC-MS). The contribution rates were evaluated according to the relative content of each component and relative odour activity value (ROAV). CH1 presented strong fruit, sweet and roasted aroma with moderate flowery aroma, faint woody and fresh aroma coupled with light green aroma. CH2 also showed strong flowery and sweet aroma with moderate fruit, green and roasted aroma added light fresh and woody aroma. QH presented strong sweet and fruit aroma, with other prominent aroma characterization. The ROAV analysis combined with a characterization description of aroma showed that the common main aroma contributors of the three tea samples were linalool and geraniol. CH1 had 2-hexenal, cinene and furfural, with ROAVs of 362.59, 6.74 and 1.05, respectively. CH2 showed the presence of linalool oxide, phenylacetaldehyde, cis-3-hexenol and benzyl alcohol, with ROAVs reached 1472.33, 462.22, 383.92 and 4.42, respectively. QH also showed the presence of linalool, linalool oxide, geraniol, n-hexanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-nonanal, cis-3-hexenol and 2-pentylfuran, with all having a ROAVs of more than 100. In addition, 12 kinds of aroma components in three kinds of black tea, including linalool, phenylacetaldehyde, n-hexanal, geraniol, linalool oxide, n-nonanal, 2-pentylfuran, cis-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, n-heptanal, limonene and phenethyl alcohol may be the material basis of black tea-based aroma.

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    Comparison of Three Methods for Determination of Soil Exchangeable Aluminium
    LI Zhaoying,ZHENG Lu,YANG Wenjuan
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2020, 41 (9): 1912-1917.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.09.027
    Abstract474)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (1360KB)(669)       Save

    Suitable detection methods to accurately and efficiently detect the soil exchange aluminum content were found. The differences, precision, accuracy and applicability of the exchange-neutralization titration of potassium chloride method, the aluminum reagent method and the chromoxane cyanine R method were analyzed. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the three methods. However, the precision of Chromoxane cyanine R method was better than that of the exchange-neutralization titration of potassium chloride method and the aluminum reagent method, and the average recovery rate of the wool-chromium-green R method was 99.28%, with a higher accuracy than the other two methods. The linear range of the chromoxane cyanine R method was 0 to 0.32 mg/L, and the linear range of the corresponding absorbent value was 0 to 0.778. The linear range of the aluminum reagent method was 0 to 0.8 mg/L, and the corresponding absorbent value range was 0.006 to 0.157. Compared with the aluminum reagent method, the linear range of chromoxane cyanine R method was smaller than that of the aluminum reagent method, but its absorbent value range was larger than that of the aluminum reagent method. The color rendering agent of the chromoxane cyanine R method was far from the absorption peak of the color rendering substance, the background interference was small, and the method sensitivity was higher. The average time of a single sample was 4.2 min, the detection efficiency was higher than that of the other two methods, and the operation was simple and the applicability was higher. Therefore, the chromoxane cyanine R method was recommended for the determination of soil exchange aluminum.

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    Research Progresses of Tropical Plant Genome
    LI Dan,CHEN Xiaohui,LAI Zhongxiong
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (10): 1875-1888.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.10.001
    Abstract1027)   HTML124)    PDF(pc) (880KB)(643)       Save

    Based on genome-wide sequencing results, the development of genome-wide sequencing of 13 tropical plants including banana (Musa spp.), longan (Dimocarpus longan), papaya (Carica papaya), pineapple (Ananas comosus), coconut (Cocos nucifera), durian (Durio zibethinus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), cassava (Manihot esculenta), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), oil palm(Elaeis guineensis), coffee (Coffea canephra) Tiepi-shihu (Dendrobium officinale) was discussed, and the tropical plant genome research was summarized.

