Welcome to Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops,

Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops ›› 2021, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (10): 2881-2889.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2021.10.018

• Plant Cultivation, Physiology & Biochemistry • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Different Amounts of Nitrogen and Potassium on Nutrient Absorption, Distribution and Yield of Grafted Bitter Gourd

LI Wanyu1, TIAN Libo1,*(), SHANG Sang2, LIAO Daolong3, YANG Yan4, QI Zhiqiang4   

  1. 1. College of Horticulture, Hainan University / Hainan Key Laboratory for Quality Control of Tropical Horticultural Crop, Haikou, Hainan 570228, China
    2. College of Life Science and medicine, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan 570228, China
    3. Vegetable Research Institute, Hainan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, Hainan 571100, China
    4. Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, Hainan 571101, China
  • Received:2020-11-26 Revised:2021-01-05 Online:2021-10-25 Published:2021-11-25
  • Contact: TIAN Libo

Abstract:

The influence of different application rates of nitrogen and potassium on nutrient absorption and distribution and yield of grafted bitter gourd was discussed to solve the problem of over-application of fertilizers in the production of bitter gourd in winter. The bitter gourd grafted seedlings were treated with a control (T1), N 260 kg/hm2, K2O 430 kg/hm2 (T2), N 416 kg/hm2, K2O 768 kg/hm2 (T3), N 416 kg/hm2, K2O 192 kg/hm2 (T4), N 104 kg/hm2, K2O 768 kg/hm2 (T5), N 104 kg/hm2, K2O 192 kg/hm2(T6). The dry matter accumulation of different organs and the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrients were determined in each growth period. The dry matter accumulation of various organs of grafted bitter gourd in different treatment increased with the extension of the growth period. Under the same condition of potassium application in the seedling and initial stages, the dry matter accumulation of stems, leaves and fruits was positively related with the nitrogen supply level. In the fruit-bearing period, under the same nitrogen application conditions, the dry matter accumulation of stems, leaves, and fruits increased significantly with the increase of potassium supply. Among them, the dry matter accumulation of all organs in different growth periods was equal to T2 treatment, significantly higher than that of other treatments. The total dry matter accumulation and fruit dry matter distribution rate reached the maximum in the full fruit stage, which was 590.76 g/plant and 43% respectively. The accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in various organs of grafted bitter gourd with different treatment showed an upward trend with the extension of growth period. Grafted bitter gourd had a higher demand for potassium, followed by nitrogen and phosphorus. The accumulation of potassium continued to be at a high level, and the accumulation reached the highest level of 20.9, 3.5, 27.3 g per plant in the mature stage, respectively, an average increase of 52.7%, 43.2%, and 38.5% compared with the other treatments. Compared with the other treatments, T2 treatment significantly enhanced the nutrient supply capacity of the leaves (source) to the fruit (sink), and the dry matter distribution rate of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the fruit was 59%, 48%, and 48% at the mature stage, which was significantly higher than that of other treatments. Different treatment had differences in the yield of grafted bitter gourd. The yield of grafted bitter gourd under the same potassium application was significantly positively correlated with the nitrogen supply. The weight and yield of grafted bitter gourd in T2 treatment increased significantly by 37.1% and 46.4% respectively compared with the other treatments. Comprehensive research on the growth of grafted balsam pear and the effective utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrients, T2 treatment (N 260 kg/hm2, K2O 430 kg/hm2) had the most significant effect on increasing the yield of grafted balsam pear. Promote the application and realize the “addition and subtraction” of green agriculture.

Key words: grafted bitter gourd, nitrogen, potassium, dry matter accumulation, nutrient absorption and distribution, yield

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