Eight germplasm resources of Camellia sect. Chrysantha from Daweishan Mountain of Yunnan province were studied to provide scientific basis and research materials for the exploitation and utilization of Camellia plants. In this study, the leaf length and width of 13 cultivars of Camellia sect. Chrysantha were evaluated by direct observation of leaf phenotype, using five known germplasm resources as the control and mature leaves as the test materials, the content of six mineral elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg) was determined by the wet ashing method, the contents of four functional components (tea polyphenols, total polysaccharides, total saponins and total flavonoids) were determined by the UV photometer method, the relationship between them and germplasm resources of Camellia sect. Chrysantha was analyzed by the cluster analysis. The results showed that the leaf shape of 13 Camellia sect. Chrysantha could be divided into two types: elliptic and oblong, and there were great differences in leaf area, leaf color and leaf serration. The highest and lowest content of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg in leaves was 2.1, 1.9, 4.3, 6.6, 1.4 and 1.8 times, respectively. The content of total saponins, tea polyphenols, polysaccharides and flavonoids was 10.9, 5.8, 5.0 and 2.0 times, respectively. The correlation analysis showed that tea polyphenols had a significant negative correlation with leaf length/leaf width, a significant positive correlation with leaf color and leaf quality, and a significant negative correlation with leaf length/leaf width and zinc, there were significant positive correlations between leaf color and manganese, villi and copper. The results of cluster analysis showed that the 13 germplasm resources could be divided into 5 groups when the distance coefficient was 4.5, group I (including ‘Honghe 1’ Camellia sect. Chrysantha, JHC-2, JHC-3, JHC-4) and Group IV (including ordinary Camellia sect. Chrysantha, JHC-8, Camellia pubipetala Wan et Huang) contained relatively high contents of the constituents, JHC-2 and JHC-8 may have higher medicinal and health-care functions, but the mineral element contents and contents were generally higher, so the later development and utilization value was higher. The results of this study would be useful for further studies on the accumulation mechanism of important functional components in Camellia sect. Chrysantha, it would also provide theoretical basis for breeding new varieties of Camellia and further development and utilization of Camellia group plants in the future.