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    Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulation of Anthocyanins in the Pericarp of Litchi
    CHEN Jiayi,ZHAO Jietang,WANG Huicong,HU Guibing
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2020, 41 (10): 2055-2061.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.10.012
    Abstract302)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (1003KB)(641)       Save

    Litchi is a subtropical evergreen fruit tree, which has high commercial value. The color of litchi fruit is an important quality character that affects market appealing. The color of litchi fruit decides by various pigments. The red coloration of litchi pericarp during maturation mainly due to the accumulation of anthocyanins. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins in litchi pericarp involves multiple steps and is regulated by different factors. With the wide application of molecular biology techniques, the research on anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation has attained substantial progress in recent years. Numerous papers about the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in litchi has also been published. Here, we summarize the research results in recent years on domestic and foreign studies on litchi amthocyanins. The biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in litchi pericarp was reviewed. And the effects of the external environment, physiology and biochemistry, and molecular biology on the accumulation of anthocyanins were comprehensively summarized to provide theoretical guidance for better fruit coloration through breeding or cultural attempts.

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    Difference Between Ingredients of Citrus chachiensis Tanaka and Other Typical Citrus
    LUO Zheng,GUO Yuanyuan,CHEN Feiping,GONG Xiaobo,CHEN Yulong
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (1): 174-179.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.01.025
    Abstract852)   HTML38)    PDF(pc) (691KB)(631)       Save

    In this paper, the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein, total flavonoids and total polyphenols of the peel of Citrus chachiensis Tanaka was compared with that of three other typical citrus peels, and the feasibility of other citrus peels as a substitute of C. chachiensis Tanaka was analyzed. The results showed that the soluble sugar, soluble protein, total flavonoids and total polyphenol content in the peels of Wenzhou mandarin orange, navel orange and Hubei citrus were significantly different from those of C. chachiensis Tanaka and the GC-MS method was used to detect the essential oil compositions in the peels of the above-mentioned four kinds of citrus, showing that the main contents were D-limonene, terpinenes, γ-terpineol and 2-amino benzoic acid methyl ester, with D-limonene as the highest. The characteristic contents of the essential oils of navel orange were more similar to those of C. chachiensis. The peel of navel orange as the substitute for the raw material of C. chachiensis Tanaka to produce citrus chachiensis hortorum is prospective.

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    Analysis and Evaluation of Main Agronomic Traits of 26 Pepper Varieties
    BU Hongfeng,ZHANG Zhongwu,DENG Zhengchun,LI Xuefeng,ZHAN Yuanhua,SUN Xincheng,CHEN Zhibing
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (7): 1290-1296.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.07.007
    Abstract520)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (955KB)(607)       Save

    To screen out pepper varieties suitable for spring open cultivation in Changde, we analyzed 13 characters by correlation analysis, cluster analysis and mass evaluation for 26 pepper varieties. The single fruit weight was significantly correlated with the transverse diameter of commodity fruit and the shape of fruit-shoulder. The single fruit weight was significantly negatively correlated with the leaf shape, fruit shape and maturity. The yield per plant was significantly correlated with the single fruit weight, and significantly positively correlated with the transverse diameter of commodity fruit and the shape of fruit-shoulder, but was significantly negatively correlated with the leaf shape, fruit shape and maturity. The maturity was significantly correlated with the leaf shape, and significantly positively correlated with the fruit shape, but was significantly negatively correlated with the transverse diameter of commodity fruit, the single fruit weight and the shape of fruit-shoulder. The 26 varieties were divided into four categories based on cluster analysis. The fruit shape and yield were the most important factors affecting the clustering results. The willingness of farmers to choose a variety was correlated with plant height, plant width, shape of fruit-shoulder, and virus resistant. And the correlation coefficient was 0.538, 0.542, -0.570, -0.518, respectively. It was correlated with transverse diameter of fruit, leaf shape and fruit shape. ‘Xiangyan-qingcui’, ‘Fengkang 21’, ‘Gengxin 8’, ‘Xingshu 201’ were suitable for cultivation in Changde.

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    The Effect of 2% Clothianidin and Cyfluthrin Granule Against Phyllotreta striolata
    ZHANG Jing,CHEN Libiao,YAN Chao,YE Huochun,HAN Bingjun,FENG Gang
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (8): 1606-1610.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.022
    Abstract653)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (404KB)(574)       Save

