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热带作物学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 859-867.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2020.05.003

• 作物栽培与营养、遗传育种 • 上一篇    下一篇

施用海藻酸复合肥料的双季稻产量和氮磷肥料效应

黄继川,彭智平(),涂玉婷,吴雪娜,梁志雄,杨林香,林志军   

  1. 广东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/广东省养分资源循环利用与耕地保育重点实验室/农业农村部南方植物营养与肥料重点实验室,广东广州 510640
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-19 修回日期:2019-09-01 出版日期:2020-05-25 发布日期:2020-06-15
  • 通讯作者: 彭智平 E-mail:ytifei@aliyun.com
  • 作者简介:黄继川(1981—),男,硕士,副研究员,研究方向:新型肥料、作物高效施肥与农业生态。
  • 基金资助:
    十三五国家重点研发计划“新型增效复合肥料研制与产业化”(2016YFD0200402);广东省科技计划“单质肥料与复合肥增效升级关键技术研究与应用”(2017A020208024);广东省农业科学院学科团队建设项目“植物营养与施肥团队”(201632TD)

Yield, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrient Effects of Alginate Compound Fertilizer on Double-cropping Rice

HUANG Jichuan,PENG Zhiping(),TU Yuting,WU Xuena,LIANG Zhixiong,YANG Linxiang,LIN Zhijun   

  1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation / Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer in South Region, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China
  • Received:2019-07-19 Revised:2019-09-01 Online:2020-05-25 Published:2020-06-15
  • Contact: PENG Zhiping E-mail:ytifei@aliyun.com

摘要:

以华南大田双季稻为研究对象,设置5个处理:不施肥、普通复合肥、海藻复合肥、80%普通复合肥和80%海藻复合肥,研究海藻复合肥减施条件下对双季稻产量、肥效、养分吸收和土壤养分残留及土壤生物活性的影响。结果表明:海藻复合肥能够提高水稻有效穗和稻谷产量,晚稻海藻复合肥较普通复合肥有效穗增加14.5%,早稻稻谷增产7.6%,晚稻增产5.1%,均达显著水平;而80%海藻复合肥与普通复合肥相比稻谷产量无差异。海藻复合肥能够提高氮肥和磷肥偏生产力。与常量施肥相比,减量施氮肥和磷肥偏生产力分别提高6.1~8.5 kg/kg和15.2~21.4 kg/kg,氮和磷吸收效率分别提高11.3~19.7和12.0~19.8个百分点,均以80%海藻复合肥处理最高。减量施肥显著降低20~40 cm土壤硝态氮的含量。海藻复合肥可提高土壤微生物量碳(氮)和土壤蔗糖酶、脲酶及酸性磷酸酶活性。主成分分析结果表明,土壤肥力综合得分为80%海藻复合肥>海藻复合肥>普通复合肥>80%普通复合肥>CK。在华南双季稻种植条件下,与普通复合肥相比,海藻复合肥减肥20%具有较好的稳产效应,但是周年氮磷养分平衡表现为亏缺,建议根据土壤肥力状况及目标产量制订减肥措施,以保持土壤肥力的可持续性。

关键词: 双季稻, 海藻酸复合肥料, 肥料效率, 产量, 微生物生物量碳(氮), 土壤酶活性

Abstract:

A field experiment of double-cropping rice in south China was investigated. Five treatments were designed as follows: 1) no fertilization (CK); 2) conventional compound fertilizer (CCF); 3) alginate compound fertilizer (ACF); 4) 80% conventional compound fertilizer (80% CCF); 5) 80% alginate compound fertilizer (80% ACF). The effects of reduction application of alginate compound fertilizer on yield, nutrient uptake by rice and residue in soil as well as soil bioactivity of double-cropping rice were studied. Alginate compound fertilizer could increase the rice effective panicle and grain yield. The effective panicle of ACF treatment increased significantly by 14.5% (late rice), grain yield increased significantly by 7.6% (early rice) and 5.1% (late rice) compared to CCF. There was no significant difference of grain yield between 80% ACF and CCF treatment. Alginate compound fertilizer could improve the partial factor productivity of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. Under reduced fertilization condition, the partial factor productivity of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer increased by 6.1-8.5 and 15.2-21.4 kg/kg, respectively, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake efficiency increased by 11.3-19.7 and 12.0-19.8 percentage points, respectively, and 80% ACF showed the highest value. Reduced fertilization significantly decreased the content of NO3 --N in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Alginate compound fertilizer could increase soil microbial biomass carbon (nitrogen) and soil sucrase, urease and acid phosphatase activities compared to the conventional compound fertilizer. Principal component analysis showed that the comprehensive score of soil fertility was 80% ACF>ACF>CCF>80% CCF>CK. This study showed that 80% ACF treatment could maintain rice yield compared with CCF under double-cropping rice in south China. However, the balance of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil was deficient after one year of double cropping rice planted. It is suggested that reducing fertilization measures should be formulated according to the soil fertility status and target yield in order to maintain the sustainability of soil fertility.

Key words: double-cropping rice, compound fertilizer containing alginate acid, fertilizer efficiency, yield, microbial biomass carbon (nitrogen), soil enzyme activity

中图分类号: 

  • S143