    Phyllotreta striolata is one of the main pests of cruciferous vegetables at present. Due to its biological characteristics, the commonly used method of foliar spray is inefficiency and causes problems of excessive pesticide residue. In order to explore the control methods and effective agents for controlling P. striolata, the effects of 2% thiamethoxam and cypermethrin granules on the field control efficiency and yield of P. striolata were evaluated by soil treatment with mustard as the experimental vegetable. 2% thiamethoxam-cypermethrin granules had a strong control effect on P. striolata. At the dosage of 2 kg/667 m 2, the control effect was 76.67%, 72.00% and 70.64% at 14, 21 and 28 d, respectively. At the same time, the agent also had a certain effect on promoting the growth of mustard. The total yield at the dose of 2 kg/667 m 2 was 58.80% higher than that of the untreated fields. The residue analysis of mustard postharvest showed that the residue of thiamethoxam and cypermethrin in mustard and soil was less than 0.5 mg/kg, which met the corresponding terms of National standard for food safety-maximum residue limits for pesticides in foods (GB 2763-2016). Therefore, it is safe and effective to apply 2% thiamethoxam - cypermethrin granules to control P. striolata on mustard. In addition, the soil application method used in this study was a one-time application, which greatly reduced the dosage and labor cost compared with foliar spraying.

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    Weed Species, Distribution and Damage on Sisal Plantation and Its Strategy of Control
    FAN Zhiwei,LI Xiaoxia,LIU Yan,XI Jingeng,WANG Ya,SHEN Yide,HUANG Qiaoqiao,YI Kexian
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2020, 41 (8): 1654-1664.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.08.021
    Abstract275)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (1093KB)(569)       Save

    Weed species, distribution and damage on sisal (Agave sisalana) plantation in China were investigated. There were 200 weed species, belonging to 144 genus and 49 families, on sisal plantation, of which 40 species in Poaceae, 24 species in Asteraceae, 20 species in Fabaceae, 10 species in Rubiaceae and in Cyperaceae. There were 79 species in annual weed, 1 species in biennial weed, 100 species in perennial and 20 others. 143 species reproduced with seed reproduction, 57 species with seed, stem, stolon and rhizome reproduction. 68 species were alien invasive weed and 132 species were native weed. Three species (Imperata cylindrica var. major, Panicum repens, Cyperus rotundus) caused damage in 5 degree and 7 species (Eleusine indica, Digitaria setigera, Praxelis clematidea, Spermacoce alata, Erigeron canadensis, Bidens pilosa, Mikania microrantha) in 4 degree. A new viewpoint is proposed that sisal plantation with good cover plants is an ecological plantation and without cover plants cannot be an ecological plantation. Sod culture in sisal plantation can fertilize soil, raise sisal growth, feed animal and control pest.

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    Colletotrichum Species Responsible for Leaf Anthracnose of Liquidambar formosana Hance in Fujian
    ZHU Yangyan,SU Jinyu,PAN Aifang,HE Xueyou,HU Hongli
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (11): 2197-2204.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.11.014
    Abstract561)   HTML55)    PDF(pc) (1966KB)(543)       Save

    Six morphologically different Colletotrichum strains were obtained during the investigation of Liquidambar formosana Hance leaf diseases in Fujian. The six strains were identified based on morphology (colony, acervuli, conidiophores and conidia) and multi-loci (ITS, TUB2, ACT, GAPDH and CHS-1) phylogenetic analyses. The six strains belonged to three Colletotrichum species, i.e., C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. fioriniae, which belonged to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex and Colletotrichum actatum complex, respectively. The results from Koch’s postulates supported the three Colletotrichum species could cause leaf anthracnose to Liquidambar formosana, and the pathogenecity of them was different. This is the first report of the three Colletotrichum species to cause leaf anthracnose on Liquidambar formosana.

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    Parasitic Behavior of Coccophagus japonicus Compere
    LI Xian,FU Yueguan,ZHU Junhong,WU Xiaoshuang,CHEN Junyu,LI Lei,HAN Dongyin,NIU Liming,ZHANG Fangping
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (3): 535-540.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.03.017
    Abstract402)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (401KB)(535)       Save

    Coccophagus japonicus Compere is one of the important natural enemies of Parasaissetia nigra Nietner. In order to understand the parasitic behavior of the parasitic wasp and the effect of female body size on oviposition, the parasitic behavior of the parasite wasp and the oviposition of female wasps with different body sizes were observed in the laboratory. The results showed that the parasitic process of C. japonicus Compere consisted of five stages: searching for hosts, identifying hosts, probing by ovipositor, laying eggs and post-oviposition treatment. The parasitic duration, parasitic rate, and average egg numbers increased with the parasitic time. The coincidence ratio between parasitic frequency and egg number decreased with the parasitic time. When the wasps parasitized for the first time, the parasitic duration, the parasitism rate, the coincidence ratio between parasitic frequency and egg number, the average egg number was 19.75 s, 73.12%, 69.89% and 0.76, respectively; When the wasps parasitized the same hosts for the third time, the parasitic duration, the parasitism rate, the coincidence ratio between parasitic frequency and egg number and the average egg number was 24.37, 83.33%, 8.33% and 1.67, correspondingly. There was a positive correlation between the body size of female wasps and oviposition, and the daily fecundity and parasitic rate of female wasps increased with the body sizes of female wasps. When the body length of female wasps is less than 1.20 mm, the average fecundity and parasitic rate were relatively smaller, which was 16.83 and 49.4%, respectively. When the body length was between 1.40 mm and 1.50 mm, the average fecundity and parasitic rate was 33.06 and 72.3%, respectively. When the body length was longer than 1.50 mm, the average fecundity and parasitic rate was 37.5 and 72.2%, respectively; The length of the posterior tibia of female wasps had a similar effect on oviposition and parasitic rate. It is suggested that the larger female wasps should be used in the reproduction expansion.

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    Ecophysiological Responses of Azadirachta indica Seedlings to Different Water and Light Conditions
    SUN Heng,ZHANG Yanping,WANG Youqiong,WU Jiangchong,PENG Xingmin,ZHENG Yixing
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2020, 41 (11): 2245-2252.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.11.014
    Abstract156)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (1595KB)(535)       Save

    In order to reveal the response of Azadirachta indica seedling growth and metabolism to different water and light conditions, a greenhouse pot experiment covering twelve combinations with four water levels (60%-65%,40%-45%,30%-35% and 20%-25% of field capacity, respectively) and three light levels (100%, 75% and 50% of full sunlight, respectively) was set up to analyze the indicators of growth, pattern, physiological and the content of azadirachtin. The results showed that natural light and field capacity of 60%-65% were more favorable for the growth of A. indica seedlings while the height, diameter, biomass and the growth of leaves of A. indica seedlings were inhibited by drought stress and shading, and the inhibition degree of shading was significantly higher than that of drought. Under drought stress conditions. A. indica could improve drought adaptability by increasing the root--stem ratio and synthesizing a large number of primary metabolites, such as soluble proteins, free proline and soluble sugars and so on. Under shading conditions, the synthesis of soluble protein, free proline and soluble sugar were blocked; meanwhile, the content of azadirachtin was reduced. Under severe drought stress, shading could alleviate the negative effects of drought on the growth of A. indica, which followed the above-ground facilitation hypothesis and didn’t support the independent influence theory. It was concluded that A. indica had a wide range of drought adaptation and strong dependence of light in the growth stage of seeding; therefore, the maximum intensity of the light should be provided during seeding breeding. In addition, proper drought stress under sufficient light conditions was beneficial to the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites in A. indica, which could be a potential measure to increase the content of azadirachtin in production.

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    Analysis of Transcriptome Characteristics of Areca at Different Developmental Stages
    YA Huiyuan,CHEN Ye,ZHANG Yansong,XU Qitai
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2020, 41 (7): 1279-1287.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.07.001
    Abstract304)   HTML103)    PDF(pc) (1279KB)(531)       Save

    Areca (Areca catechu L.) is one of the four primary medicinal plants in south China. In the study, the high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of the peel and kernel in different periods to find differentially expressed genes in different developmental stages. Among the peels, 4491 differential genes were divided, of which 617 differential genes were involved in 111 KEGG metabolic pathways,257 differential genes with 82 pathways in the biological process metabolism class, and a total of 27 genes with 5 genes involved in the secondary metabolic pathway. There were 5443 differential genes in the betel nut kernel, according to the KEGG pathway annotation results, 898 differential genes were involved in 118 pathways, 466 differential genes were annotated on biological metabolic pathways for 89 pathways, 53 genes involved in secondary metabolism with 7 secondary metabolic pathways involved. Further analysis showed that with the development of fruit, 80% of the secondary metabolic pathways in the pericarp showed a down-regulated expression of the genes, while 71.4% of the secondary metabolic pathways in the kernel showed up-regulated expression. The results of the study preliminarily revealed the overall characteristics of the transcriptome of different tissues and different developmental stages of areca nut, and found that the expression of secondary metabolism-related regulatory genes in betel nut and pit were observed in different stages, which was the medicinal development and secondary of betel nut.

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    The Classification Status of Wuzhishan Wild Tea Based on Morphological Features and psbA-trnH Chloroplast Encoding Gene Sequence
    SU Fan,YANG Xiaobo,LI Donghai
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (8): 1565-1570.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.08.016
    Abstract482)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1473KB)(509)       Save

    The wild tea in Hainan Island was regarded Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA) or C. sinensis var. pubilimba (CSB). The concentrated distribution area of the tea is Shuimanxiang, Wuzhishan. In order to further clarify the classification status of the tea, the wild tea plants of eight communities were studied. The morphological characteristics of the tea were closer to CSA than CSB. But there were also obvious differences, since the leaves of the tea was larger than that of CSA and CSB, the side veins of the tea was slightly more than that of CSA and CSB, and the petals of the tea, CSB and CSA was 5, 5-6 and 6-7, correspondingly. The sequence of the psbA-trnH chloroplast coding gene showed that the 30 samples of the eight communities of the tea was an independent group, which is parallel to CSA and CSB. So, the wild tea could also be identified as another variety of C. sinensis. It was named as Camellia sinensis (Linnaeus) Kuntze var. shuiman F. Su and X. B. Yang, short for Shuiman Tea.

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    Biological Characteristics and Control of Onomarchus uninotatus on Jackfruit
    SUN Shiwei TAN Lehe GOU Yafeng SANG Liwei LIU Aiqin
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2013, 34 (5): 958-961.  
    Abstract86)      PDF(pc) (320KB)(495)       Save
    The biological characteristics of Onomarchus uninotatus, a important jackfruit pest, was studied with laboratory observation and field investigation. The pest has 2 generations per year in Hainan and overwinters as nymphs or adults. There are two damage peaks in mid June to late July and late October to early December every year. This paper describes the morphological characteristics, feeding and damage, activity and habitats, molting and eclosion, mating and spawning in details, and proposing some prevention methods as put off egg branches and picking leaves with insect.
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    Chemical Mutagenesis for the Cuttings of Bougainvillea glabra ‘Mrs. Eva’ and B. × buttiana ‘Miss Manila’
    CHANG Shengxin,HUANG Surong,XU Shisong,YANG Guangsui
    Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops    2019, 40 (2): 238-246.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2019.02.005
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    Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss is an important ornamental plant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of China. Because the sexual reproduction of Bougainvillea is difficult, mutation breeding is an available breeding method. The present study used ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), sodium azide (NaN3) and pingyangmycin (PYM) to mutagenize the cuttings of B. glabra ‘Mrs. Eva’ and B. × buttiana ‘Miss Manila’, respectively. In 20 h EMS treatments, the half lethal dose of ‘Mrs. Eva’ and ‘Miss Manila’ cuttings was 0.22% and 0.62%, respectively. With the increasing of EMS concentration, the shoot number and length of the longest branch of two Bougainvillea varieties showed a decreasing trend, while the chlorophyll and carotenoid content increased gradually. With the increasing of EMS concentration, the leaf hue of ‘Mrs. Eva’ changed to grayish tone and that of ‘Miss Manila’ changed to red tone gradually. Almost all ‘Mrs. Eva’ cuttings died in 20 h NaN3 treatments, while the survival rate of ‘Miss Manila’ cuttings was 82%-92%. With the increasing of NaN3 concentration, the shoot number of ‘Miss Manila’ decreased significantly. 20 h PYM treatments significantly improved the length of the longest branch of two Bougainvillea varieties in contrast to the control, but had no significant influence on the survival rate. Moreover, variant seedlings were found in EMS and PYM treatments, representing transformative leaf margin, wrinkled leaf surface or double leaf tips.

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